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  2. 2. <ul><li>DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>“ A temporary structure from which persons can gain access to a place in order to carry out building operation” </li></ul><ul><li>“ A temporary frame usually constructed from steel or aluminium alloy tubes clipped or coupled together to provide a means of access to high-level working areas as well as providing as a safe platform from which to work.” </li></ul>
  3. 3. FUNCTION <ul><li>As a working platform </li></ul><ul><li>- so that the worker can stand on the platform </li></ul><ul><li>do the work easily & safely </li></ul><ul><li>As a platform for placing material & logistic </li></ul><ul><li>needed by the workers to carry out their job </li></ul><ul><li>As a platform and walking passage </li></ul><ul><li>- scaffolding support the platform that been </li></ul><ul><li>used by the worker as their walking path to </li></ul><ul><li>transport the material & logistic </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>2 Basic forms of scaffolding are as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Putlog Scaffold - Single row of uprights / standards set </li></ul><ul><li>outside the perimeter of the building. - It’s a partly supported by the structure </li></ul><ul><li>Independent Scaffolds - It have 2 rows of standards that are tied </li></ul><ul><li>by cross members called transoms. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Among the factors need to be considered </li></ul><ul><li>during the design process of scaffold are as </li></ul><ul><li>follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to be erected </li></ul><ul><li>Strong </li></ul><ul><li>Light / Not heavy </li></ul><ul><li>Safe </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable </li></ul><ul><li>Passage Link / Passage connecting to other places </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Scaffold can be made of the following </li></ul><ul><li>material: </li></ul><ul><li>Tubular steel </li></ul><ul><li>b) Tubular aluminium alloy </li></ul><ul><li>c) Timber </li></ul>
  7. 7. STEEL SCAFFOLD <ul><li>Steel tubes are nearly 3 times heavier than aluminium alloy tubes but are far stronger. </li></ul><ul><li>Longer span can be used since it deflection is </li></ul><ul><li>approximately 1/3 of aluminium alloy tubes. </li></ul><ul><li>There 2 types that is: </li></ul><ul><li>- Galvanized steel tubes </li></ul><ul><li>- Ungalvanized steel tubes that need special </li></ul><ul><li>care (painting, varnishing or oil bath after use) </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Steel Scaffolding </li></ul>
  9. 9. ALUMINIUM SCAFFOLDS <ul><li>Need protective treatment when they are to </li></ul><ul><li>be used in contact with materials such as </li></ul><ul><li>damp line, wet cement & sea water to </li></ul><ul><li>prevent corrosion to the tubes. </li></ul><ul><li>Coating the tube with bitumastic paint </li></ul><ul><li>before using it would be a suitable </li></ul><ul><li>protective treatment. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Aluminium Scaffolding </li></ul>                                                     
  11. 11. TIMBER SCAFFOLD <ul><li>Extensively used in the developing country </li></ul><ul><li>Members are lashed together with wire or </li></ul><ul><li>rope instead of the coupling fittings used </li></ul><ul><li>with metal scaffolds. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Timber Scaffold </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Bamboo Scaffolding (In Hong Kong) </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Bamboo Scaffolding </li></ul>
  15. 15. SCAFFOLD ELEMENTS <ul><li>Standards / “Tiang” </li></ul><ul><li>Ledger / “belebas” </li></ul><ul><li>Transom / “Pepat” </li></ul><ul><li>Double Coupler / “Pengganding Berkembar” </li></ul><ul><li>Swivel Coupler / “Pengganding Swivel” </li></ul><ul><li>Putlog Coupler / “Pengganding Putlog” </li></ul><ul><li>Base Plate / </li></ul><ul><li>Split Joint Pin </li></ul><ul><li>Reveal Pin </li></ul><ul><li>Putlog End </li></ul>
  17. 17. STANDARD
  18. 18. <ul><li>Double Coupler </li></ul><ul><li>- the only real loadbearing fitting used in </li></ul><ul><li>scaffolding </li></ul><ul><li>- used to join ledgers to standards </li></ul><ul><li>Swivel Coupler </li></ul><ul><li>- Composed of 2 single coupler riveted </li></ul><ul><li>together so that it is possible to rotate them & </li></ul><ul><li>use them for connecting 2 scaffold tubes at </li></ul><ul><li>any angle. </li></ul><ul><li>c) Putlog Coupler </li></ul><ul><li>- use solely for fixing putlogs/transoms to the </li></ul><ul><li>horizontal ledgers. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>d) Base Plate </li></ul><ul><li>- It is used to distribute the load from the foot of </li></ul><ul><li>a standard on to a sole plate or firm ground. </li></ul><ul><li>e) Split Joint Pin </li></ul><ul><li>- A connection fitting used to joint scaffold tubes </li></ul><ul><li>end to end. </li></ul><ul><li>- A centre bolt expands the 2 segments that grip </li></ul><ul><li>on the bore of the tubes </li></ul><ul><li>f) Reveal Pin </li></ul><ul><li>- Fits into the end of a tube to form an adjustable </li></ul><ul><li>strut </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>g) Putlog End </li></ul><ul><li>- A flat plate that fits on the end of a </li></ul><ul><li>scaffold tube to convert it into a putlog </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Putlog Coupler </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Double Coupler </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Swivel Coupler </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Base Plate For Scaffold </li></ul>
  25. 25. PUTLOG SCAFFOLDS <ul><li>It consists of a single row of uprights or </li></ul><ul><li>standards set away from the wall at a distance </li></ul><ul><li>that will accommodate the required width of the </li></ul><ul><li>working platform. </li></ul><ul><li>The standards are joined together with </li></ul><ul><li>horizontal members called “ledgers” </li></ul><ul><li>The ledgers are tied to the building with cross </li></ul><ul><li>members called putlog. </li></ul><ul><li>It is erected as the building rises & mostly used </li></ul><ul><li>for buildings of traditional brick construction </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Putlog Scaffold tied into the brickwork using </li></ul><ul><li>putlogs or tubes with putlog adaptors </li></ul>
  27. 27. INDEPENDENT SCAFFOLD <ul><li>This scaffold has 2 rows of standards that </li></ul><ul><li>are toed by cross members called transoms. </li></ul><ul><li>This scaffold doesn’t rely upon the building </li></ul><ul><li>for support </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable for use in conjunction with framed </li></ul><ul><li>structures. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Independent Scaffold </li></ul>
  29. 29. OTHER TYPES OF SCAFFOLD <ul><li>Besides pulog scaffold & independent scaffold </li></ul><ul><li>there are other such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Slung Scaffold </li></ul><ul><li>Truss-Out Scaffold </li></ul><ul><li>Suspended Scaffolds </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Tower Scaffold </li></ul><ul><li>Birdcage Scaffolds </li></ul><ul><li>Gantries </li></ul>
  30. 30. MOBILE TOWER SCAFFOLD <ul><li>The mobile scaffold would have small tyres </li></ul><ul><li>under the standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to be easily moved </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly used for things such as painting and plastering, where workers must frequently change position. </li></ul><ul><li>Used mainly by painters & maintenance to </li></ul><ul><li>gain access to ceilings. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Mobile Tower Scaffold </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Mobile Scaffold </li></ul>
  33. 33. Suspended Scaffold <ul><li>It is platform that is suspended by rope or other non-rigid means, from an overhead structure </li></ul><ul><li>There are many types of suspended scaffolds such two point (swing stage), multipoint adjustable, catenary and others. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Two Point (Swing Stage) is hung by ropes or cable connected to stirrups at each end of the platform. It is used by window washers or skyscrapers
  35. 35. <ul><li>Two Point (Swing Stage) </li></ul>
  36. 36. SAFETY PRECAUTION <ul><li>Standard must be on the same level and vertically straight on the base plate. </li></ul><ul><li>The supporting platform wood must be supported properly. </li></ul><ul><li>Working platform must been equipped with </li></ul><ul><li>safety elements such as hand rail. </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffold must be inspected at certain times. </li></ul><ul><li>Use safety tools such as safety boots, safety </li></ul><ul><li>helmet and etc when using platform. </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Supervision of scaffold erection & progress </li></ul><ul><li>/safety reports are undertaken by a suitable </li></ul><ul><li>experience & qualified person that normally occurs: </li></ul><ul><li>a) within the preceding 7 days </li></ul><ul><li>b) after adverse weather conditions that may </li></ul><ul><li>have affected the scaffold’s strength or </li></ul><ul><li>stability </li></ul><ul><li>c) whenever alterations / additions are made to the scaffold </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>The report made after inspection must consist : </li></ul><ul><li>Location & description of scaffold </li></ul><ul><li>Date of inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Result of inspection, statin the condition of </li></ul><ul><li>scaffold </li></ul><ul><li>Signature & office of the person making </li></ul><ul><li>the inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Badly assembled & neglected scaffold have been </li></ul><ul><li>a significant contributory factor to the high </li></ul><ul><li>accident rate associated with the construction </li></ul><ul><li>industry. </li></ul>