What is ICT ? I nformation and C ommunication T echnology The Internet MM : M ulti m edia Multimedia on the WWW, CD Roms CMC : C omputer M ediated C ommunication Communication skills using multimedia resources CALL : C omputer A ssisted L anguage L earning
ICT and pedagogy … Stage 1970s – 1980s: Structural CALL 1980s – 1990s: Communicative CALL 21st century: Integrative CALL Technology (ICT) mainframe PCs Multimedia and the Internet View of language structural (a formal structural system) cognitive (a mentally-constructed system) socio-cognitive (developed in social interaction) Principal use of computers Principal objective drill and practice accuracy communicative activities + fluency authentic discourse, publishing + agency
Agency is ... “ ... the satisfying power to take meaningful action and see the results of our decisions and choices ... ” (Murray, 1997) “ ... the power to construct a representation of reality, a writing of history, and to impose reception of it by others...” (Kramsch, A’Ness & Lamb, in press)
Publishing on the WWW Publishing on the Web has become quite popular. Free space and publishing tools are offered. Hypertext has become the new writing format. This format offers students a non linear path to access to information. Taking decisions about how to go through it according to their learning characteristics, students turn this information into knowledge.
What is CMC ? CMC is a research area concerned with “... Communication that takes place between beings via the instrumentality of computers” (Herring, 1996) “It includes e-mail, text, voice and video conferencing and other forms of CMC. (Harrington & Levi, 2001)
Communications between human beings via a computer network.
Mechanism which allows one computer to exchange information with another, whatever the type of computer or its physical location.
A communication network, similar to the international telephone network, which people use to exchange data or simply speak to each other.
Main CMC Features Feature Examples What you can do Asynchronous CMC E-mail Web bulletin board Discussion Forum Write a message for others to read later. Synchronous CMC Chat rooms Instant messaging Videoconferencing Communicate in real time with others who are on-line at the same time.
ICT = Additional value Being able to communicate with users outside one’s immediate physical environment , being able to receive not just words but sounds and pictures, being able to produce and deliver content, rather than passively receive it.