Teams and teamwork


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Presentation looking at how teams and team members work.

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Teams and teamwork

  1. 1. Teams And Teamwork David Stonehouse Senior Lecturer
  2. 2. In Small Groups <ul><li>Build a tower with whatever you have with you. </li></ul><ul><li>You can not use furniture or anything already in the room </li></ul><ul><li>The tower must be free standing. </li></ul><ul><li>The tallest tower wins and must remain upright for longer than 60 secs. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What Teams and Groups are you in? Within Work? Outside of work?
  4. 4. My Groups <ul><li>Family, small. </li></ul><ul><li>Family, large </li></ul><ul><li>Friends </li></ul><ul><li>Work. </li></ul><ul><li>Within work sub groups X7+ </li></ul><ul><li>Running Club </li></ul><ul><li>Residents Association </li></ul><ul><li>Children’s Nurse </li></ul><ul><li>Union </li></ul>
  5. 5. Teams The word team conjures up ideas and feelings around sports and games. <ul><li>“ Each player in a team game has a position and a specific responsibility. The skills of the players are important but the strength of the team depends more specifically on how well the players combine.” (Belbin, 2010a:97) </li></ul>
  6. 6. A Definition of a Team <ul><li>“ a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, set of performance goals and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.” (Herriot & Pemberton, 1999:191) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Team Work <ul><li>Team work is about delivering outcomes and bringing about successful change </li></ul><ul><li>Through all our team working activities we need to keep at the forefront what is the prime aim and focus. What are we trying to achieve through the work of this team. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Groups & Teams A group can be any number of people who <ul><li>Interact with one another </li></ul><ul><li>Are psychologically aware of one another </li></ul><ul><li>Perceive themselves to be a group (Schein, 1988) </li></ul><ul><li>“ It is usually the case that whereas teams need leaders, groups need managers.” (Williams, 1996:15) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Small vs Large Groups <ul><li>Small Groups, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>little structure / organisation required & leadership can be fluid. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As they get bigger, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- structure & differentiation of roles begins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>face-to-face interaction less frequent. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Larger Groups <ul><li>Larger Groups, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- structure & role differentiation vital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>subgroups start to emerge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>positive leadership vital for success </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Even Larger Groups 25+ <ul><li>Almost impossible to maintain eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Group interaction more superficial </li></ul><ul><li>Increased debate & excitement </li></ul><ul><li>More common ground </li></ul><ul><li>Loyalty to large group falls </li></ul><ul><li>More subgroups form </li></ul><ul><li>Less able to use participatory methods </li></ul>
  12. 12. Factors Affecting Participation <ul><li>Content / task </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- relevant; interesting; important </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- physical e.g. comfort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- social e.g. accepting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- psychological e.g. non-threatening </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individual’s pre-occupation e.g. distraction </li></ul><ul><li>Level of interaction & discussion – does everyone understand </li></ul><ul><li>Familiarity – does everyone know each other </li></ul>
  13. 13. The life of a team goes through various stages <ul><li>Forming – the getting together </li></ul><ul><li>Storming – arguing over who does what, who is the leader </li></ul><ul><li>Norming – establish rules for working together, both explicit and implicit </li></ul><ul><li>Performing – actually working well together to complete the task </li></ul><ul><li>Mourning – when the team breaks up (Tuckman, 1965; Tuckman and Jensen, 1977) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Teams Are A Question of Balance <ul><li>Not well-balanced individuals but individuals who balance well with one another. (Belbin, 2010b) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Belbin’s (2010a) Teams – Nine Roles for a fully effective group <ul><li>The Chairman/ </li></ul><ul><li>Co-ordinator – Strong sense of objectives </li></ul><ul><li>The Shaper – Drive, challenges </li></ul><ul><li>The Plant – Genius, imagination, intellect </li></ul><ul><li>The Monitor/ Evaluator – Judgement, discretion </li></ul><ul><li>The Resource Investigator – explore anything new </li></ul>
  16. 16. Belbin’s (2010a) Teams – Nine Roles for a fully effective group <ul><li>The company worker/Implementer – practical common sense, hard working. </li></ul><ul><li>The Team Worker – promotes team spirit, responds to people, diplomate. </li></ul><ul><li>The Completer/Finisher – capacity for follow through, perfection. </li></ul><ul><li>Specialist – professional expertise on the subject matter. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Belbin’s Teams Continued <ul><li>Too many people doing the same role will lead to imbalance </li></ul><ul><li>Too few roles and some tasks will not get done </li></ul><ul><li>In a small team individuals may have to perform more than one role (Belbin,2010b) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Problems In Teams & How To Overcome Them. The Monopoliser <ul><li>Ask for a contribution from each person in turn. </li></ul><ul><li>“ That’s one suggestion; what suggestions do other people have?” </li></ul>
  19. 19. Problems in Teams The Silent Member <ul><li>Draw them into the discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Challenging the person by asking them what the problem is. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Problems in Teams The Saboteur <ul><li>Challenging them sooner than later </li></ul><ul><li>Find out what is making the person want to undermine the group </li></ul>
  21. 21. Problems in Teams The Habitual Joker/Clown <ul><li>Point out what happens to the group’s work or discussion when the person makes light of it </li></ul><ul><li>Saying how you and the group feel about such behaviour </li></ul>
  22. 22. Problems in Teams The know-it-all <ul><li>- Show to the member how the group feels its work is being affected by this behaviour </li></ul>
  23. 23. Eight Critical Success Factors for Teams <ul><li>A Clear Elevating Goal </li></ul><ul><li>A results-driven structure </li></ul><ul><li>Competent team members </li></ul><ul><li>Unified commitment </li></ul><ul><li>A collaborative climate </li></ul><ul><li>Standards of excellence </li></ul><ul><li>External support & recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Principled leadership </li></ul>
  24. 24. Choosing a Leader <ul><li>Expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Style of leadership. </li></ul><ul><li>Initiation of work </li></ul><ul><li>Workload expectancy </li></ul><ul><li>Functional responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical status </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>Shared Leadership </li></ul>
  25. 25. Helping Teams to be Effective Well managed meetings <ul><li>Have a designated Chair Person or facilitator </li></ul><ul><li>have an agenda including the purpose, topics, lead person for each topic, and time estimates </li></ul><ul><li>Start on time and keep to time </li></ul><ul><li>Keep minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Action Points with individual responsibilities assigned. (Davy & Gallagher, 2006) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Building Rapport!!! & Team Building <ul><li>Warm ups </li></ul><ul><li>Team member introductions </li></ul><ul><li>Games </li></ul><ul><li>Team building exercises - outward bound courses </li></ul>
  27. 27. Bibliography <ul><li>Belbin, R. M. (2010a) Team Roles at Work. Second Edition, Oxford, Butterworth – Heinemann. </li></ul><ul><li>Belbin, R. M. (2010b) Management Teams: Why They Succeed or Fail. Third Edition, Oxford, Butterworth – Heinemann. </li></ul><ul><li>Davy, A. & Gallagher, J. (2006) New Playwork: Play and Care for Children 4 – 16. Fourth Edition. London: Thomson Learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Herriot, P. & Pemberton, C. (1999) ‘Teams: Old Myths and a New Model’ In: Billsberry, J. (ed) The Effective manager: Perspectives and Illustrations. Milton Keynes. The Open University. </li></ul><ul><li>Schein, E.H. (1988) Organizational Psychology. Third Edition, London, Prentice Hall. </li></ul><ul><li>Tuckman BW (1965) Development Sequence in Small Groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Bulletin 63(6): 384–99 </li></ul><ul><li>Tuckman BW, Jensen MC (1977) Stages of small group development </li></ul><ul><li>revisited. Group and Organizational Studies 2: 419–27 </li></ul><ul><li>Williams, H. (1996) The Essence of Managing Groups and Teams. Essex, Pearson Education. </li></ul>