intro bones
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  • 1. The skeletal system Structure and function of bone Organization of the skeleton Joints
  • 2. Functions of bone (skeleton) Support and protection Blood cell formation Mineral storage (calcium especially) Site for muscle attachment  body movement
  • 3. Bones classified by shape: long, short, flat, irregular, round Bone enclosed in periosteum, which is continuous with tendons and ligaments blood vessels in periosteum Epiphysis- ends spongy bone contains red marrow compact bone, articular cartilage Diaphysis- middle compact bone medullary cavity- contains yellow marrow (fat) lined with endosteum (squamous epithelium)
  • 4.  
  • 5. Compact bone osteocytes within lacunae arranged in concentric circles called lamellae This surround a central canal; complex is called Haversian system Canaliculi connect osteocytes to central canal and to each other
  • 6.  
  • 7. Prenatal development skeleton is mostly cartilaginous Cartilage cells and then osteoblasts start to deposit minerals Cartilaginous disk (epiphyseal disk) remains in epiphysis Cells eventually stop dividing
  • 8.  
  • 9. Adults continually break down and build up bone Osteoclasts remove damaged cells and release calcium into blood Osteoblasts remove calcium from blood and build new matrix. They become trapped  osteoclasts
  • 10. Types of bone breaks Simple- skin is not pierced Compound- skin is pierced Complete- bone is broken in half Partial- broken lengthwise but not into two parts Greenstick- incomplete break on outer arc Comminuted- broken into several pieces Spiral- twisted
  • 11. Fracture repair Hematoma- blood clot in space between edges of break Fibrocartilage callus- begins tissue repair Bony callus- osteoblasts produce trabeculae (structural support) of spongy bone and replace fibrocartilage Remodeling- osteoblasts build new compact bone, osteoclasts build new medullary cavity
  • 12.  
  • 13. Axial skeleton skull (cranium and facial bones) hyoid bone (anchors tongue and muscles associated with swallowing) vertebral column (vertebrae and disks) thoracic cage (ribs and sternum) Appendicular skeleton pectoral girdle (clavicles and scapulae) upper limbs (arms) pelvic girdle (coxal bones, sacrum, coccyx) lower limbs (legs)
  • 14. posterior view p. 135
  • 15. Bones named and numbered in Table 7.1 on page 137 Terms listed in table 7.2 (same page) Axial skeleton supports and protects organs of head, neck and trunk Appendicular skeleton- bones of limbs and bones that anchor them to the axial skeleton Articulation- where joints are formed
  • 16. 22 bones in skull 6 in middle ears 1 hyoid bone 26 in vertebral column 25 in thoracic cage 4 in pectoral girdle 60 in upper limbs 60 in lower limbs 2 in pelvic girdle 206 bones in all
  • 17. The skull 8 sutured bones in cranium Facial bones: 13 sutured bones, 1 mandible Cranium encases brain attachments for muscles sinuses
  • 18.  
  • 19. Allows for growth
  • 20. Vertebral column 7 cervial vertebrae 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 1 sacrum (5 fused 1 coccyx (4 fused) Vertebrae vary in size and morphology
  • 21.  
  • 22. Thoracic cage ribs thoracic vertebrae sternum costal cartilages True ribs are directly attached to the sternum (first seven pairs) Three false ribs are joined to the 7 th rib Two pairs of floating ribs
  • 23.  
  • 24. Clavicles and scapulae Help brace shoulders Attachment sites for muscles
  • 25.  
  • 26. Bones of upper limb Humerus (upper arm) Radius; ulna Carpals, metacarpals, phalanges Bones of lower limb Femur Patella Tibia, fibula Tarsals, metatarslas, phalanges
  • 27. Joints Immovable (synarthoses) bones sutured together by connective tissue: skull Slightly movable (amphiarthoses) connected by fibrocartilage or hyaline cartilage: vertebrae, rib/sternum joint, pubic symphysis Freely movable (diarthroses)- separated ligaments- hold bones together tendons- muscle to bone lined by synovial membrane
  • 28.  
  • 29.  
  • 30. Types of freely movable joints Saddle: carpal and metacarpal bones of thumb Ball and socket: shoulder and hip joints Pivot- rotation only: proximal end of radius and ulna Hinge- up and own movement in one plane: knee and elbow Gliding- sliding and twisting: wrist and ankle Condyloid- movement in different planes but not rotations: btw metacarpals and phalanges
  • 31. Types of movement and examples (with muscles) flexion- move lower leg toward upper extension- straightening the leg abduction- moving leg away from body adduction- movong leg toward the body rotation- around its axis supination- rotation of arm to palm-up position pronation- palm down circumduction- swinging arms in circles inversion- turning foot so sole is inward eversion- sole is out
  • 32.  
  • 33.  
  • 34.  
  • 35. Elevation and depression- raising body part up or down Aging and bones both bone and cartilage tend to deteriorate cartilage: chondrocytes die, cartilage becomes calcified osteoporosis; bone is broken down faster than it can be built bones get weak and brittle; tend to fracture easily
  • 36. Risk factors for osteoporosis Inadequate calcium Little weight-bearing exercise Drinking alcohol, smoking Being female: decreased estrogen secretion after menopause Small frame Caucasian or Asian ethnicity
  • 37. Skeleton and other systems Skin makes vitamin D which enhances calcium absorption Skeleton stores calcium for muscle contraction, nervous stimulation, blood clot formation Red marrow- site of blood cell formation Calcium levels regulated by parathyroid hormone and calcitonin kidneys (can help provide vitamin D) digestive system (can release calcium into blood
  • 38.  
  • 39. Growth hormone regulates skeletal growth stimulates cell division in epiphyseal disks in long bones Growth stops when epiphyseal disks are converted to bone When excess growth hormone is produced in childhood  gigantism In adulthood- acromegaly. Bones can’t grow but soft tissue can
  • 40.  
  • 41. When muscle contracts, it shortens and causes movement Skeletal muscles attached to bones by tendons Insertion- attachment to more movable bone Origin- less movable Flexors and extensors act on the same joint to produce opposite actions