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Skills building training - day 3: force field and conflicts

Skills building training - day 3: force field and conflicts

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  • 1. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir IMPROVED STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT CAPACITY PROJECT Change Management – Session 3 Jocelyne Rasé October 2013
  • 2. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Day Three Anticipating and coping with resistance • Force field theory – tug of war between restraining & driving forces • The social positions people adapt when faced with organisational change:  Champions, citizens & cynics of change. • Identify and map the resources available to you: Mavens, Connectors, Salesmen How do you cope with conflicting situations? • The Thomas Killman conflict resolution model • Do you want to be right or to have a relationship? • Avoiding Dual Thinking Group project - blockers & enablers
  • 3. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Organisational Change Shaping a Vision (What is expected) • Making sure that the desired outcome of change is clear, legitimate, and widely understood and shared • SM Facilitators need to tell what change looks like • Communicate the change of mindset necessary – to train people, run workshops, discussion groups, formally & informally with key stakeholders to make the vision alive and cascade it down Mobilizing Commitment (Who else could be involved) • Making sure that there is a commitment from a strong network to make the change work • SM Facilitators need to influence and find allies • Get management’s attention in each ministry – who else an you involve in the process?
  • 4. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Organisational Change Monitoring Progress (How we are measuring getting better) • Making sure that progress is real, that benchmarks are set and realized • Making sure that Key Performance Indicators KPI are established to ensure progress • SM Facilitators need to keep a record ongoing improvement, • Report progress to SMC project staff and MoD, • Meet with each other to benefit from their experience Making It Last (How we are going to keep the momentum) • Making sure that appropriate plans are made and followed • SM Facilitators need to make sure that that learning in one part of the institution is shared throughout the whole organisation
  • 5. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Organisational Change
  • 6. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Force Field Analysis - Lewin's Model Restraining forces: • Loss of status • Fear of incompetence • Complacency – “it’s not that bad…” • Established work methods • Tradition • Culture Driving forces: • Incentives • New enthusiastic people • Strategic Management project Managerial pressure • International pressure • Ambition • Sense of purpose
  • 7. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Force Field Analysis • Describe current state • Describe a problem • Identify the situation where the organization will end up if no corrective action is taken • Describe a desired state • Brainstorm the positive and negative forces • Review and clarify each force or factor – What is behind each factor? – What works to balance the situation?
  • 8. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Exercise • Identify a significant change you would like to make • Describe state – A – • Describe the problem you have • Identify the situation where you will end if no corrective action is taken (worst scenario) • Describe the desired state – B – what you want to achieve • Brainstorm the positive and negative forces • Review and clarify each force or factor – What is behind each factor? – What is necessary to support the change?
  • 9. 50% At the core of change is a dilemma PARALYSIS of ANALYSIS Doing Nothing – Status Quo Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir 50% 55% 60% 70% 80% DUAL THINKING: either/or, black/white, good/bad Which voice are you going to listen to? 9
  • 10. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Blocking factors – restraining forces
  • 11. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Blocking factors – restraining forces • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Lack of vision Lack of purpose Lack of understanding Lack of motivation Lack of courage Lack of encouragement Lack of incentives Circumstances Political climate Tradition The old tapes in your head Specific negative people “It can’t be done” Other priorities (family, sickness, emergencies, etc) Misconceptions - beliefs Prejudice Preconceived ideas Fear, learned helplessness Etc….
  • 12. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Enabling factors – driving forces
  • 13. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Enabling factors – driving forces • • • • • • • • • • Positive, encouraging people “It is possible” Clarity of vision and of purpose Sponsors, mentors, allies MoD & MoF, The court of Auditors & The Parliament SDUs TAT - Technical Assistance Team – External experts – Marko, Kathryn, Eduardo and short term experts (TWT) Resources available  your past experience  the experience of other people Practice Network Reading – blogs, information
  • 14. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Three level model • Unfreezing - find a method to make it possible for people to let go of an old patterns that were counterproductive in some way • Stepping out of the comfort zone - STOP the old way • Change - change in thoughts, feeling, behavior, that is in some way more liberating or more productive – training, support, coaching, mentoring to adopt a mindset of Continuous Improvement • Entering the stretch zone – new habits • Refreezing - establishing the change as a new habit, so that it now becomes the "standard operating procedure”. Share best practice with others, monitor ongoing progress. • Develop long term high performance and resilience • Without proper refreezing, it is easy to backslide into the old ways
  • 15. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Resistance to Change Def: ”behavior which is intended to protect an individual from the effects of real or imagined change” Resistance might come from… • Frustration and anxiety: resisting a potential loss of status, pay, comfort, or power that came from expertise under the old system • Fear of the unknown future and about one’s ability to adapt to it • Resentment in disgruntled employees due to a perceived unfairness of the change. This can be strong enough to lead to sabotage. • Seeing the change as a violation of agreement management has with employees: loss of mutual trust, lack of loyalty, no keeping commitment • Competing commitment that is incompatible with the desired change
  • 16. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Tap into your network
  • 17. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Optimise Your Network Decision Makers Mavens Sales People Know everything Can sell anything Connectors Know everybody
  • 18. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Exercise – Mapping your environment Decision Makers Mavens Connectors Sales People Know everything Know everybody Can sell anything
  • 19. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir 5 topics identified 1. How to get engagement and support from the under secretary of your institution? What actions would take? How would you do it? 2. How to make more coherent the various SM documents. Which ones? and how? 3. Choose 3 strategic areas relevant to your institutions and define the main priorities and the KPIs – Key Performance Indicators - for each of them 4. What measures would you take to improve the SM capacity in your institution 5. How would you ensure that there are more incentives to comply with the SM measures?
  • 20. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Force Field Analysis • Describe current state • Describe a problem • Identify the situation where the organization will end up if no corrective action is taken • Describe a desired state • Brainstorm the positive and negative forces • Review and clarify each force or factor – What is behind each factor? – What works to balance the situation?
  • 21. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Analysis Exercise – in sub groups – flip charts What are the causes behind the problem? What – Who are your blocking factors? What – Who are your enabling factors?
  • 22. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Anticipate Resistance
  • 23. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Skill - Will Grumpy Expert Skill SM Facilitator OK if I do OK if I don’t Can’t Do Won’t Do Eager Novice Will
  • 24. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir When facing resistance – questions to ask yourself… Awareness Desire Knowledge Ability Reinforcement Do they know that they need to change? Do they want to change? What is in it for them? What are the consequences for them of not changing? Do they have the required knowledge? How can they acquire tit? Are they able to apply skills and knowledge? Is coaching/support required? What happens when they do (or do not) display required behaviour/way of working? Is there positive reinforcement when they do? Are there negative consequences when they do not? 25
  • 25. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Attitude is everything
  • 26. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Attitude is everything
  • 27. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir What is your basic attitude? Situation Pessimist Optimist Principle "It is temporary." "It will last for a long time; Spring is here to stay.” Permanence “I am such a failure, I never win anything” “Today was not my day... I will do better tomorrow" Pervasiveness "I caused it; it’s my fault” “Circumstances caused it.” Personalisation Good event Ex: It is sunny Bad event Ex: I lost the tennis game Negative outcome Ex: I did not get the promotion 15 November 2013 30 30
  • 28. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Social Roles - Champions • People who actively try to participate as well as influence the larger sphere, e.g. other people’s opinions, larger organizational systems, etc. • They are ready to act as strategic agents. Mantere (2003)
  • 29. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Social Roles - Citizens • Acting as a part of the strategy process, but not active on influencing the organization in strategic issues transcending her own immediate working sphere Mantere (2003)
  • 30. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Social Roles - Cynics • The cynic is a person who has given up on the very notion of the change, regards it with occasional scorn, occasional disinterest. • The cynics can be positive in their identification with the institution, but do not feel anything useful could come out of organisational strategy Mantere (2003)
  • 31. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir In order to influence people to change, you need to build trust Emotions - Feelings Opinions - Beliefs Facts - Information Ritual - Cliché Time Risk Trust Rapport
  • 32. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Change is forced upon someone… Future State Acceptance Optimism/Relief Shock Testing Denial Current State Anger Bargaining Adapting TIME 35
  • 33. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Do you want to BE RIGHT or to have a relationship?
  • 34. Human dilemma Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Being loyal to yourself Being loyal to Others AND Either Or DUAL THINKING – either /or leads to confusion, resentment, passive aggressive behavior, anger 37
  • 35. Thomas Killmann Model of Conflict Resolution Low Assertiveness – loyalty to myself High Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Competition Win – Lose Collaboration Win – Win I am right We can both be satisfied FIGHT ASSERTIVENESS Compromise Both of us are dissatisfied No Win - No Lose Avoidance Lose – Lose Accommodation Lose – Win I don’t know I am wrong PARALYSIS FLIGHT Low Cooperation - loyalty to others High
  • 36. Thomas Kilmann model Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Collaboration WIN - LOSE I win – We are going to the football game WIN - WIN We go to the football game together one day, next day to ballet Compromise Assertiveness High Competition NO WIN – NO LOSE We are going to see a movie we don’t like …at least the other did not win Avoidance Low LOSE – LOSE We don’t do anything together Low Cooperation Accommodation YOU WIN – I LOSE You win, I am giving up ballet High
  • 37. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Model COMPETING: I WIN – YOU LOSE • Is assertive and uncooperative, a power-oriented mode. • When competing, an individual pursues his or her own concerns at the other person’s expense, using whatever power seems appropriate to win his or her position. Appropriate when • Standing up for your rights • Defending a position you believe is correct • Enforcing rules, legal issues, ethical matters, human rights, etc • Safety – not negotiable • Asserting one’s authority (ex: with your children)
  • 38. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Model ACCOMMODATING: YOU WIN – I LOSE • Is unassertive and cooperative. • The individual neglects his or her own concerns to satisfy the concerns of the other person; there is an element of self-sacrifice in this mode. Appropriate when • Selfless generosity or charity • Obeying another person’s order (ex: following a fireman’s instructions) • Yielding to another’s point of view for a higher purpose • Picking battles that matter • Allowing the other to save face on an issue that matters to him (ex: going through the door first)
  • 39. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Model AVOIDING: I LOSE – YOU LOSE • Is unassertive and uncooperative. • The individual does not immediately pursue his or her own concerns or those of the other person. He or she does not address the conflict. Appropriate when • Diplomatically sidestepping an issue (ex: not discussing politics or religion) • Postponing an issue until a better time (ex: taking time to cool off) • Withdrawing from a threatening situation (ex on the parkway)
  • 40. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Model COMPROMISING: NO WIN – NO LOSE • Is intermediate in both assertiveness and cooperativeness. • The objective is to find an expedient, mutually acceptable solution that partially satisfies both parties. Appropriate when • Bargaining prices - splitting the difference • Exchanging concessions (ex: I will give you this if you give me that …) • Seeking a quick middle - ground position (let’s agree to disagree and not argue about that) You have to know what you are willing to give in and what your bottom line is – what you are not willing to negotiate
  • 41. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Model COLLABORATING: WIN – WIN • Is both assertive and cooperative. • Attempts to work with the other person to find a solution that fully satisfies the concerns of both. It involves digging into an issue to identify the underlying concerns of the two individuals and to find an alternative that meets both sets of concerns. Appropriate when • Learning from each other’s insights • Sharing resources • Finding a creative solution to an interpersonal problem • Negotiating how to work together – willingness on both sides • Recognition of each point of view as valid and legitimate
  • 42. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir DUAL THINKING FIGHT or FLIGHT? Winner or Loser?
  • 43. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Dual Thinking either/or – good/bad – black/white
  • 44. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir WIN and WIN
  • 45. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir Exercise in sub groups • How do you apply those principles of TKI in your Ministry with the people you meet • When do you use each mode of conflict resolution? • Give examples • How can you handle situations better in the future?
  • 46. Bu proje Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarafından finanse edilmektedir See you tomorrow…