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Motivational & transformational leadership
 

Motivational & transformational leadership

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    Motivational & transformational leadership Motivational & transformational leadership Presentation Transcript

    • David Stonehouse Senior Lecturer MOTIVATIONAL / TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP
    • What is Leadership?
      • “… ..getting people to do willingly, that which their instincts teach them not to.” (Mullins: 2009)
    •  
    • Scotland Forever!! Charge of the Scots Greys
      • 107 riders killed, 97 wounded, and 228 horses (of the original 416) lost
    • Transformational Style Of Leadership
      • This style was originally recognised by Burns (1978).
      • “ is a process of engendering higher levels of motivation and commitment among followers.” (Mullins, 2007)
      • Actively develop relationships with their co-workers.
      • The work place & meaning of work are transformed
      • Employees pursue active goals.
    • Transformational Leaders
      • “ Act as mentors to their followers by encouraging learning, achievement, and individual development.
      • They provide meaning, act as role models, provide challenges, evoke emotions, and foster a climate of trust.”
      • (Harms and Crede, 2010;6)
    • Transformational Leadership
      • A process of engendering higher levels of motivation and commitment among followers. The emphasis is on generating a vision for the organisation and the leader’s ability to appeal to higher ideals and values of followers, and creating a feeling of justice, loyalty and trust. In the organisational sense, transformational leadership is about transforming the performance or fortunes of an area of the organisation.
    • Transformational Leadership – Four Basic Components.
      • Idealised Influence – Charisma of the leader. Are they perceived as being confident and committed. Do they engender respect and admiration from their followers;
      • Leader aims for the employee to
      • “ transcend their own self-interest for the sake of the team, department, or organisation”
      • (Daft and Marcic, 2009:427)
    • Transformational Leadership – Four Basic Components.
      • Inspirational Motivation – behaviour of the leader provides meaning & challenge to the workers. The leader sets challenging goals but ones which are attainable.
      • “ inspirationally motivate employees by clearly articulating an appealing vision of the organisation’s mission and future.”
      • (Wright and Pandey, 2010:75)
    • Transformational Leadership – Four Basic Components.
      • Intellectual Stimulation – promotes intelligence & new ways of working. Encourages creative thinking, risk taking, to participate at an intellectual level and for followers to challenge their own assumptions.
      • Individualised Consideration – Leader has special concern for workers growth & development. Through mentoring, empowering, encouraging and being in frequent contact.
    • Transformational Leaders
      • Have a clear collective vision
      • & they manage to communicate it effectively to all employees.
      • Trust their subordinates and leave them space to breathe and grow.
      • Stimulate employees to be more innovative.
    • Transformational Leaders
      • Actively develop relationships with their co-workers, who become more active, motivated & inspired
      • The work place & meaning of work are ‘transformed.’
      • Employees pursue organisational goals.
    • Guidelines for Leaders
      • Articulate a clear and appealing vision.
      • Explain how the vision can be attained.
      • Act confident and optimistic.
      • Express confidence in followers.
      • Use dramatic, symbolic actions to emphasize key values.
      • Lead by example.
      • (Yukl, 2010)
    • Battle of Agincourt 25 October 1415 (Saint Crispin’s Day)                                               
    • St Crispin’s Day Speech From Henry V
      • He was present
      • He was flexible
      • He was honest
      • He was fair
      • He was involved
      • He was clear
      • He was timely
    • Key Qualities
      • Knowledge & skill,
      • Effective communication of ideas,
      • Confidence,
      • Commitment,
      • Energy,
      • Insight into the needs of others
    • Additional Qualities
      • Ability to listen
      • Ability to reserve judgement
      • Give direct & positive feedback
      • Recognise individual values through respect for others
      • & use humour.
    • “ The Dark Side of Charisma” Yukl (2010)
      • The leader may take unnecessary risks
      • Or deny problems or failures as they occur
      • People over rely upon the leader, accepting everything they say and do to be correct.
      • No-one feels able to question decisions or voice opposition
      • Yukl (2010:275) states Leaders demonstrating this failing may “make more risky decisions that can result in a serious failure.”
    • Examples of Good Transformational Leaders
      • Sir Winston Churchill
      • Sir John Harvey-Jones
      • Anita Roddick
      • Richard Branson
      • Sir Chris Bonington
      • Dr. Martin Luther King
      • President John F. Kennedy
    • What Motivates You?
    • Work Motivation
      • Economic Rewards (Extrinsic motivation) - pay, job security, benefits.
      • Intrinsic Satisfaction – Psychological rewards, interest in the job itself
      • Social Relationships – friendship’s, group working, status.
    • A Small Number of Theories Of Motivation
      • Physical Needs
      • Psychological Needs
      • Force-Field Theory
      • Expectancy-Value Theory
      • Equity Theory – (Adams)
      • Goal Theory – (Locke)
      • Motivational-Hygiene theory – (Herzberg)
      • Sociological Influences
      • Human Resources Model (X,Y, & Z) – (McGregor)
      • There are many more!!!!!
    • Theories Of Motivation - Physical Needs
      • Working conditions, are staff able to satisfy basic needs at work, hunger, thirst or sleep.
      • Also the realisation that the leader is aware of any problems & is actually seeking out interventions can be motivational
    • Theories Of Motivation - Psychological Needs
      • People can be expected to perform better to the extent that goals are difficult, specific & attractive.
    • Theories Of Motivation - Force-Field Theory
      • This refers to the extent that people can view the ‘big picture,’ giving them an opportunity to gain an insight into the problem.
    • Theories Of Motivation - Expectancy-Value Theory
      • People will choose the behaviour with the largest combination of expected success & value.
      • Persons own capability of meting a desired goal
      • The value of the goal
      • The probability that the goal will be fully realised
      • The cost (be it personal or financial)
      • The risk (be it esteem, status or safety)
    • Theories Of Motivation Equity Theory – Adams.
      • This states that a person’s motivation is affected by whether that person feels they are being treated fairly in comparison with other people.
    • Theories Of Motivation Goal Theory –Locke
      • A person’s goals or intentions play an important part in a person’s behaviour.
      • Manager needs to set challenging but realistic goals. Involve employees in goal setting and provide feedback.
    • Theories Of Motivation - Motivation-Hygiene Theory (Herzberg)
      • Two-Factor Theory.
      • Hygiene or maintenance Factors
      • Salary, job security, working conditions, supervision, policy and administration and interpersonal relationships.
      • Motivators or Growth factors
      • Personal growth and development, nature of the work, responsibility, recognition and sense of achievement.
      • Stresses the importance of job enrichment to improve the meaningfulness of assignments, perceived significance & worker autonomy.
    • Theories Of Motivation - Sociological Influences
      • The need to be liked by others & a sense of belonging to a select group may fulfil needs of affiliation or self-esteem.
    • Theories Of Motivation - Human Resources Model (X,Y & Z) Douglas McGregor (1960)
      • Theory X – emphases external rewards,
      • workers controlled through rewards and
      • Punishment.
      • Theory Y – workers derive satisfaction
      • from the work itself.
      • Theory Z – Combination of the X & Y.
    • Summary Of Motivation
      • Motivation is the basis for human behaviour
      • In this day of rapid change the need to maintain a creative, committed & productive workplace is very important
      • The hallmark of leadership is an ability to motivate others to develop & achieve established goals & a sense of personal accomplishment & satisfaction.
    • Why Bother With Theories?
      • The manager / leader needs to be aware of what motivates their staff and what theories of motivation there are, so as best to apply these to their individual work situations.
      • (Mullins, 2007)
    • Worst Motivational Speech Ever!!!
    • Bibliography
      • Daft, R.L. and Marcic, D. (2009) Understanding Management. Sixth Edition.
      • United States: South-Western Cengage Learning.
      • Harms, P.D. & Crede, M. (2010) ‘Emotional Intelligence and
      • Transformational and Transactional Leadership: A Meta-Analysis. ‘ Journal of
      • Leadership & Organisational Studies. 17 (1) 5-17.
      • Mullins, L.J. (2007) Management and Organisational Behaviour.
      • Eighth Edition. London: Financial Times Prentice Hall.
      • Wright, B. E. & Pandey, S. K. (2010) ‘Transformational Leadership in the
      • Public Sector: Does Structure Matter?’ Journal of Public Administration
      • Research and Theory. 20: Pp. 75-89.
      • Yukl, G. (2010) Leadership in Organizations. Seventh Edition. New
      • Jersey:Pearson.