What Makes Teamwork Work

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This is a presentation I delivered at the 9th National Playwork Conference in March 2011.

This is a presentation I delivered at the 9th National Playwork Conference in March 2011.

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  • 1. What Makes Teamwork WorkDavid StonehouseSenior LecturerTel: 01695 657003E-mail: stonehod@edgehill.ac.uk the University of choice
  • 2. In Small Groups• Build a tower with whatever you have with you.• You can not use furniture or anything already in the room• The tower must be free standing.• The tallest tower wins and must remain upright for longer than 60 secs.the University of choice
  • 3. What Teams and Groups are you in? Within Work? Outside of work?the University of choice
  • 4. My Groups• Family, small. • Running Club• Family, large • Residents Association• Friends • Children’s Nurse• Work. • Union• Within work sub groups X7+the University of choice
  • 5. Playwork Principles (Skills Active, 2004)3. The prime focus and essence of playwork isto support and facilitate the play process and this should inform the development of play policy, strategy, training and education. Team work is about delivering outcomes and bringing about successful change Through all our team working activities we need to keep at the forefront what the prime focus and essence of playwork is and the important role we play within it.the University of choice
  • 6. Playwork Principles (Skills Active, 2004) 4. For playworkers, the play process takesprecedence and playworkers act as advocates for play when engaging with adult led agendas. As advocates for children and young people we need to make sure that our teams are focussed and working effectively for our children and familiesthe University of choice
  • 7. Playwork Principles (Skills Active, 2004)6. The playworkers response to children andyoung people playing is based on a sound up to date knowledge of the play process, and reflective practice. We need to reflect upon the teams we are in and whether or not they are successful in achieving the Playwork principles and children’s right to play within our organisations.the University of choice
  • 8. Teams The word team conjures up ideas and feelings around sports and games. “Each player in a team game has a position and a specific responsibility. The skills of the players are important but the strength of the team depends more specifically on how well the players combine.” (Belbin, 2010a:97)the University of choice
  • 9. A Definition of a Team “a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, set of performance goals and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.” (Herriot & Pemberton, 1999:191)the University of choice
  • 10. Groups & Teams A group can be any number of people who1. Interact with one another2. Are psychologically aware of one another3. Perceive themselves to be a group (Schein, 1988)“It is usually the case that whereas teams need leaders, groups need managers.” (Williams, 1996:15)the University of choice
  • 11. Small vs Large Groups Small Groups, - little structure / organisation required & leadership can be fluid. As they get bigger, - structure & differentiation of roles begins - face-to-face interaction less frequent.the University of choice
  • 12. Larger Groups Larger Groups, - structure & role differentiation vital - subgroups start to emerge - positive leadership vital for successthe University of choice
  • 13. Even Larger Groups 25+• Almost impossible to maintain eye contact• Group interaction more superficial• Increased debate & excitement• More common ground• Loyalty to large group falls• More subgroups form• Less able to use participatory methodsthe University of choice
  • 14. Factors Affecting Participation• Content / task - relevant; interesting; important• Environment - physical e.g. comfort - social e.g. accepting - psychological e.g. non-threatening• Individual’s pre-occupation e.g. distraction• Level of interaction & discussion – does everyone understand• Familiarity – does everyone know each otherthe University of choice
  • 15. The life of a team goes through various stages• Forming – the getting together• Storming – arguing over who does what, who is the leader• Norming – establish rules for working together, both explicit and implicit• Performing – actually working well together to complete the task• Mourning – when the team breaks up (Furnham, 1999:180)the University of choice
  • 16. Teams Are A Question of BalanceNot well-balanced individuals but individuals who balance well with one another. (Belbin, 2010b)the University of choice
  • 17. Belbin’s (2010a) Teams – Nine Roles for a fully effective group1. The Chairman/ • The Plant – Genius, Co-ordinator – imagination, intellect Strong sense of • The Monitor/ objectives Evaluator –• The Shaper – Judgement, discretion Drive, • The Resource challenges Investigator – explore anything newthe University of choice
  • 18. Belbin’s (2010a) Teams – Nine Roles for a fully effective group• The company • The worker/Implementer Completer/Finisher – practical common – capacity for follow sense, hard working. through, perfection.• The Team Worker – • Specialist – promotes team spirit, professional responds to people, expertise on the diplomate. subject matter.the University of choice
  • 19. Belbin’s Teams Continued Too many people doing the same role will lead to imbalance Too few roles and some tasks will not get done In a small team individuals may have to perform more than one role (Belbin,2010b)the University of choice
  • 20. Problems In Teams & How To Overcome Them. The Monopoliser- Ask for a contribution from each person in turn.- “That’s one suggestion; what suggestions do other people have?”the University of choice
  • 21. Problems in Teams The Silent Member- Draw them into the discussion- Challenging the person by asking them what the problem is.the University of choice
  • 22. Problems in Teams The Saboteur- Challenging them sooner than later- Find out what is making the person want to undermine the groupthe University of choice
  • 23. Problems in Teams The Habitual Joker/Clown- Point out what happens to the group’s work or discussion when the person makes light of it- Saying how you and the group feel about such behaviourthe University of choice
  • 24. Problems in Teams The know-it-all - Show to the member how the group feels its work is being affected by this behaviourthe University of choice
  • 25. Eight Critical Success Factors for Teams• A Clear Elevating • A collaborative climate Goal • Standards of excellence• A results-driven • External support & structure recognition• Competent team • Principled leadership members• Unified commitmentthe University of choice
  • 26. Choosing a Leader• Expertise• Style of leadership.• Initiation of work• Workload expectancy• Functional responsibility• Hierarchical status OR Shared Leadershipthe University of choice
  • 27. Helping Teams to be Effective Well managed meetings- Have a designated Chair Person or facilitator- have an agenda including the purpose, topics, lead person for each topic, and time estimates- Start on time and keep to time- Keep minutes- Action Points with individual responsibilities assigned. (Davy & Gallagher, 2006)the University of choice
  • 28. Building Rapport!!! & Team Building• Warm ups• Team member introductions• Games• Team building exercises - outward bound coursesthe University of choice
  • 29. National Occupational Standards – Level 4 (Skills Active, 2010)• PW20: Work with other organisations, agencies and professional. Joint working• A319: Recruit, select and keep colleagues. Talks about skill of team building.• A320: Allocate and monitor the progress and quality of work in your area of responsibility. Team working.• PW17: Develop, manage and review operational plans for play provision. Teams within change.the University of choice
  • 30. Any Questions or Debate?the University of choice
  • 31. BibliographyBelbin, R. M. (2010a) Team Roles at Work. Second Edition, Oxford, Butterworth– Heinemann.Belbin, R. M. (2010b) Management Teams: Why They Succeed or Fail. ThirdEdition, Oxford, Butterworth – Heinemann.Davy, A. & Gallagher, J. (2006) New Playwork: Play and Care for Children 4 – 16.Fourth Edition. London: Thomson Learning.Furnham, A. (1999) ‘Reaping the Benefits of Teamwork’ In: Billsberry, J. (ed) TheEffective manager: Perspectives and Illustrations. Milton Keynes. The OpenUniversity.Herriot, P. & Pemberton, C. (1999) ‘Teams: Old Myths and a New Model’ In:Billsberry, J. (ed) The Effective manager: Perspectives and Illustrations. MiltonKeynes. The Open University.Schein, E.H. (1988) Organizational Psychology. Third Edition, London, PrenticeHall.Skills Active (2004) Playwork Principles.http://www.skillsactive.com/playwork/principles (accessed 8 February 2011)Skills Active (2010) National Occupational Standards- Level 4.http://www.skillsactive.com/training/standards/level_4/playwork (accessed 9February 2011)Williams, H. (1996) The Essence of Managing Groups and Teams. Essex,Pearson Education.the University of choice