You want to know how we keep going? Here…” He pulled a phial from his bag. “That’s cocaine, for our eyes. This is chloroform, for our gums.” “This,” Ville said, emptying his shoulder bag “is liniment to put warmth back into our knees.” “And pills. Do you want to see pills? Have a look, here are the pills.” Each pulled out three boxes. “The truth is,” Francis said, “that we keep going on dynamite.” “At night, in our rooms, we can’t sleep. We twitch and dance and jig about as though we were doing St Vitus’ Dance…” said Henri. Marshall Taylor – awesome cyclist, and doped out of his treeas far back as 1886 a Welsh cyclist died in a race in France, having ingested a mixture of cocaine, strychnine and caffeine. at that time another popular drug was nitroglycerine, used medically to stimulate the heart after heart attacks but by cyclists to improve breathing.Tragedy struck in the 1960 Tour, when Frenchman Roger Rivière overshot a bend on the Col de Perjuret in pursuit of rival GastoneNencini, falling into a ravine and breaking his back. He pinned the blame on his team mechanic, saying his brakes hadn't been working and then accusing him of leaving oil on the wheels. But doctors soon found the real reason for the crash – a volume of painkillers in Rivière’s blood so high that his hands were too slow to operate the brakes. He would later confess to being a drug addict.During stage 13 of the 1967 Tour de France, he collapsed and died while riding up Mont Ventoux, aged 29. The post mortem examination found that he had taken amphetamine and alcohol, a diuretic combination which proved fatal when combined with the heat, the hard climb of the Ventoux and a stomach complaint. Mr. 60%
Discovery Channel Team Director Johan Bruyneel,former USPS and/or Discovery Channel doctors Pedro Celaya,Luis Garcia del Moraland Michele Ferrariand Team Trainer Jose “Pepe” Marti
On June 28, 2012, Bruyneel was formally charged by USADA with administration and trafficking of prohibited substances. Allegations include the assertion that Bruyneel was part of a long-running doping conspiracy, including the use of erythropoietin, autologous blood transfusions, anabolic steroids, human growth hormone, and other banned methods to augment the performance of the cycling teams which he directed.[
Darren Baker, Pat McCarty, Scott Mercier, and othersChristophe Bassons 1999FilippoSimeoni in 2004Emma O’ReillyPaul KimmageGreg LeMondThe Andreus
Doping in pro cycing
Doping In Pro Cycling:What it is and why it matters Mike Moore December 14, 2012
About Pro Cycling Different disciplines Different kinds of races The Peloton, the Team and the Individual Money & Culture Results Orientation
Doping in cycling Long history in the sport Not effective or safe
Doping in cycling “Preparation” Directors, Doctors & Trainers One day races Stage races Testing
Effectiveness Three rules of competitive cycling
Effectiveness EPO: adds red blood cells Raises performance by 5-15% Makes you able to climb faster Testosterone: builds lean muscle and aids in recovery from hard efforts Enables significantly harder and longer training Blood doping: adds more red blood cells and reduced perception of effort Immediate recovery and >4% added endurance
Examples 1996: Jonathan Vaughters, EPOed up, sets record for climb up Mt. Ventoux; never wins another mountain stage 1999: Lance Armstrong wins his first TdF by 7:37, a time difference of 1.3%; later testing reveals 6 positives for EPO 2001: Tyler Hamilton rides TdF clean and finishes 94th. In 2002 Giro, EPOed up, finishes 2nd. 2006: Floyd Landis, after blood doping, rides away from the field, setting stage for TdF “win” And many many more….
Avoiding getting caught Dodge the testers Dilution EPO Micro-dosing and intravenous injection Autologous blood doping Phony therapeutic use exemptions All of these worked until the implementation of the Blood Passport and Whereabouts Controls
USADA vs. USPS Originated in USPS Fraud investigation The charges: Use/attempted use of banned substances Possession & Trafficking Conspiracy & Intimidation Aggravated Charges From Aug. 1 1998 until the present Tons of evidence Not just Lance...
Why it matters Trickles down to young & amateur athletes Techniques mastered in cycling are being used in other sports Distorts and corrupts Not all cyclists doped – not a victimless crime