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Family and Marrige






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    Family and Marrige Family and Marrige Presentation Transcript

    • Family: Marriage Across Cultures Social Institutions Unit 6
    • Defining Family
      • Family has become very difficult to define, different laws define it in different ways
        • For sociologists, it is defined as a group of people who are related by marriage, blood or adoption
        • Families are a complex social units
      • In terms of social institutions, the family has the most impact on individual behavior
    • Defining Family cont’
      • Family of Orientation: family you are born into, provides you with a name, identity and heritage
        • It provides an ascribed status in the community
        • Family of orientation “orients” children to their neighborhood, community, and society
      • Family of Procreation: family created in marriage
        • Marriage: a legal union based on mutual rights and obligations
          • The marriage ceremony symbolizes that it is legal for a couple to have offspring and pass on the family name
          • The family of procreation then becomes a family of orientation
    • Two Basic Families
      • Nuclear Family: a family structure made up of a parent(s) and children
        • This is the smallest family unit
      • Extended Family: two or more adult generations of the same family whose members share economic resources and a common household
        • It can contain close relatives – grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins
    • How did Family Develop
      • The earliest societies (hunting & gathering) were based on nuclear families
      • When societies switched to agricultural societies large families were need to work the farm, which led to the development of extended families
      • As society moved from agricultural to industrial, extended families became replaced with nuclear families again
    • Patterns of Family Structure
      • Whether you are looking at nuclear or extended families, the pattern of behavior for families is similar throughout cultures
        • There are similarities in inheritance, authority, and place of residence
    • Who Inherits?
      • Determining who becomes the head of household for the purpose of descent and family property
      • There are 3 Types of Arrangements
        • Patrilineal: descent and inheritance are passed from the father to his male descendents
          • Example: Iran and Iraq
        • Matrilineal: descent and inheritance are transmitted from the mother to her female descendents
          • Example: Pueblo Tribes
        • Bilateral: descent and inheritance are passed equally through both parents
          • Example: United States
    • Who has Authority?
      • There are 3 Patterns for determining family authority
        • Patriarchy: the eldest man in the household has authority over the rest of the family members
          • The father is the absolute ruler: Iraq, China
        • Matriarchy: the oldest women in the household holds the authority
          • There is controversy over whether or not there are any societies that have a matriarchal structure
        • Egalitarian: control and authority is split evenly between husband and wife
          • United States and Scandinavia
    • Where do Couples Live?
      • The location of where new couples set up their home also varies by culture
        • Patrilocal: live near or with the husband’s parents
        • Matrilocal: live near or with the wife’s parents
          • Ex. The Nayar caste of Southern India
        • Neolocal: married couples establish a residence on their own (if finances allow it)
    • Marriage Arrangements
      • Depending on the culture, a marriage ceremony and the arrangements that follow are very different
        • Wherever the ceremony takes place it announces that a man and woman have become husband and wife, and that any children born to the couple can be legitimately inherit the family name and property
    • Forms of Marriage
      • Monogamy: the marriage of one man to one woman
        • It is the only legal form of marriage in the US and most of the western world
        • Serial Monogamy: having several husbands or wives but never at the same time
      • Polygamy: the marriage of a male or female to more than one person at a time
        • Two forms: polygny (1 man, 2 or more women) and polyandry (1 woman and 2 or more men)
    • Choosing a Mate
      • All cultures have norms and laws about who they may marry
        • Exogamy: refers to mate selection outside of one’s group
          • The most important norm for this form of marriage is incest taboo (marriage of family)
        • Endogamy: involves mate selection that requires individuals to marry within their own kind (example: people of the same race or social class)
        • Homogamy: the tendency to marry someone similar to oneself
        • (people choose those w/ social characteristics similar to theirs)
        • Heterogamy: marriage between two people of differing characteristics