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Scaffolding

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  • 1. SCAFFOLDING
  • 2.
    • DEFINITION
    • “ A temporary structure from which persons can gain access to a place in order to carry out building operation”
    • “ A temporary frame usually constructed from steel or aluminium alloy tubes clipped or coupled together to provide a means of access to high-level working areas as well as providing as a safe platform from which to work.”
  • 3. FUNCTION
    • As a working platform
    • - so that the worker can stand on the platform
    • do the work easily & safely
    • As a platform for placing material & logistic
    • needed by the workers to carry out their job
    • As a platform and walking passage
    • - scaffolding support the platform that been
    • used by the worker as their walking path to
    • transport the material & logistic
  • 4.
    • 2 Basic forms of scaffolding are as follows:
    • Putlog Scaffold - Single row of uprights / standards set
    • outside the perimeter of the building. - It’s a partly supported by the structure
    • Independent Scaffolds - It have 2 rows of standards that are tied
    • by cross members called transoms.
  • 5.
    • Among the factors need to be considered
    • during the design process of scaffold are as
    • follows:
    • Easier to be erected
    • Strong
    • Light / Not heavy
    • Safe
    • Suitable
    • Passage Link / Passage connecting to other places
  • 6.
    • Scaffold can be made of the following
    • material:
    • Tubular steel
    • b) Tubular aluminium alloy
    • c) Timber
  • 7. STEEL SCAFFOLD
    • Steel tubes are nearly 3 times heavier than aluminium alloy tubes but are far stronger.
    • Longer span can be used since it deflection is
    • approximately 1/3 of aluminium alloy tubes.
    • There 2 types that is:
    • - Galvanized steel tubes
    • - Ungalvanized steel tubes that need special
    • care (painting, varnishing or oil bath after use)
  • 8.
    • Steel Scaffolding
  • 9. ALUMINIUM SCAFFOLDS
    • Need protective treatment when they are to
    • be used in contact with materials such as
    • damp line, wet cement & sea water to
    • prevent corrosion to the tubes.
    • Coating the tube with bitumastic paint
    • before using it would be a suitable
    • protective treatment.
  • 10.
    • Aluminium Scaffolding
                                                         
  • 11. TIMBER SCAFFOLD
    • Extensively used in the developing country
    • Members are lashed together with wire or
    • rope instead of the coupling fittings used
    • with metal scaffolds.
  • 12.
    • Timber Scaffold
  • 13.
    • Bamboo Scaffolding (In Hong Kong)
  • 14.
    • Bamboo Scaffolding
  • 15. SCAFFOLD ELEMENTS
    • Standards / “Tiang”
    • Ledger / “belebas”
    • Transom / “Pepat”
    • Double Coupler / “Pengganding Berkembar”
    • Swivel Coupler / “Pengganding Swivel”
    • Putlog Coupler / “Pengganding Putlog”
    • Base Plate /
    • Split Joint Pin
    • Reveal Pin
    • Putlog End
  • 16. BASE PLATE DOUBLE COUPLER STANDARD
  • 17. STANDARD
  • 18.
    • Double Coupler
    • - the only real loadbearing fitting used in
    • scaffolding
    • - used to join ledgers to standards
    • Swivel Coupler
    • - Composed of 2 single coupler riveted
    • together so that it is possible to rotate them &
    • use them for connecting 2 scaffold tubes at
    • any angle.
    • c) Putlog Coupler
    • - use solely for fixing putlogs/transoms to the
    • horizontal ledgers.
  • 19.
    • d) Base Plate
    • - It is used to distribute the load from the foot of
    • a standard on to a sole plate or firm ground.
    • e) Split Joint Pin
    • - A connection fitting used to joint scaffold tubes
    • end to end.
    • - A centre bolt expands the 2 segments that grip
    • on the bore of the tubes
    • f) Reveal Pin
    • - Fits into the end of a tube to form an adjustable
    • strut
  • 20.
    • g) Putlog End
    • - A flat plate that fits on the end of a
    • scaffold tube to convert it into a putlog
  • 21.
    • Putlog Coupler
  • 22.
    • Double Coupler
  • 23.
    • Swivel Coupler
  • 24.
    • Base Plate For Scaffold
  • 25. PUTLOG SCAFFOLDS
    • It consists of a single row of uprights or
    • standards set away from the wall at a distance
    • that will accommodate the required width of the
    • working platform.
    • The standards are joined together with
    • horizontal members called “ledgers”
    • The ledgers are tied to the building with cross
    • members called putlog.
    • It is erected as the building rises & mostly used
    • for buildings of traditional brick construction
  • 26.
    • Putlog Scaffold tied into the brickwork using
    • putlogs or tubes with putlog adaptors
  • 27. INDEPENDENT SCAFFOLD
    • This scaffold has 2 rows of standards that
    • are toed by cross members called transoms.
    • This scaffold doesn’t rely upon the building
    • for support
    • Suitable for use in conjunction with framed
    • structures.
  • 28.
    • Independent Scaffold
  • 29. OTHER TYPES OF SCAFFOLD
    • Besides pulog scaffold & independent scaffold
    • there are other such as:
    • Slung Scaffold
    • Truss-Out Scaffold
    • Suspended Scaffolds
    • Mobile Tower Scaffold
    • Birdcage Scaffolds
    • Gantries
  • 30. MOBILE TOWER SCAFFOLD
    • The mobile scaffold would have small tyres
    • under the standards.
    • Designed to be easily moved
    • Commonly used for things such as painting and plastering, where workers must frequently change position.
    • Used mainly by painters & maintenance to
    • gain access to ceilings.
  • 31.
    • Mobile Tower Scaffold
  • 32.
    • Mobile Scaffold
  • 33. Suspended Scaffold
    • It is platform that is suspended by rope or other non-rigid means, from an overhead structure
    • There are many types of suspended scaffolds such two point (swing stage), multipoint adjustable, catenary and others.
  • 34. Two Point (Swing Stage) is hung by ropes or cable connected to stirrups at each end of the platform. It is used by window washers or skyscrapers
  • 35.
    • Two Point (Swing Stage)
  • 36. SAFETY PRECAUTION
    • Standard must be on the same level and vertically straight on the base plate.
    • The supporting platform wood must be supported properly.
    • Working platform must been equipped with
    • safety elements such as hand rail.
    • Scaffold must be inspected at certain times.
    • Use safety tools such as safety boots, safety
    • helmet and etc when using platform.
  • 37.
    • Supervision of scaffold erection & progress
    • /safety reports are undertaken by a suitable
    • experience & qualified person that normally occurs:
    • a) within the preceding 7 days
    • b) after adverse weather conditions that may
    • have affected the scaffold’s strength or
    • stability
    • c) whenever alterations / additions are made to the scaffold
  • 38.
    • The report made after inspection must consist :
    • Location & description of scaffold
    • Date of inspection
    • Result of inspection, statin the condition of
    • scaffold
    • Signature & office of the person making
    • the inspection
    • Badly assembled & neglected scaffold have been
    • a significant contributory factor to the high
    • accident rate associated with the construction
    • industry.