Fossil fuels

489
-1

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
489
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
31
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Fossil fuels

  1. 1.  Fossil fuel was formed over hundreds of millions of years ago by decomposing plants. After a long period of time, layers and layers of rock, mud, and sand covered the dead plants thousands of feet under the earth, which fossilized them.
  2. 2. DIFFERENT TYPES OF FOSSIL FUEL COAL NATURAL GAS PETROLUM NUCLEAR POWER
  3. 3. World fossil fuel consumption
  4. 4. Fraction Boiling No of carbon Uses Range /C atoms per moleculePetroleum Below 40 1-4 Fuel for Gas cooking
  5. 5. Fractions of Petroleum Fraction Boiling No of carbon Uses Range /C atoms per molecule Petrol 40 - 75 5 -10 Fuel for car(Gasoline) engines
  6. 6. Fraction Boiling No of carbon Uses Range /C atoms per moleculeNaphtha 75 - 150 7 - 14 Chemical feedstock
  7. 7. Fractions of Petroleum Fraction Boiling No of carbon Uses Range /C atoms per moleculeKerosene 160 - 250 11 - 16 Fuel for jet engines, cooking and heating
  8. 8. Fractions of PetroleumFraction Boiling No of carbon Uses Range /C atoms per moleculeDiesel 250 - 300 16 - 20 Fuel for diesel engines
  9. 9. Fraction Boiling No of carbon Uses Range /C atoms per moleculeLubricants 300 - 350 20 - 35 Making waxes and lubricating oils
  10. 10. Fraction Boiling No of carbon Uses Range /C atoms per moleculeBitumen Above 350 More than Paving 70 roads
  11. 11. How are COAL formed Coal is formed by dead remains of trees, ferns and other plants that lived 300 to 400 millions of years ago. Coal is found in swamps covered by seawater. Since the sea has a lot of sulfur it stayed behind in the coal, when the water receded. Unless it is removed when it is being burned, the sulfur goes into our air when the coal is burned. In some parts of the world there were freshwater swamps, coal from here has less sulfur and is much cleaner then the other swamps.
  12. 12. Formation of coal
  13. 13.  Oil and natural gas were formed the same way, but coal was formed a slightly different way. The first two were formed by organisms - plankton and plants mostly - that lived in fresh water and they were buried under rivers and oceans. The pressure and bacteria is combined to make oil and natural gas. When the petroleum companies drill down through the caprock, if they are lucky they find oil and natural gas under them, and that’s how it is captured today.
  14. 14. FUCTURE TECH In many ways oil, natural gas, and coal are formed the same way. In the future may be scientists will take the sulfur from coal so we would not have air pollution. But since they were all produced over millions of years, in the future we will run out of all the types of fossil fuel. We are using them up much faster than they can be produced and fossil fuel plants are where most of our electricity comes from now.
  15. 15. IN WHICH CONDITIONS FOSSILFUEL ARE FORMED CONDITION NEED TO FORM AN FOSSIL FUEL ARE AS FOLLOWS- Extreme heat Extreme pressure and Millions of years Organic matter which was rapidly buried in an anoxic environment. Then left undisturbed for a very long time
  16. 16. IMAGES OF FOSSIL FUEL
  17. 17.  THESE FOSSIL FUEL ARE FOUND IN OCEANS SEAS ETC. BEFORE THEY ARE EXTRACTED , FOSSIL FUEL ARE TOGETHER WHICH IS KNOWN AS CRUDE OIL. TO SEPARATE THEM THERE IS A METHORD CALLED FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION.
  18. 18. Fractional Distillation of Petroleum Petroleum can be separated into different fractions by fractional distillation. This separation can take place because petroleum is a mixture of substances with different boiling points.
  19. 19. (Petroleum Gas) Petrol Naphtha Temperature Kerosene increases down the column Diesel Lubricants Bitumen
  20. 20. CONDITIONS FOR OIL REFINING Petroleum is heated to 360C in the absence of air in a furnace to vaporize it before fractional distillation.
  21. 21. Why must petroleum be vaporized in the absence of air at 360C?If petroleum is vaporized in the presenceof air at high temperature, it may igniteand cause an explosion!
  22. 22. Fuel Appearance Constituents Natural Mainly methane Colourless Gas (CH4) From yellow to dark- A mixture ofPetroleum brown liquid hydrocarbons(Crude oil) (depending on grade) (mainly alkanes) Coal Black solid Mainly carbon
  23. 23. Physical Ease of storage and Effect of State transportation pollution Not easily stored and transported (because Large amounts of its solid state) of soot and Solid sulphur dioxide Requires a lot of produced space to store.
  24. 24. Physical Ease of storage and Effect of State transportation pollution Can flow through Moderate pipes easily. amounts of soot Liquid Can be stored and and sulphur transported easily by dioxide tankers produced
  25. 25. Physical Ease of storage and Effect of State transportation pollution Can flow through pipes easily. Very low amounts of Gas Can be liquefied soot and under pressure sulphur dioxide (LNG) and stored in produced tanks
  26. 26.  They contain a high percentage of carbon and hydrocarbons . Primary sources of energy used around the world include petroleum, coal, and natural gas, all fossil fuels. With energy needs increasing, the production and use of these fossil fuels create serious environmental concerns. Until a global movement for renewable energy is successful, the negative effects of fossil fuel will continue.
  27. 27. AIR POLLUTION CAUSED BYFOSSIL FUELS Fossil fuels cause environmentally unsafe compounds to form in the atmosphere, depleting ozone levels and thus creating a spike in skin cancer rates. Burning coal releases sulfur oxide while the combustion of car engines and power plants gives off nitrogen oxides, which cause smog. Water and oxygen bonding with those sulfur and nitrogen oxides also causes acid rain, which damages plant life and food chains. Areas of high air pollution indexes have populations with higher rates of asthma than cleaner environments do.
  28. 28. GLOBAL WARMING CAUSEDBY FOSSIL FUEL Global warming occurs when carbon dioxide accumulates in the atmosphere. Carbon monoxide is produced by the combustion of fossil fuels and converted into carbon dioxide. As a result, the surface temperature of the earth is increasing drastically. The increase is enough to distress the ecological systems. Implications include severe weather, droughts, floods, drastic temperature changes, heat waves, and more severe wildfires. Food and water supplies are threatened Tropical regions will expand, allowing disease-carrying insects to expand their ranges.
  29. 29. FOSSIL FUEL I AM DANGERIOUS HELP ME I AM ON FIRE DUE TO THEST FOSSIL FUEL.
  30. 30. ACID RAIN DUE TO FOSSILFUELS Acid rain" is a broad term used to describe several ways that acids fall out of the atmosphere. A more precise term is acid deposition, which has two parts: wet and dry.
  31. 31. EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN . Acid rain causes acidification of lakes and streams and contributes to damage of trees at high elevations (for example, red spruce trees above 2,000 feet) and many sensitive forest soils. In addition, acid rain accelerates the decay of building materials and paints, including irreplaceable buildings, statues, and sculptures that are part of our nations cultural heritage. Prior to falling to the earth, SO2 and NOx gases and their particulate matter derivatives, sulfates and nitrates, contribute to visibility degradation and harm public health. DUE TO ACID RAIN TAJ MAHAL IS LOOSING ITS COLOUR
  32. 32. TAJ MAHAL DUE TO ACID RAIN BEFORE AFTER
  33. 33.  Oil was formed from the remains of animals and plants that lived millions of years ago in a marine (water) environment before the dinosaurs. Over the years, the remains were covered by layers of mud. Heat and pressure from these layers helped the remains turn into what we today call crude oil .
  34. 34. The worlds top five crude oil-producing countries are:  Saudi Arabia  Russia  United States  Iran  China CRUDE OIL
  35. 35.  Paraffins Hydrocarbons Naphthenes Hydrocarbons
  36. 36.  Crude oil is recovered from the reservoir mixed with a variety of substances: gases water and dirt (minerals). Desalting is a water – washing operation performed at the production field and at the refinery site for additional crude oil cleanup. If the petroleum from the seperators contains water and dirt, water washing can remove much of the water – soluble minerals and entrained solids. If these crude oil contaminants are not removed, they can cause operating problems during refinery processing, such as equipment plugging and corrosion as well as catalyst deactivation.
  37. 37. • Aviation Gasoline• Gas Diesel Oil/(Distillate Fuel Oil)• Heavy Fuel Oil Residual• Kerosene• Jet Fuel• LPG• Motor Gasoline• Naphtha• Petroleum Coke• Refinery Gas
  38. 38. PRODUCTS MADE FROM OIL Ink Toys Dolls Tires Tents ShoesGlue Skis Dyes Cameras Combs Dice Mops Purses Dresses Pajamas Pillows Candles Boats Crayo ns Caulking Balloons Curtains Milk jugs Putty Tool racks Slacks Yarn Roofing Luggage Fan belts Carpeting Lipstick Aspirin Dishwashing liquids Unbreakable dishes Car sound insulation Motorcycle helmets Refrigerator linings Electricians tape Roller-skate wheels Permanent press clothes Soft contact lenses Food preservatives Transparent tape Disposable diapers Sports car bodies Electric blankets Car battery cases Synthetic rubber Vitamin capsules Rubbing alcohol Ice cube trays Insect repellent Roofing shingles Shower curtains Plywood adhesive Beach umbrellas Faucet washers Antihistamines Drinking cups Petroleum jelly Tennis rackets Wire insulation Ballpoint pens Artificial turf Artificial limbs Shaving cream
  39. 39.  Paint brushes Telephones Insecticides Antiseptics Fishing lures Deodorant Linoleum Sweaters Paint rollers Floor wax Plastic wood Model cars Trash bags Soap dishes Hand lotion Clothesline Shampoo Panty hose Fishing rods Oil filters Anesthetics Upholstery TV cabinets Cassettes Salad bowls House paint Awnings Ammonia Safety glass Hair curlers VCR tapes Eyeglasses Movie film Ice chests Loudspeakers Ice buckets Credit cards Fertilizers Water pipes Toilet seats Fishing boots Life jackets Garden hose Golf balls Umbrellas Detergents Rubber cement Sun glasses Cold cream Bandages Hair coloring Nail polish Guitar strings False teethToothpaste Golf bags Toothbrushes Perfume Folding doors Shoe polish Shower doors Cortisone Heart valves LP records Hearing aids Vaporizers Wading pools Parachutes

×