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How to-get-found
 

How to-get-found

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  • 1.4 Objective 1.3 – Discuss CAP missions.
  • All percentages are approximate; all times are average times (i.e., 50% are faster and 50% slower).
  • All percentages are approximate; all times are average times (i.e., 50% are faster and 50% slower).
  • 3.2 Objective 3.2 – Demonstrate knowledge of survival equipment (aircraft & personal): importance of water; types of signaling devices (CLASS); discuss survival equipment.
  • 3.1 Objective 3.1 – Discuss basic post-crash actions.
  • 10.1.1 Objective 10.1 – Discuss the various types of ELTs.
  • Diagram and information adapted from NOAA Pamphlet, with the exception of 25 Milliwatt beacon. Note that hunting ELTs by signal alone will become much more difficult with less than 1/2 the power (inverse square law says less than 1/4 the effective radius from previous ELTs) but hopefully uncommon Food for thought: how common will the GPS portion of an ELT fail with the 121.5 beacon operating?? That’s anyone’s guess.
  • Your second most likely place to find a Bonanza. JOKE! I love Bonanzas. An aircraft like this is likely to have survivors-and they’ve likely already gone home and left the ELT operating! (I’ve seen this twice)
  • These pictures demonstrate the difficulty and low probability of detection of a purely visual search.
  • These pictures demonstrate the difficulty and low probability of detection of a purely visual search. A wrecked airplane is now clearly visible. Pilot’s note: don’t flare into the trees. Control the aircraft to the GROUND.
  • 5.5 Objective 5.5 – Discuss how atmospheric and lighting conditions affect scanning.

How to-get-found How to-get-found Presentation Transcript

  • How to get Found by the Civil Air Patrol Capt John Seten SD Wing DO, CAP
  • Outline
    • What is the Civil Air Patrol (CAP)
    • What is the CAP SAR mission
    • How is the federal emergency management of SAR organized
  • Outline cont’d
    • How is CAP activated (and what can be done to make it happen as quickly as possible)
    • What you can do to help CAP find you, focusing on proper use of your Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) and visual signals.
    • Case studies of aircraft lost and found
  • Objectives
    • By the end of the presentation you will know:          What the CAP is and how they began          Why they perform nearly all inland SAR missions in the US          How the Air Force Rescue Coordination Center works with federal, state, and local agencies to coordinate SAR in the US
  • Objectives cont’d
    • How to get CAP activated as quickly as possible
    • What to expect when the CAP comes looking for you
    • How the COSPAS/SARSAT satellite system works
    • How to use your ELT, EPIRB, or PLB effectively to help the CAP find you
    • How to use visual signals and targets to help the CAP find you
    • How to learn more about the CAP capabilities in your own operating area
  • What is the CAP?
    • United States Air Force Auxiliary
    • Congressionally Chartered Corporation
    • 65,000 Civilian Volunteers
      • 35,000 Seniors (adults)
      • 30,000 Cadets
      • 52 Wings
      • 550 Corporate, 4500 Member Aircraft
  • CAP Missions
    • Aerospace Education
    • Cadet Program
    • Emergency Services
      • Search and Rescue
      • Disaster Relief
      • Emergency Communications
    • Homeland Security
  • CAP Peacetime Missions
    • Search and Rescue (SAR)
      • CAP conducts 95% of USAF searches
    • Peacetime disaster relief as a component of FEMA Urban Search and Rescue program
      • Damage Assessment, Communications, Transportation
    • US Customs, DEA, US Forest Service and others
  • How do the Feds manage SAR?
    • Air Force tasked by Congress to perform all Federal Inland Search and Rescue
    • Air Force Rescue Coordination Center (AFRCC) is central clearinghouse for all SAR in North America
    • AFRCC coordinates over 1000 missions per year
    • CAP performs 95% of AF missions
  • How is CAP activated?
    • AFRCC notified by FAA, SARSAT, or other agencies
    • Once verified as an actual distress situation, AFRCC activates the appropriate search agencies, which may include the CAP, Coast Guard, or other federal, state, or local agencies.
    • All missions must go through AFRCC
  • How can you speed it up?
    • In the event of an overdue aircraft, your dispatch center should contact the AFRCC directly as part of its Post Incident Action Plan (PAIP).
    • AFRCC 1-800-851-3051
    • Give them the last known position and time, aircraft type and color, and souls and fuel on board.
  • Your aircraft is down. What can you expect to happen?
  • Survival Rates
    • Of the 29% who survive a crash, 60% will be injured:
      • 81% will die if not located within 24 hours
      • 94% will die if not located within 48 hours
    • Of those 40% uninjured in the crash:
      • 50% will die if not located within 72 hours
      • Survival chances diminish rapidly after 72 hours
  • Response Times
    • Average time from the aircraft being reported missing to AFRCC notification:
      • 15.6 hours if no flight plan was filed
      • 3.9 hours if a VFR flight plan was filed
      • 1.1 hours if an IFR flight plan was filed
    • Average time from the aircraft being reported missing (LKP) to CAP locating and recovering:
      • 62.6 hours if no flight plan was filed
      • 18.2 hours if a VFR flight plan was filed
      • 11.5 hours if an IFR flight plan was filed
  • How Can You Help Us To Help You?
    • Preparation
      • PAIP: Notify AFRCC immediately
      • Equipment:
        • Clothing
        • ELT, Handheld Radios, Signaling, Survival
      • Training
        • Know how to use everything you carry
        • PRACTICE using it regularly
      • Crash
        • Survive!
        • Think BIG, VISIBLE, ELT
  • Preparation
    • Carry a survival kit in the aircraft and be sure all crew members know what is in the kit and how to use it. Inspect contents periodically
    • Rhoda’s Rule states, “If you cannot walk from the end of the runway to the terminal without getting cold then you are not dressed properly!”
    • Consider the weather over the worst conditions you are flying over
    • Carry your cell phone (fully charged)
  • Survival
    • The purpose of this section is to introduce you to the fundamentals of aircrew survival.
    • It is not to teach you how to build a shelter out of parachutes and garbage bags.
  • What is your most important survival tool?
  • Your Attitude! Having a positive mental attitude is often the difference between life and death in a survival situation. Be mentally prepared to survive in the wilderness for the rest of your life, or it might be the rest of your life!
  • Survival Equipment
    • Signaling equipment is critical
    • Some of the signals you might use include…
      • ELT – the most important item you have
      • Signal Mirrors (best method when the sun is out)
      • Flares
      • Tarps
      • Compact Disks (akin to the signal mirror)
      • Strobes, Laser Flares
      • Smoke or other man-made signals
      • Fire-starting materials
      • PUT A WHISTLE IN YOUR POCKET!
  • Survival Equipment
    • Ensure all crewmembers know the location and operation of the ELT
    • If possible, have a small survival manual in your equipment kit with suggestions on food gathering, shelter construction, and other survival techniques
  • Survival Equipment
    • If you make your own signal, use the “ CLASS ” acronym:
      • C olor - Make it unusually colored
      • L ocation - Put it where it can be seen; best is high and open
      • A ngles - Because they do not occur in nature
      • S ize - Make them visible from the air
      • S hape - Make them an eye-catching shape
  • Survival Equipment
    • Water may be the most important resource - If in desert areas staying still during the heat of the day and working when it is cooler conserves water
    • Carry water or have purification tablets
    • Have a container for water and consider a metal cup for boiling (purification)
  • Survival Equipment
    • You can also include…
      • A good knife
      • Fire starters and matches
      • A space blanket
      • Rations
      • Anything else that would make you stay more comfortable
  • Training
    • Make sure all crew members know how to use everything they have, especially the ELT
    • Practice signaling your OWN aircraft using what you carry on board!
  • Emergency Egress
    • Prior preparation is important. Follow the checklist to prop open doors, tighten seat and shoulder belts, secure cargo, and turn off the electricity and fuel.
    • If doors jam, kick them open or kick out the windows.
    • If you can’t move from the front seats to the rear, agree on who does what and in what sequence.
    • Discuss what to do if one or more of the crew is incapacitated.
  • Post-Crash Actions
    • Get clear of the aircraft if there is any danger of fire or having it fall on you.
    • Check everyone for injuries and apply first aid.
    • Try your cell phone or radio. Activate the ELT.
    • Make yourself BIG and VISIBLE.
    • Stay with the aircraft if in a remote area - we can find an aircraft but it’s easy to miss a survivor.
    • Finally, consider water, shelter and food (listed in order of importance -- you can go for days without food).
  • Remember...
    • A little planning and a few pieces of equipment could be the difference between life and death! Prepare for the area and conditions you will operating in and update your survival kit seasonally. Finally, remember your most important tool is your WILL TO SURVIVE!
  • How does CAP Search?
    • Electronic: Tracking your ELT
      • Fast: once we are receiving your signal, we can usually locate you to within 100 meters in less than 20 minutes
      • Can be performed in IMC and at night
    • Visual
      • Slow
      • Difficult
      • VFR only
  • How does CAP Search?
    • Airborne
      • Three-person air crews perform electronic and visual search
    • Ground Teams
      • Four-person Teams perform electronic and visual search
      • Work in all weather
      • Manpower intensive, need to localize search area to be successful
      • Work as a Team with the air crews
  • Objective: The Elusive ELT
    • Automatic radio beacon (100 milliwatts)
      • Roughly equal to that of a regular flashlight
    • Can be heard on a line-of-sight basis.
    ©2000 Scott E. Lanis
    • Activated by g-force (when armed)
      • Some can be activated by a switch in the cockpit
    • Three frequencies:
      • 121.5 MHz (VHF emergency)
      • 243 MHz (UHF emergency – military guard)
      • 406.025 MHz (third generation advanced ELT/EPIRB/PLB)
    • General types:
      • General aviation aircraft
      • Personal (PLBs)
      • Marine EPIRB
      • Advanced (406)
    The ELT
  • Aircraft ELT Operation
    • 3 Switch positions
      • ON
      • ARM / STANDBY
      • OFF
    • G-switch will activate (Generally 9G)
    • ELT will activate upon impact if armed
    • May be manually operated by placing the switch in in the ‘ON’ position
  • Best Use of ELT
    • Turn switch to Manual ON position
    • ALWAYS LEAVE THE ELT ON!
    • Place outside of the aircraft
    • All ELT’s should have a separate portable antenna attached for use outside the aircraft
    • Antenna should be vertical and extended
    • Place on conducting surface if possible
  • Can You Test An ELT?
    • YES! There are restrictions, however:
      • First 5 minutes of the hour, no more than 3 sweeps
    • Battery must be replaced after:
      • One cumulative hour of use or
      • 50% of useful life has expired
      • FAR §91.207(c)
  • Inadvertent Activation of an ELT May Occur From:
      • Excessively hard landing
      • Inadvertent change of switch position
      • Removal of the unit from the aircraft
        • inadvertent activation of the manual switch or G-switch
          • dropping the unit can activate the G-switch
      • Malfunction
        • switch short
        • battery leakage
  • Who is listening?
      • SARSAT/COSPAS (406 Only)
      • FAA Facilities
        • FSS, Centers, Towers
      • Airliners
        • Only if pilot chooses
      • Military Aircraft
        • Monitoring 243.0 Required
      • General Aviation Aircraft
        • That’s us! Help the system work: Monitor 121.5 MHz!
      • Signal report is relayed to AFRCC
  • Beacon Type Comparisons
    • 121.5/243.0 MHZ Beacons
    • 1 Local satellite coverage
    • Signal Power - O.1 Watt
    • Signal Type - Analog
    • Alert Time - 2 Hours
    • Satellite Doppler Location - 2 passes
    • Location Accuracy - 12-15 nm
    • Search Area - 500 sq nm
    • GPS Capability - N/A
    • Actual Beacon % - 20 to 30%
    • Actual Distress % - 2%
    • Unique Beacon ID - NO
    • 406 MHZ Beacons
    • Global satellite coverage
    • 5 Watts
    • Digital encoded
    • Nearly Instantaneous
    • 1 pass
    • 1-3 nm
    • 25 sq nm
    • 300-foot accuracy
    • 100%
    • 8%
    • YES
  • SARSAT/COSPAS
  • Limitations of 121.5 / 243 MHz Beacons… … Poorer Accuracy 121.5 MHz 406 MHz 406 MHz with GPS Search Time = 12+ hours Search Time = 2 - 3 hours Search Time = Minimal
  • Narrowing The Search
    • First pass: Ambiguity
      • Latitude and Distance is Determined
      • Target could be on either orange dot
      • We can’t know which! (yet)
    LATITUDE DISTANCE LOCATION?
  • Eliminating Ambiguity: The Second Pass
    • Is the ELT on the Left or Right side?
      • The Second Pass Determines
        • It’s Where the circles coincide! (orange dot)
        • Ambiguity resolved
      • AVERAGE 30-45 minute wait (sometimes much longer)
      • 5-12 Nautical Mile Average Error (sometimes larger)
    LATITUDE DISTANCE LOCATION!
  • Accuracy of SARSAT
    • For A Regular 121.5 Beacon:
      • Said to be a 12 NM radius
      • Actually an ellipse
      • 50% Probability in this ellipse:
        • 15 NM Wide (East to West)
        • 7 NM High (North-South)
      • The system is more accurate North to South because Doppler is better for figuring exactly when the satellite is directly overhead (the latitude) than in figuring the distance away (the longitude)
    50% Possibility Area
  • System Accuracy for Different ELT Types
      • 121.5 MHz ELT
        • 12 NM Radius, 452 Sq Mi
        • Average 6 Hour Notification
        • 75 Milliwatt Transmitter
      • 406 MHz ELT
        • 2 NM Radius, 12.5 Sq Mi
        • Average 1 Hour Notification
        • 25 Milliwatt 121.5 Beacon
      • 406 ELT with GPS
        • 0.05 NM Radius, 0.008 Sq Mi
        • Average 5 minute Notification
        • 25 Milliwatt 121.5 Beacon
    406: 2 NM 406 w/GPS: 0.05 NM 121.5: 12 NM
  • Visual Search
  • What Will A Crashed Airplane Look Like?
  • 500 AGL: Where’s the crash?
  • How about now? (200 AGL)
    • Size equals visibility
    • Contrast is important
      • Body signals
      • Paulin signals
    Ground-to-Air Signals Think BIG!
  • Think BIG and VISIBLE
    • Smoky fire is best – we investigate all fires
    • Don’t wait to light the fire until you hear the search aircraft; it’s too late
    • Flares punch out of the forest canopy but are momentary
    • PLAN TO BE SEEN BY THE FIRST AIRCRAFT THAT YOU HEAR
    • It will be several hours before you hear another!
  • Open Terrain
    • Includes bogs, fields, swamps, water
    • Signal Mirrors
      • Need point source of light
      • Requires practice to use
    • Rescue Laser
      • Works best at night
      • Requires practice to use
  • Open Terrain
    • Fabric Panels
      • Fluorescent Orange or Lime
      • Can be made from old GI parachutes
    • Dye Markers
      • Work in snow, open water, or swamps
    • Ashes from your fire excellent on snow
    • Don’t use a yellow “X”
  • Paulin Signals
  • Common Pitfalls
    • A common misconception of downed air crews is that a circling aircraft has the crash in sight 100% of the time.
    • In wooded areas the aircraft can see the crash for only a few seconds during each orbit. It is important that the downed air crew realizes the aircraft’s limitations.
  • Sighting Distance Average Visibility   Object Distance Person in life jacket (open water or moderate seas) 1/2 mile Person in small life raft (open water or moderate seas) 3/4 mile Person in open meadow within wooded area 1/2 mile or less Crash in wooded area 1/2 mile Crash on desert or open plain 2 miles Person on desert or open plain 1 mile or less Vehicle in open area 2 miles or less
  • Why Signals? Downed aircraft, 800’ AGL
  • Downed aircraft, 800’ AGL
  • Downed aircraft, 1500’ AGL
  • Downed aircraft, 800’ AGL
  • Case Study: Mt. Kearsarge, NH 7/5/04
  • Mt. Kearsarge, NH 7/5/04
    • 1505: Lake Buccaneer impacts mountain
    • 1530: Injured pilot calls 911 on cell phone. States location unknown, but was able to give origin and intended destination.
    • 1531: 911 notifies local FD
    • 1540: 911 notifies AFRCC
    • 1545: AFRCC notifies NH CAP IC
    • 1548: CAP IC notifies CAP aircrew
    • 1600: Aircrew is airborne enroute
  • Mt. Kearsarge 7/5/04
    • 1605: CAP IC notifies Ground Team Leader (GTL)
    • 1607: GTL initiates calldown
    • 1610: GTL enroute to local staging area
    • 1630: CAP AC, on IMC route search, starts to receive ELT signal
    • 1640: GT assembled and enroute to scene staging area, established by local FD
  • Mt. Kearsarge 7/5/04
    • 1700: CAP AC, in IMC conditions, determines location of ELT source, relays direct to GTL, maintains communication orbit over scene.
    • 1730: GT arrives scene staging area
    • 1740: GT heads into the woods. Conditions: 100ft visibility in thick fog, light drizzle. GT navigates using handheld GPS to coordinates reported by AC. Conditions steep granite, scrub spruce.
  • Mt. Kearsarge 7/5/04
    • 1845: GT begins to hear whistle of downed pilot.
    • 1851: Local SP and GT locate downed aircraft. Determines one patient critical, one deceased. Relays message to staging area via orbiting comm link requesting needed supplies and assistance. GT stays to render medical assistance while PD heads out to establish access trail. ELT is secured.
  • Mt. Kearsarge 7/5/04
    • 1950: Local FD, Fast Squad, and NHSP members arrive with Stokes litter. Trail cutting team sets to work while CAP GT extricates and packages patient. CAP AC heads home.
    • 2010: Carryout begins. Some team members stay to secure crash site.
    • 2115: Carryout Team and Patient arrives staging area. Patient transported by ground ambulance to trauma center.
  • Mt. Kearsarge 7/5/04
  • For more information about CAP
    • www.cap.gov
  •  
    • QUESTIONS?