“ A temporary structure from which persons can gain access to a place in order to carry out building operation”
“ A temporary frame usually constructed from steel or aluminium alloy tubes clipped or coupled together to provide a means of access to high-level working areas as well as providing as a safe platform from which to work.”
As a working platform
- so that the worker can stand on the platform
do the work easily & safely
As a platform for placing material & logistic
needed by the workers to carry out their job
As a platform and walking passage
- scaffolding support the platform that been
used by the worker as their walking path to
transport the material & logistic
2 Basic forms of scaffolding are as follows:
Putlog Scaffold - Single row of uprights / standards set
outside the perimeter of the building. - It’s a partly supported by the structure
Independent Scaffolds - It have 2 rows of standards that are tied
by cross members called transoms.
Among the factors need to be considered
during the design process of scaffold are as
Easier to be erected
Light / Not heavy
Passage Link / Passage connecting to other places
Scaffold can be made of the following
b) Tubular aluminium alloy
Steel tubes are nearly 3 times heavier than aluminium alloy tubes but are far stronger.
Longer span can be used since it deflection is
approximately 1/3 of aluminium alloy tubes.
There 2 types that is:
- Galvanized steel tubes
- Ungalvanized steel tubes that need special
care (painting, varnishing or oil bath after use)
Need protective treatment when they are to
be used in contact with materials such as
damp line, wet cement & sea water to
prevent corrosion to the tubes.
Coating the tube with bitumastic paint
before using it would be a suitable
Extensively used in the developing country
Members are lashed together with wire or
rope instead of the coupling fittings used
with metal scaffolds.
Bamboo Scaffolding (In Hong Kong)
Standards / “Tiang”
Ledger / “belebas”
Transom / “Pepat”
Double Coupler / “Pengganding Berkembar”
Swivel Coupler / “Pengganding Swivel”
Putlog Coupler / “Pengganding Putlog”
Base Plate /
Split Joint Pin
BASE PLATE DOUBLE COUPLER STANDARD
- the only real loadbearing fitting used in
- used to join ledgers to standards
- Composed of 2 single coupler riveted
together so that it is possible to rotate them &
use them for connecting 2 scaffold tubes at
c) Putlog Coupler
- use solely for fixing putlogs/transoms to the
d) Base Plate
- It is used to distribute the load from the foot of
a standard on to a sole plate or firm ground.
e) Split Joint Pin
- A connection fitting used to joint scaffold tubes
end to end.
- A centre bolt expands the 2 segments that grip
on the bore of the tubes
f) Reveal Pin
- Fits into the end of a tube to form an adjustable
g) Putlog End
- A flat plate that fits on the end of a
scaffold tube to convert it into a putlog
Base Plate For Scaffold
It consists of a single row of uprights or
standards set away from the wall at a distance
that will accommodate the required width of the
The standards are joined together with
horizontal members called “ledgers”
The ledgers are tied to the building with cross
members called putlog.
It is erected as the building rises & mostly used
for buildings of traditional brick construction
Putlog Scaffold tied into the brickwork using
putlogs or tubes with putlog adaptors
This scaffold has 2 rows of standards that
are toed by cross members called transoms.
This scaffold doesn’t rely upon the building
Suitable for use in conjunction with framed
OTHER TYPES OF SCAFFOLD
Besides pulog scaffold & independent scaffold
there are other such as:
Mobile Tower Scaffold
MOBILE TOWER SCAFFOLD
The mobile scaffold would have small tyres
under the standards.
Designed to be easily moved
Commonly used for things such as painting and plastering, where workers must frequently change position.
Used mainly by painters & maintenance to
gain access to ceilings.
Mobile Tower Scaffold
It is platform that is suspended by rope or other non-rigid means, from an overhead structure
There are many types of suspended scaffolds such two point (swing stage), multipoint adjustable, catenary and others.
Two Point (Swing Stage) is hung by ropes or cable connected to stirrups at each end of the platform. It is used by window washers or skyscrapers
Two Point (Swing Stage)
Standard must be on the same level and vertically straight on the base plate.
The supporting platform wood must be supported properly.
Working platform must been equipped with
safety elements such as hand rail.
Scaffold must be inspected at certain times.
Use safety tools such as safety boots, safety
helmet and etc when using platform.
Supervision of scaffold erection & progress
/safety reports are undertaken by a suitable
experience & qualified person that normally occurs:
a) within the preceding 7 days
b) after adverse weather conditions that may
have affected the scaffold’s strength or
c) whenever alterations / additions are made to the scaffold