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Christianity&Slavery I & II 1106

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Christianity&Slavery I & II

Christianity&Slavery I & II

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  • 1. Slavery and Christianity Which Churches Would Slaves Join?
  • 2. Which churches would allow slaves to join?
    • Laws and instructions
    • “Christian servants” and “Negro servants.”
    • African potential
  • 3. The situation by 1700
    • “Boundary” laws, 1667 and later
  • 4. The Eighteenth Century
    • The slave trade, 1670-1775
      • Virginia: nearly 100,000
    • Americanization the norm by the 1780s
    • “African Americans”
  • 5.  
  • 6.  
  • 7. Which churches accepted black members?
    • Virginia?
      • A mixed record
      • The Rev. Samuel Davies
  • 8. Which churches accepted black members?
    • George Whitefield?
      • The Great Awakening
      • New Lights, Old Lights
  • 9. Which churches accepted black members?
    • Opposition to the New Lights?
      • Arthur Lee
      • Landon Carter
  • 10. Enslaved Africans and African Americans and Christianity
    • New Light slaves
      • The thorny problem
  • 11. 1772 Virginia Gazette advertisements
  • 12. Enslaved Africans and African Americans and Christianity
    • African-American self development: the wave of the future?
  • 13. Frying Pan Meeting House, Fairfax, 1791
  • 14. Norfolk people groom their hair, 1797—for church? (B. H. Latrobe)
  • 15. Ethical slaves
    • Possible?
  • 16. At the end of the 1700s
    • A transatlantic antislavery movement in the making
  • 17. Slavery and Christianity Did American Slavery Enslave Christianity?
  • 18. Christianity and Enslaved Africans and African Americans
    • African-American self development: the wave of the future?
  • 19. The situation in 1800
    • Limited African-American social and political progress allowed
    • Growth in African-American Christianity, especially Northern
    • Minimal reason for hope
      • Would a hopeful religion help?
  • 20. Absalom Jones, Co-founder, Free African Society (1787), and A.M.E Church (1816)
  • 21. What did slave owners want enslaved Christians to be?
    • Accepting of slavery
    • “civilized”
      • “savage” = irredeemable
    • Sectarian
      • E.g. Methodist, Baptist, etc.
  • 22. What did slave owners want enslaved Christians to be?
    • Docile
    • Religiously supervised
  • 23. Rev. Jones: Presbyterian
  • 24. Slaves’ service; master’s supervision
  • 25.  
  • 26. What did slave owners want enslaved Christians to be?
    • Part of an organic, interconnected society
    • Problem: blending of religion and church with slave control
    • Solution: not in this world
  • 27. Unusual circumstances; good intentions: The Lord’s Prayer in Arabic, by Abduhl al-Rahman
  • 28. What did enslaved Christians want to be?
    • Redeemed
    • Freed in heaven if not on earth
      • “Free at last”
        • Free from slavery
        • Free from sin
        • Free from this world
    • Members of a loving slave community
    • Judges of their owners
  • 29. What did enslaved Christians want to be?
    • Members of their own church community
      • Possible in North
        • A.M.E. Church
      • Possible in South
        • “Invisible Church?”
  • 30.  
  • 31. Other options Lott Cary, Liberia
  • 32. Other options
  • 33. Other options
    • Ethical and independent in another way
      • First African Baptist Church, Richmond
  • 34. First African Baptist Church, Broad Street, Richmond
  • 35. First African Baptist Church, Broad Street, Richmond
  • 36. Other options
    • The “Invisible Church”: a solution?
      • What can we know?
      • Burials: Secret burial and other societies, especially urban
    Slave Funeral (John Antrobus, Louisiana, 1860)
  • 37. What did enslaved Christians want to be?
    • Can a slave be ethical?
      • Frederick Douglass’s ethical vantage point
  • 38. What did enslaved Christians want to be?
    • Can a slave be ethical?
      • Hannah’s approach, Poplar Forest, 1818
  • 39. November 15th 1818 Master. I write you a few lines to let you know that your house and furniture are all safe as I expect you would be glad to know. I heard that you did not expect to come up this fall. I was sorry to hear that you was so unwell you could not come. It greive me many time but I hope as you have been so blessed in this that you considered it was god that done it and no other one. We all ought to be thankful for what he has done for us. We ought to serve and obey his commandments that you may set to win the prize and after glory run. Master I doubt my ignorant letter will be much encouragement to you as know I am a poor ignorant creature. This leaves us all well. Adieu, I am your humble sarvent Hannah
  • 40. What did enslaved Christians want to be?
    • Can a slave be ethical?
      • Gabriel, Ben, and Pharoah, 1800
      • Nat Turner and others, 1831
  • 41. What did enslaved Christians want to be?
    • Family and religion
      • Delia Garlic, Powhatan Co., Virginia
  • 42. What did enslaved Christians want to be?
    • Desperate, but redeemed
      • Anthony Burns, 1854
  • 43. What did enslaved Christians want to be?
    • In retrospect: Proceedings of the Convention of the Colored People of Virginia (Alexandria, 1865): We were docile in slavery, cursed though it was. We were not vengeful. “In all this we confess we see the hand of an all-wise God, who has seen fit to hold the passions of His African children until He saw fit to stir the passions of the two sections of the country—that both North and South should suffer for the sin of slavery.”
  • 44. Other issues: Slavery and the Bible
    • Did the Bible allow or uphold slavery?
  • 45. Massachusetts Historical Society
  • 46. Did American Slavery Enslave Christianity?
    • It did, to the extent that many American Christians used their religion to control slaves and keep slavery.
    • It did not, to the extent that enslaved people relied on Christianity to help them persevere, to be redeemed, and even to be freed.
  • 47. Did American Slavery Enslave Christianity?
    • It did, to the extent that mainline churches refused to stand against slavery.
    • It did not, to the extent that individual Christians, both North and South, stood against slavery.
    • It did, to the extent that Christians, in the North and South, stood for slavery.
  • 48. Did American Slavery Enslave Christianity?
    • Christianity was half slave and half free.
  • 49. Other issues: Union victories, Union victory
  • 50.  
  • 51. “ Negro Communed At St. Paul’s Church,” Richmond Times-Dispatch , April 16, 1905, p. 5. "Colonel T. L. Broun, of Charleston, W. Va., is in the city stopping on Floyd Avenue. He was present at St. Paul’s Church just after the war, when a negro marched to the communion table ahead of the congregation. Colonel Broun, in speaking of the matter on yesterday, said: 'Two months after the evacuation of Richmond, business called me to Richmond for a few days, and on Sunday morning in June, 1866 [ sic ], I attended St. Paul’s Church. Dr. Minnegerode [ sic ] preached to a congregation fairly good. It was communion day. When the minister was ready to administer the Holy Communion, amongst those who first arose and advanced to the communion table was a tall, well dressed negro man; very black. He walked with an air of military authority . This was a great surprise and shock to the communicants and others present, who frequented that most noted of the Episcopal Churches in Virginia. Its effect upon the communicants was startling, and for several moments they retained their seats in solemn silence, and did not move, being deeply chagrined at this attempt of the Federal authorities , to offensively humiliate them during their most devoted Church services. Dr. Minnegerode looked embarrassed. General Robert E. Lee was present, and he, ignoring the action and very presence of the negro, immediately arose, in his usual dignified and self-possessed manner, walked up the aisle of the church to the chancel rail, and reverently knelt down to partake of the communion, and not far from where the negro was. This lofty conception of duty by General Lee under such provoking and irritating circumstances, had a magic effect upon the other communicants, who immediately went forward to the communion table. I, being one of the number, did likewise. By this action of Gen. Lee, the services were concluded, as if the negro had not been present. It was a grand exhibition of superiority shown by a true Christian and great soldier under the most trying offensive circumstances.'"
  • 52. “ Negro Communed At St. Paul’s Church,” Confederate Veteran , 13 (August 1905): 360. “Col. T. L. Broun, of Charleston, W. Va., writes of having been present at St. Paul’s Church, Richmond, Va., just after the war when a negro marched to the communion table ahead of the congregation. His account of the event is as follows: ‘Two months after the evacuation of Richmond business called me to Richmond for a few days, and on a Sunday morning in June, 1865, I attended St. Paul’s Church. Dr. Minnegerode preached. It was communion day; and when the minister was ready to administer the holy communion, a negro in the church arose and advanced to the communion table. He was tall, well-dressed, and black. This was a great surprise and shock to the communicants and others present. Its effect upon the communicants was startling, and for several moments they retained their seats in solemn silence and did not move, being deeply chagrined at this attempt to inaugurate the ‘new regime’ to offend and humiliate them during their most devoted Church services. Dr. Minnegerode was evidently embarrassed. General Robert E. Lee was present, and, ignoring the action and presence of the negro, arose in his usual dignified and self-possessed manner, walked up the aisle to the chancel rail, and reverently knelt down to partake of the communion, and not far from the negro. This lofty conception of duty by Gen. Lee under such provoking and irritating circumstances had a magic effect upon the other communicants (including the writer), who went forward to the communion table. By this action of Gen. Lee the services were conducted as if the negro had not been present. It was a grand exhibition of superiority shown by a true Christian and great soldier under the most trying and offensive circumstances.”
  • 53. “ The Last Roll: Maj. Thomas L. Broun,” Confederate Veteran , 22 (July 1914): 324-25. Born December 26, 1823, Middleburg, Loudoun County, Virginia. Died march 3, 1914, Charleston, West Virginia. Married Mary Morris Fontaine, daughter of Col. Edmund Fontaine, of Hanover County, the “first president of the Chesapeake and Ohio railroad.” Grandfather William Broun emigrated from Scotland and practiced law in Westmoreland County in colonial period. After study at Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, Broun was graduated from the University of Virginia in 1848. He taught school in Middleburg, then moved to Charleston to study law. Attorney for railroads and coal transporting companies. He served in military and support capacities during the civil war. “It was from Major Broun that General Lee obtained his famous war horse Traveler.” Considered one of the leading members of the bar in West Virginia. He was a director of the West Virginia Historical Society. “He was for more than forty years a Vestryman of St. John’s Episcopal Church, of Charleston, W. Va., and prominent in diocesan affairs.” “Major Broun was a profound student of history, especially of southern history . . . .”
  • 54. Frederick Douglass on the Richmond Slave Jails
    • Douglass speech, Halifax, Eng., December 7, 1859: “Slave marts and churches stood in the same market place. The groans of the slaves being sold in the shambles of Richmond were sometimes drowned by the pious shouting of their masters in the church close by.” Frederick Douglass Papers , Ser. 1, vol. 3 (1864-1880), 284.