Motivational & transformational leadership
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Motivational & transformational leadership

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Motivational & transformational leadership Motivational & transformational leadership Presentation Transcript

  • David Stonehouse Senior Lecturer MOTIVATIONAL / TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP
  • What is Leadership?
    • “… ..getting people to do willingly, that which their instincts teach them not to.” (Mullins: 2009)
  •  
  • Scotland Forever!! Charge of the Scots Greys
    • 107 riders killed, 97 wounded, and 228 horses (of the original 416) lost
  • Transformational Style Of Leadership
    • This style was originally recognised by Burns (1978).
    • “ is a process of engendering higher levels of motivation and commitment among followers.” (Mullins, 2007)
    • Actively develop relationships with their co-workers.
    • The work place & meaning of work are transformed
    • Employees pursue active goals.
  • Transformational Leaders
    • “ Act as mentors to their followers by encouraging learning, achievement, and individual development.
    • They provide meaning, act as role models, provide challenges, evoke emotions, and foster a climate of trust.”
    • (Harms and Crede, 2010;6)
  • Transformational Leadership
    • A process of engendering higher levels of motivation and commitment among followers. The emphasis is on generating a vision for the organisation and the leader’s ability to appeal to higher ideals and values of followers, and creating a feeling of justice, loyalty and trust. In the organisational sense, transformational leadership is about transforming the performance or fortunes of an area of the organisation.
  • Transformational Leadership – Four Basic Components.
    • Idealised Influence – Charisma of the leader. Are they perceived as being confident and committed. Do they engender respect and admiration from their followers;
    • Leader aims for the employee to
    • “ transcend their own self-interest for the sake of the team, department, or organisation”
    • (Daft and Marcic, 2009:427)
  • Transformational Leadership – Four Basic Components.
    • Inspirational Motivation – behaviour of the leader provides meaning & challenge to the workers. The leader sets challenging goals but ones which are attainable.
    • “ inspirationally motivate employees by clearly articulating an appealing vision of the organisation’s mission and future.”
    • (Wright and Pandey, 2010:75)
  • Transformational Leadership – Four Basic Components.
    • Intellectual Stimulation – promotes intelligence & new ways of working. Encourages creative thinking, risk taking, to participate at an intellectual level and for followers to challenge their own assumptions.
    • Individualised Consideration – Leader has special concern for workers growth & development. Through mentoring, empowering, encouraging and being in frequent contact.
  • Transformational Leaders
    • Have a clear collective vision
    • & they manage to communicate it effectively to all employees.
    • Trust their subordinates and leave them space to breathe and grow.
    • Stimulate employees to be more innovative.
  • Transformational Leaders
    • Actively develop relationships with their co-workers, who become more active, motivated & inspired
    • The work place & meaning of work are ‘transformed.’
    • Employees pursue organisational goals.
  • Guidelines for Leaders
    • Articulate a clear and appealing vision.
    • Explain how the vision can be attained.
    • Act confident and optimistic.
    • Express confidence in followers.
    • Use dramatic, symbolic actions to emphasize key values.
    • Lead by example.
    • (Yukl, 2010)
  • Battle of Agincourt 25 October 1415 (Saint Crispin’s Day)                                               
  • St Crispin’s Day Speech From Henry V
    • He was present
    • He was flexible
    • He was honest
    • He was fair
    • He was involved
    • He was clear
    • He was timely
  • Key Qualities
    • Knowledge & skill,
    • Effective communication of ideas,
    • Confidence,
    • Commitment,
    • Energy,
    • Insight into the needs of others
  • Additional Qualities
    • Ability to listen
    • Ability to reserve judgement
    • Give direct & positive feedback
    • Recognise individual values through respect for others
    • & use humour.
  • “ The Dark Side of Charisma” Yukl (2010)
    • The leader may take unnecessary risks
    • Or deny problems or failures as they occur
    • People over rely upon the leader, accepting everything they say and do to be correct.
    • No-one feels able to question decisions or voice opposition
    • Yukl (2010:275) states Leaders demonstrating this failing may “make more risky decisions that can result in a serious failure.”
  • Examples of Good Transformational Leaders
    • Sir Winston Churchill
    • Sir John Harvey-Jones
    • Anita Roddick
    • Richard Branson
    • Sir Chris Bonington
    • Dr. Martin Luther King
    • President John F. Kennedy
  • What Motivates You?
  • Work Motivation
    • Economic Rewards (Extrinsic motivation) - pay, job security, benefits.
    • Intrinsic Satisfaction – Psychological rewards, interest in the job itself
    • Social Relationships – friendship’s, group working, status.
  • A Small Number of Theories Of Motivation
    • Physical Needs
    • Psychological Needs
    • Force-Field Theory
    • Expectancy-Value Theory
    • Equity Theory – (Adams)
    • Goal Theory – (Locke)
    • Motivational-Hygiene theory – (Herzberg)
    • Sociological Influences
    • Human Resources Model (X,Y, & Z) – (McGregor)
    • There are many more!!!!!
  • Theories Of Motivation - Physical Needs
    • Working conditions, are staff able to satisfy basic needs at work, hunger, thirst or sleep.
    • Also the realisation that the leader is aware of any problems & is actually seeking out interventions can be motivational
  • Theories Of Motivation - Psychological Needs
    • People can be expected to perform better to the extent that goals are difficult, specific & attractive.
  • Theories Of Motivation - Force-Field Theory
    • This refers to the extent that people can view the ‘big picture,’ giving them an opportunity to gain an insight into the problem.
  • Theories Of Motivation - Expectancy-Value Theory
    • People will choose the behaviour with the largest combination of expected success & value.
    • Persons own capability of meting a desired goal
    • The value of the goal
    • The probability that the goal will be fully realised
    • The cost (be it personal or financial)
    • The risk (be it esteem, status or safety)
  • Theories Of Motivation Equity Theory – Adams.
    • This states that a person’s motivation is affected by whether that person feels they are being treated fairly in comparison with other people.
  • Theories Of Motivation Goal Theory –Locke
    • A person’s goals or intentions play an important part in a person’s behaviour.
    • Manager needs to set challenging but realistic goals. Involve employees in goal setting and provide feedback.
  • Theories Of Motivation - Motivation-Hygiene Theory (Herzberg)
    • Two-Factor Theory.
    • Hygiene or maintenance Factors
    • Salary, job security, working conditions, supervision, policy and administration and interpersonal relationships.
    • Motivators or Growth factors
    • Personal growth and development, nature of the work, responsibility, recognition and sense of achievement.
    • Stresses the importance of job enrichment to improve the meaningfulness of assignments, perceived significance & worker autonomy.
  • Theories Of Motivation - Sociological Influences
    • The need to be liked by others & a sense of belonging to a select group may fulfil needs of affiliation or self-esteem.
  • Theories Of Motivation - Human Resources Model (X,Y & Z) Douglas McGregor (1960)
    • Theory X – emphases external rewards,
    • workers controlled through rewards and
    • Punishment.
    • Theory Y – workers derive satisfaction
    • from the work itself.
    • Theory Z – Combination of the X & Y.
  • Summary Of Motivation
    • Motivation is the basis for human behaviour
    • In this day of rapid change the need to maintain a creative, committed & productive workplace is very important
    • The hallmark of leadership is an ability to motivate others to develop & achieve established goals & a sense of personal accomplishment & satisfaction.
  • Why Bother With Theories?
    • The manager / leader needs to be aware of what motivates their staff and what theories of motivation there are, so as best to apply these to their individual work situations.
    • (Mullins, 2007)
  • Worst Motivational Speech Ever!!!
  • Bibliography
    • Daft, R.L. and Marcic, D. (2009) Understanding Management. Sixth Edition.
    • United States: South-Western Cengage Learning.
    • Harms, P.D. & Crede, M. (2010) ‘Emotional Intelligence and
    • Transformational and Transactional Leadership: A Meta-Analysis. ‘ Journal of
    • Leadership & Organisational Studies. 17 (1) 5-17.
    • Mullins, L.J. (2007) Management and Organisational Behaviour.
    • Eighth Edition. London: Financial Times Prentice Hall.
    • Wright, B. E. & Pandey, S. K. (2010) ‘Transformational Leadership in the
    • Public Sector: Does Structure Matter?’ Journal of Public Administration
    • Research and Theory. 20: Pp. 75-89.
    • Yukl, G. (2010) Leadership in Organizations. Seventh Edition. New
    • Jersey:Pearson.