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Scaffolding
 

Scaffolding

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    Scaffolding Scaffolding Presentation Transcript

    • SCAFFOLDING
      • DEFINITION
      • “ A temporary structure from which persons can gain access to a place in order to carry out building operation”
      • “ A temporary frame usually constructed from steel or aluminium alloy tubes clipped or coupled together to provide a means of access to high-level working areas as well as providing as a safe platform from which to work.”
    • FUNCTION
      • As a working platform
      • - so that the worker can stand on the platform
      • do the work easily & safely
      • As a platform for placing material & logistic
      • needed by the workers to carry out their job
      • As a platform and walking passage
      • - scaffolding support the platform that been
      • used by the worker as their walking path to
      • transport the material & logistic
      • 2 Basic forms of scaffolding are as follows:
      • Putlog Scaffold - Single row of uprights / standards set
      • outside the perimeter of the building. - It’s a partly supported by the structure
      • Independent Scaffolds - It have 2 rows of standards that are tied
      • by cross members called transoms.
      • Among the factors need to be considered
      • during the design process of scaffold are as
      • follows:
      • Easier to be erected
      • Strong
      • Light / Not heavy
      • Safe
      • Suitable
      • Passage Link / Passage connecting to other places
      • Scaffold can be made of the following
      • material:
      • Tubular steel
      • b) Tubular aluminium alloy
      • c) Timber
    • STEEL SCAFFOLD
      • Steel tubes are nearly 3 times heavier than aluminium alloy tubes but are far stronger.
      • Longer span can be used since it deflection is
      • approximately 1/3 of aluminium alloy tubes.
      • There 2 types that is:
      • - Galvanized steel tubes
      • - Ungalvanized steel tubes that need special
      • care (painting, varnishing or oil bath after use)
      • Steel Scaffolding
    • ALUMINIUM SCAFFOLDS
      • Need protective treatment when they are to
      • be used in contact with materials such as
      • damp line, wet cement & sea water to
      • prevent corrosion to the tubes.
      • Coating the tube with bitumastic paint
      • before using it would be a suitable
      • protective treatment.
      • Aluminium Scaffolding
                                                           
    • TIMBER SCAFFOLD
      • Extensively used in the developing country
      • Members are lashed together with wire or
      • rope instead of the coupling fittings used
      • with metal scaffolds.
      • Timber Scaffold
      • Bamboo Scaffolding (In Hong Kong)
      • Bamboo Scaffolding
    • SCAFFOLD ELEMENTS
      • Standards / “Tiang”
      • Ledger / “belebas”
      • Transom / “Pepat”
      • Double Coupler / “Pengganding Berkembar”
      • Swivel Coupler / “Pengganding Swivel”
      • Putlog Coupler / “Pengganding Putlog”
      • Base Plate /
      • Split Joint Pin
      • Reveal Pin
      • Putlog End
    • BASE PLATE DOUBLE COUPLER STANDARD
    • STANDARD
      • Double Coupler
      • - the only real loadbearing fitting used in
      • scaffolding
      • - used to join ledgers to standards
      • Swivel Coupler
      • - Composed of 2 single coupler riveted
      • together so that it is possible to rotate them &
      • use them for connecting 2 scaffold tubes at
      • any angle.
      • c) Putlog Coupler
      • - use solely for fixing putlogs/transoms to the
      • horizontal ledgers.
      • d) Base Plate
      • - It is used to distribute the load from the foot of
      • a standard on to a sole plate or firm ground.
      • e) Split Joint Pin
      • - A connection fitting used to joint scaffold tubes
      • end to end.
      • - A centre bolt expands the 2 segments that grip
      • on the bore of the tubes
      • f) Reveal Pin
      • - Fits into the end of a tube to form an adjustable
      • strut
      • g) Putlog End
      • - A flat plate that fits on the end of a
      • scaffold tube to convert it into a putlog
      • Putlog Coupler
      • Double Coupler
      • Swivel Coupler
      • Base Plate For Scaffold
    • PUTLOG SCAFFOLDS
      • It consists of a single row of uprights or
      • standards set away from the wall at a distance
      • that will accommodate the required width of the
      • working platform.
      • The standards are joined together with
      • horizontal members called “ledgers”
      • The ledgers are tied to the building with cross
      • members called putlog.
      • It is erected as the building rises & mostly used
      • for buildings of traditional brick construction
      • Putlog Scaffold tied into the brickwork using
      • putlogs or tubes with putlog adaptors
    • INDEPENDENT SCAFFOLD
      • This scaffold has 2 rows of standards that
      • are toed by cross members called transoms.
      • This scaffold doesn’t rely upon the building
      • for support
      • Suitable for use in conjunction with framed
      • structures.
      • Independent Scaffold
    • OTHER TYPES OF SCAFFOLD
      • Besides pulog scaffold & independent scaffold
      • there are other such as:
      • Slung Scaffold
      • Truss-Out Scaffold
      • Suspended Scaffolds
      • Mobile Tower Scaffold
      • Birdcage Scaffolds
      • Gantries
    • MOBILE TOWER SCAFFOLD
      • The mobile scaffold would have small tyres
      • under the standards.
      • Designed to be easily moved
      • Commonly used for things such as painting and plastering, where workers must frequently change position.
      • Used mainly by painters & maintenance to
      • gain access to ceilings.
      • Mobile Tower Scaffold
      • Mobile Scaffold
    • Suspended Scaffold
      • It is platform that is suspended by rope or other non-rigid means, from an overhead structure
      • There are many types of suspended scaffolds such two point (swing stage), multipoint adjustable, catenary and others.
    • Two Point (Swing Stage) is hung by ropes or cable connected to stirrups at each end of the platform. It is used by window washers or skyscrapers
      • Two Point (Swing Stage)
    • SAFETY PRECAUTION
      • Standard must be on the same level and vertically straight on the base plate.
      • The supporting platform wood must be supported properly.
      • Working platform must been equipped with
      • safety elements such as hand rail.
      • Scaffold must be inspected at certain times.
      • Use safety tools such as safety boots, safety
      • helmet and etc when using platform.
      • Supervision of scaffold erection & progress
      • /safety reports are undertaken by a suitable
      • experience & qualified person that normally occurs:
      • a) within the preceding 7 days
      • b) after adverse weather conditions that may
      • have affected the scaffold’s strength or
      • stability
      • c) whenever alterations / additions are made to the scaffold
      • The report made after inspection must consist :
      • Location & description of scaffold
      • Date of inspection
      • Result of inspection, statin the condition of
      • scaffold
      • Signature & office of the person making
      • the inspection
      • Badly assembled & neglected scaffold have been
      • a significant contributory factor to the high
      • accident rate associated with the construction
      • industry.