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Types Of Foundation

Types Of Foundation






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    Types Of Foundation Types Of Foundation Presentation Transcript

      • “ Always Try To Do The Best In Your Life”
      • a) Shallow Foundation System
      • i) Spread Foundation
      • ii) Mat / Raft Foundation
      • b) Deep Foundation System
      • i) Pile iii) Diaphragham wall
      • ii) Pile walls iv) Caissons
      • Advantages
      • Cost (affordable)
      • Construction Procedure (simple)]
      • Material (mostly concrete)
      • Labour (doesn’t need expertise)
      • Also known as a footer or footing
      • It’s an enlargement at the bottom of a column/
      • bearing wall that spreads the applied
      • structural loads over a sufficiently large soil
      • area.
      • Each column & each bearing wall has its own
      • spread footing, so each structure may include
      • dozens of individual footings.
      • The foundation consists of concrete slabs
      • located under each structural column and a
      • continuous slab under load-bearing walls.
      • For the spread foundation system the
      • structural load is literally spread out over a
      • broad area under the building
      • Most common type of foundation used due
      • to their low cost & ease of construction.
      • Most often used in small to medium size structure with moderate to good soil condition.
      • Spread footings may be built in different
      • shapes & sizes to accommodate individual
      • needs such as the following:
      • a) Square Spread Footings / Square Footings
      • b) Rectangular Spread Footings
      • c) Circular Spread Footings
      • d) Continuous Spread Footings
      • e) Combined Footings
      • f) Ring Spread Footings
      • a) Square Spread Footings / Pad Foundation
      • - support a single centrally located column
      • - use concrete mix 1:2:4 and reinforcement
      • - the reinforcement in both axes are to
      • resist/carry tension loads.
      • b) Rectangular Spread Footings
      • - Useful when obstructions prevent
      • construction of a square footing with a
      • sufficiently large base area and when
      • large moment loads are present
      • c) Circular Spread Footings
      • - are round in plan view
      • - most frequently used as foundation for
      • light standards, flagpoles and power
      • transmission lines.
      • d)Continuous Spread Footings / Strip Foundation
      • - Used to support bearing walls
      • e) Combined Footings
      • - support more than one column
      • - useful when columns are located too close
      • together for each to have its own footing
      • f) Ring Spread Footings
      • - continuous footings that have been wrapped into a
      • circle
      • - commonly used to support the walls above-ground
      • circular storage tanks.
      • - The contents of these tanks are spread evenly
      • across the total base area and this weight is probably
      • greater that the tank itself
      • - Therefore the geotechnical analyses of tanks usually
      • treat them as circular foundations with diameters
      • equal to the diameter of the tank.
      • Ring Spread Footings
      • A foundation system in which essentially the
      • entire building is placed on a large continuous
      • footing.
      • It is a flat concrete slab, heavily reinforced
      • with steel, which carries the downward loads
      • of the individual columns or walls.
      • Raft foundations are used to spread the load
      • from a structure over a large area, normally
      • the entire area of the structure.
      • It is normally consists of a concrete slab
      • which extends over the entire loaded area.
      • It may be stiffened by ribs or beams
      • incorporated into the foundation.
      • Raft foundations have the advantage of reducing differential settlements as the concrete slab resists differential movements between loading positions.
      • They are often needed on soft or loose soils with low bearing capacity as they can spread the loads over a larger area.
      • Mat Foundation often considered to be
      • used when dealing with the following
      • conditions:
      • The structural loads are so high or the soil condition so poor that spread footings would be exceptionally large. As a general rule of thumb, if spread footings would cover more than 50% of the building footprint area, a mat or some type of deep foundation will usually be more economical.
      • b) The soil is very erratic & prone to excessive differential settlements. The structure continuity and flexural strength of a mat will bridge over these irregularities.
      • The same is true of mats on highly expansive soils prone to differential heaves.
      • c) The structural loads are erratic and thus increase the likelihood of excessive differential settlements. Again, the structural continuity and flexural strength of the mat will absorb these irregularities.
      • d) The lateral loads are not uniformly distributed through the structure and thus may cause differential horizontal movements in spread footings and pile caps.
      • The continuity of a mat will resist such movement.
      • e)The uplift loads are larger than spread footings can accommodate. The greater weight and continuity of a mat may provide sufficient resistance.
      • f) The bottom of the structure is located below the groundwater table, so waterproofing is an important concern. Because mats are monolithic, they are much easier to waterproof. The weight of the mat also helps resist hydrostatic uplift forces from the groundwater.
      • Extend several dozen feet below the building
      • a) Piles
      • b) Piers
      • c) Caissons
      • d) Compensated Foundation
    • PILES?????
      • A slender, structural member
      • consisting steel or concrete or timber.
      • It is installed in the ground to transfer
      • the structural loads to soils at some
      • significant depth below the base of the
      • structure.
    • PILES
      • The soil near the surface doesn’t have
      • sufficient bearing capacity (weak) to support
      • the structural loads.
      • The estimated settlement of the soil exceeds
      • tolerable limits
      • Differential settlement due to soil variability
      • or non-uniform structural loads is excessive
      • Excavations to construct a shallow foundation
      • on a firm soil are difficult or expensive.
      • End Bearing Piles OR
      • - Pile will transmit load into the firm soil layer of the ground such as rock, gravel, very dense sand
      • b) Friction Piles
      • - Pile transmit the load from the structure to the penetrable soil by means of skin friction or cohession between the soil & the embedded surface of the pile.
      • There 2 type of End Bearing Piles That is Preformed Timber Pile & In-Site-Reinforced Concrete Pile
      • Friction Pile May Be Used To Support DownWard Load
      • a) Concrete Piles
      • i) Cast-In-Place Concrete Piles
      • ii) Precast Concrete Piles
      • iii) Drilled Shafts
      • b) Steel Piles
      • I) H-Piles ii) Cylindrical iii) Tapered
      • c) Timber Piles
      • d) Composite Piles
      • Formed by driving a cylindrical steel shell into the ground to the desired depth and cavity of shell is filled with fluid concrete.
      • The steel shell doesn’t contribute to the load transfer capacity of the pile.
      • It’s purpose is to open a hole in a ground and keep it open to facilitate the construction of concrete pile. (same function as formwork)
      • Vigilant quality control & good construction practice are necessary to ensure the integrity of cast-in-place piles.
      • Among the advantages of Cast-In-Place
      • Concrete are as follows:
      • Can sustain hard driving
      • Resistant to marine organism
      • Easily inspected
      • Length can be changed easily
      • Easy to handle and ship
      • Usually have square/circular/octagonal cross sections.
      • Fabricated in a construction yard from reinforced or pre-stressed concrete.
      • Disadvantages of this pile are problems in transporting long piles, cutting and lengthening.
      • It has higher capacity than timber piles.
      • It comes in various shapes & sizes
      • Steel H-Piles are rolled steel sections
      • Steel pipe piles are seamless pipes that can be welded to yield lengths up to 70m.
      • They are usually driven with open ends into the soil.
      • A conical tip is used where the piles have to penetrate boulders & rocks.
      • However it needs to be treated before embedded in corrosive environment.
      • Have been used since ancient times
      • Length of timber piles depends on types of trees used to harvest the piles,
      • Common length are 12m
      • It is susceptible to termites, marine organisms and rot within zones exposed to seasonal changes.
      • Eventhough it’s cheaper but it has low capacity and can’t take hard driving.
      • What type of pile is readily available
      • Location & type of structure (magnitude of loading)
      • Ground Condition (soil type)
      • Cost
      • Durability
      • Displacement Piles
      • - It cause the soil to be displaced radially as well as vertically as pile shaft is driven or jacked into the ground.
      • b) Non Displacement Piles
      • - It cause the soil to be removed and the resulting hole filled with concrete or a pre cast concrete pile is dropped into the hole and grouted in.
      • Displacement Pile
      • Replacement Pile / Non Displacement Pile
      • Can be classified into different types base on how they are constructed and how they are inserted.
      • There are 3 types as follows:
      • Totally Preformed Displacement Piles
      • (precast concrete or steel pile)
      • Driven & Cast-In-Place Displacement Pile
      • Helical Cast-In-Place Displacement Piles
      • Totally Preformed Displacement Piles
      • - Precast Concrete or Steel Pile
      • b) Driven & Cast-In-Place Displacement Pile
      • - This type of pile can be of 2 forms.
      • - The first involves driving a temporary steel
      • tube with a closed end into the ground to
      • form a void in the soil which is then filled
      • with concrete as the tube is withdrawn.
      • - The second type is the same except the steel
      • tube is left in place to form a permanent
      • casing.
      • c) Helical Cast-In-Place Displacement Piles
      • - This type of construction is performed using a special type of auger.
      • - The soil is however compacted, not removed as the auger is screwed into the ground.
      • - The auger is carried on a hollow stem which can be filled with concrete, so when the required depth has been reached concrete can be pumped down the stem & the auger slowly unscrewed leaving the pile cast in place.
      • Dropping Weight or Drop Hammers
      • - commonly used method of insertion of displacement piles
      • Diesel Hammers
      • - Most suitable to drive pile in non cohesive granular soil
      • Vibratory Hammers or vibratory method of pile driving
      • - very effective in driving piles through non cohesive granular soil
      • Jacking Method Of Insertion
    • Diesel Hammer
      • Rapid controlled explosions can be produced by the diesel hammer.
      • The explosions raise a ram which is used to drive the pile into the ground.
      • Although the ram is smaller than the weight used in the drop hammer the increased frequency of the blows can make up for this inefficiency.
      • This type of hammer is most suitable for driving piles through non-cohesive granular soils where the majority of the resistance is from end bearing.
    • Vibratory Method of Pile Driving
      • Vibratory methods can prove to be very effective in driving piles through non cohesive granular soils.
      • The vibration of the pile excites the soil grains adjacent to the pile making the soil almost free flowing thus significantly reducing friction along the pile shaft.
      • However the large energy resulting from the vibrations can damage equipment, noise and vibration propagation can also result in the settlement of nearby buildings.
      • Pile Driving Rig - raise and temporarily support the pile that being driven and to support the pile hammer.
      • Pile Driving Rig
    • Dropping Weight / Drop Hammers
      • A weight approximately half that of the
      • pile is raised a suitable distance in a guide
      • and released to strike the pile head.
      • When driving a hollow pile tube the
      • weight usually acts on a plug at the bottom
      • of the pile thus reducing any excess
      • stresses along the length of the tube during
      • insertion.
      • Pile Installation Using Drop Hammer
    • Jacking Method Of Insertion
      • Jacked Piles are most commonly used in
      • underpinning structures
      • By excavating underneath a structure short
      • lengths of pile can be inserted and jacked
      • into the ground using the underside of the
      • existing structure as a reaction.
      • Jacking Method Of Insertion
      • Small Diameter Cast-In-Place
      • Large Diameter Cast-In-Place
      • Partially Preformed Piles
      • Grout or Concrete Intruded Piles
    • PIERS
      • It’s a vertical bridge support.
      • It’s a foundation for carrying a heavy
      • structural load which is constructed in site
      • in a deep excavation.
      • Among the things to be taken in consideration
      • during construction of pier are as follows:
      • Drilling through wet or caving soils may need use of temporary steel casing. May also require the use of a tremie & a pump to dewater the hole & place concrete. This is more expensive and require a large diameter hole.
      • For the purpose of reinforcing, it’s difficult to get bars to the full depth of the pier with the proper concrete cover in deep holes.Use centralizes. Use large diameter bars versus more bars.
      • c) Don’t leave holes open for any length of time even in dry condition. Cuttings fall in or etc. Have concrete on site and fill right after drilling and cleaning.
      • Pier
      • Pier
      • Pier
      • Pumping Water Out Of The Hole For The Excavation
      • Of The Pier
      • Constructing The Pier Framing
      • Completed Pier Framing
      Post Footing & Detail
      • Ramp Is Installed
      Ramp Is Bolted
      • Floor Decking
      • Installation
      Completed Pier
      • It’s a prefabricated hollow box or cylinder.
      • It is sunk into the ground to some desired
      • depth and then filled with concrete thus
      • forming a foundation.
      • Most often used in the construction of bridge piers & other structures that require foundation beneath rivers & other bodies of water.
      • This is because caissons can be floated to the job site and sunk into place.
      • Basically it is similar in form to pile
      • foundation but installed using different way
      • used when soil of adequate bearing strength
      • is found below surface layers of weak
      • materials such as fill or peat.
      • It’s a form of deep foundation which are
      • constructed above ground level, then sunk to
      • the required level by excavating or dredging
      • material from within the caisson.
      • A caisson foundation consists of concrete
      • columns constructed in cylindrical shafts
      • excavated under the proposed structural
      • column locations
      • Caissons are drilled to bedrock or deep into
      • the underlying strata if a geotech eng. find the
      • soil suitable to carry the building load.
      • It’s created by auguring a deep hole in the
      • ground.
      • Then, 2 or more ‘stick’ reinforcing bar are I
      • inserted into and run the full length of the
      • hole and the concrete is poured into the
      • caisson hole.
      • The caisson foundations carry the building
      • loads at their lower ends, which are often
      • bell-shaped.
      • Caissons
      • Box Caissons
      • Excavated Caissons
      • Floating Caissons
      • Open Caissons
      • Pneumatic Caissons
      • Sheeted Caissons
      • Reinforced Concrete Caissons
      • Caissons
      • Caisson As One Of The Elements In This Structure