Richmond Slave Sales, February 1770 and July 1777
Non-Importation <ul><li>Virginia, August 1774: “We will neither ourselves import nor purchase any slave or slaves, imported by any person, after the first day of November  next, either from Africa, the West Indies, or any other place.” Hezekiah Niles, ed., Principles and Acts of the Revolution in America (Baltimore, 1822). </li></ul><ul><li>Continental Congress, 1774: </li></ul><ul><li>“ In Congress, Philadelphia, October 20, 1774,” Journals of the Continental Congress 1774-1779 , edited by Worthington Chauncey Ford (Washington, D.C., 1905), I, 77. </li></ul>
Virginia outlawed African importation, 1778. Why? <ul><li>October 1778 "I. For preventing the farther importation of slaves into this commonwealth Be it enacted by the General Assembly, That from and after the passing of this act, no slave or slaves shall hereafter be imported into this Commonwealth by sea or land, nor shall any slaves so imported be bought or sold by any person whatsoever. II. Every person hereafter importing slaves into this Commonwealth contrary to this act, shall forfeit and pay the sum of one thousand pounds for every slave so imported, and every person selling or buying any such slaves, shall in like manner forfeit and pay the sum of five hundred pounds for every slave so bought or sold, one moiety of which forfeitures shall be to the use of the Commonwealth, and the other moiety to him or them that will sue for the same, to be recovered by action of debt or information in any court of record. III. And be it further enacted, That every slave imported into this Commonwealth, contrary to the true intent and meaning of this act, shall, upon such importation, become free." Hening, Statutes , IX, 471. </li></ul>
From importation to exportation Gen. C. C. Pinckney (S.C.), Constitutional Convention, 1787: Virginia “will gain by stopping the importations. Her slaves will rise in value, & she has more than she wants.” 1787-1807: Organized interregional slave trade began. 1792: Virginia Governor learned a major reason for eastern Virginia slave rebelliousness: the “practice of severing husband, wife and children in sales.” January 1, 1808: Importation of Africans became illegal throughout the U.S., leading Deep South to go to Virginia and other markets. 1840 to Civil War: Richmond dominated exportation of enslaved people from the Old Dominion.
The interstate slave trade began after the Revolutionary War ended <ul><li>One early advertisement reflects an interstate slave trader’s attitudes, both economic and social: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>December 22, 1787: “One Hundred Negroes, from 20 to 30 years old, for which a good price will be given. They are to be sent out of the state, therefore we shall not be particular respecting the character of any of them—Hearty and well made is all that is necessary.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Virginia Gazette and Independent Chronicle , December 22, 1787, quoted in McColley, Slavery and Jeffersonian Virginia , 164-5, and in Tadman, Speculators and Slaves , 15. </li></ul></ul></ul>
Total for ALL of Virginia, 1790-1863: 515,075. One half = ca. 257,500. Other scholars believe 300,000 were sold away from Virginia. Copyright Phillip Troutman, 1998 http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/collections/stats/slavetrade/migrmaps.html
<ul><li>Origins </li></ul><ul><li>The Middle Passage: the Human cost </li></ul><ul><li>1619 in art </li></ul><ul><li>1619 in fact </li></ul><ul><li>West African origins </li></ul><ul><li>17 th -century importation </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Richmond </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on Virginia </li></ul><ul><li>Ending </li></ul><ul><li>“ Second Middle Passage” </li></ul>
Why did Virginia still have the largest number of (U.S.) slaves in 1860?
Exportation by sea: Rocketts, by Benjamin Henry Latrobe, 1796
Who exported ca. one-half million people from Virginia? <ul><li>Owners </li></ul><ul><li>Traveling slave dealers </li></ul><ul><li>Slave Traders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in Alexandria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in Richmond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in Norfolk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in Petersburg </li></ul></ul>
Sold down the river? <ul><li>Many were. </li></ul><ul><li>But some could escape when a ship was wrecked. </li></ul><ul><li>Some escaped by revolting: The Creole Revolt, 1841 ( after the Amistad case). </li></ul><ul><li>Traders thereafter used ships less often. They relied more on overland “shipment”—i.e. on foot in “coffles” and on railroad cars. </li></ul>
The interstate slave trade cost <ul><li>Economic cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal for white Virginians. Often a gain. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>White leaders sometimes claimed selling away enslaved people improved Virginia. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human “cost” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is no possible measurement. </li></ul></ul>
First African Baptist Church Gregg Kimball, American City, Southern Place , 135
1857: Richmond Enquirer estimated city slave auction receipts at $3,500,000 (2005 estimates: $71,897,935 or $102,642,411) Another newspaper reported $4,000,000 in receipts. (2005 estimates: $82,169,069 or $$117,305,613)
Frederick Douglass on the Richmond Slave Jails <ul><li>Douglass speech, Halifax, Eng., December 7, 1859: “Slave marts and churches stood in the same market place. The groans of the slaves being sold in the shambles of Richmond were sometimes drowned by the pious shouting of their masters in the church close by.” Frederick Douglass Papers , Ser. 1, vol. 3 (1864-1880), 284. </li></ul>
In the early nineteenth century, there was “a basic reality of chattel slavery—that slaveholding required slave trading.” <ul><ul><li>Adam Rothman, “The Domestication of the Slave Trade in the United States,” in The Chattel Principle: Internal Slave Trades in the Americas , ed. Walter Johnson (New Haven, Yale University Press, 2004), 33. </li></ul></ul>
Remembering, Retracing, Memorializing, Reconciling Ancestors and Relatives Ship manifests Slave Traders’ records Freedmen’s Bank Narratives; Family stories Distinctive names Famous forced migrants Madison Washington, Creole revolt leader The Richmond Slave Trail Shockoe Reconciliation Statue
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