Motivational & transformational leadership

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Motivational & transformational leadership

  1. 1. David Stonehouse Senior Lecturer MOTIVATIONAL / TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP
  2. 2. What is Leadership? <ul><li>“… ..getting people to do willingly, that which their instincts teach them not to.” (Mullins: 2009) </li></ul>
  3. 4. Scotland Forever!! Charge of the Scots Greys <ul><li>107 riders killed, 97 wounded, and 228 horses (of the original 416) lost </li></ul>
  4. 5. Transformational Style Of Leadership <ul><li>This style was originally recognised by Burns (1978). </li></ul><ul><li>“ is a process of engendering higher levels of motivation and commitment among followers.” (Mullins, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Actively develop relationships with their co-workers. </li></ul><ul><li>The work place & meaning of work are transformed </li></ul><ul><li>Employees pursue active goals. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Transformational Leaders <ul><li>“ Act as mentors to their followers by encouraging learning, achievement, and individual development. </li></ul><ul><li>They provide meaning, act as role models, provide challenges, evoke emotions, and foster a climate of trust.” </li></ul><ul><li> (Harms and Crede, 2010;6) </li></ul>
  6. 7. Transformational Leadership <ul><li>A process of engendering higher levels of motivation and commitment among followers. The emphasis is on generating a vision for the organisation and the leader’s ability to appeal to higher ideals and values of followers, and creating a feeling of justice, loyalty and trust. In the organisational sense, transformational leadership is about transforming the performance or fortunes of an area of the organisation. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Transformational Leadership – Four Basic Components. <ul><li>Idealised Influence – Charisma of the leader. Are they perceived as being confident and committed. Do they engender respect and admiration from their followers; </li></ul><ul><li>Leader aims for the employee to </li></ul><ul><li>“ transcend their own self-interest for the sake of the team, department, or organisation” </li></ul><ul><li> (Daft and Marcic, 2009:427) </li></ul>
  8. 9. Transformational Leadership – Four Basic Components. <ul><li>Inspirational Motivation – behaviour of the leader provides meaning & challenge to the workers. The leader sets challenging goals but ones which are attainable. </li></ul><ul><li>“ inspirationally motivate employees by clearly articulating an appealing vision of the organisation’s mission and future.” </li></ul><ul><li> (Wright and Pandey, 2010:75) </li></ul>
  9. 10. Transformational Leadership – Four Basic Components. <ul><li>Intellectual Stimulation – promotes intelligence & new ways of working. Encourages creative thinking, risk taking, to participate at an intellectual level and for followers to challenge their own assumptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Individualised Consideration – Leader has special concern for workers growth & development. Through mentoring, empowering, encouraging and being in frequent contact. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Transformational Leaders <ul><li>Have a clear collective vision </li></ul><ul><li>& they manage to communicate it effectively to all employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Trust their subordinates and leave them space to breathe and grow. </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulate employees to be more innovative. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Transformational Leaders <ul><li>Actively develop relationships with their co-workers, who become more active, motivated & inspired </li></ul><ul><li>The work place & meaning of work are ‘transformed.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Employees pursue organisational goals. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Guidelines for Leaders <ul><li>Articulate a clear and appealing vision. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how the vision can be attained. </li></ul><ul><li>Act confident and optimistic. </li></ul><ul><li>Express confidence in followers. </li></ul><ul><li>Use dramatic, symbolic actions to emphasize key values. </li></ul><ul><li>Lead by example. </li></ul><ul><li>(Yukl, 2010) </li></ul>
  13. 14. Battle of Agincourt 25 October 1415 (Saint Crispin’s Day)                                               
  14. 15. St Crispin’s Day Speech From Henry V <ul><li>He was present </li></ul><ul><li>He was flexible </li></ul><ul><li>He was honest </li></ul><ul><li>He was fair </li></ul><ul><li>He was involved </li></ul><ul><li>He was clear </li></ul><ul><li>He was timely </li></ul>
  15. 16. Key Qualities <ul><li>Knowledge & skill, </li></ul><ul><li>Effective communication of ideas, </li></ul><ul><li>Confidence, </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment, </li></ul><ul><li>Energy, </li></ul><ul><li>Insight into the needs of others </li></ul>
  16. 17. Additional Qualities <ul><li>Ability to listen </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to reserve judgement </li></ul><ul><li>Give direct & positive feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Recognise individual values through respect for others </li></ul><ul><li>& use humour. </li></ul>
  17. 18. “ The Dark Side of Charisma” Yukl (2010) <ul><li>The leader may take unnecessary risks </li></ul><ul><li>Or deny problems or failures as they occur </li></ul><ul><li>People over rely upon the leader, accepting everything they say and do to be correct. </li></ul><ul><li>No-one feels able to question decisions or voice opposition </li></ul><ul><li>Yukl (2010:275) states Leaders demonstrating this failing may “make more risky decisions that can result in a serious failure.” </li></ul>
  18. 19. Examples of Good Transformational Leaders <ul><li>Sir Winston Churchill </li></ul><ul><li>Sir John Harvey-Jones </li></ul><ul><li>Anita Roddick </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Branson </li></ul><ul><li>Sir Chris Bonington </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Martin Luther King </li></ul><ul><li>President John F. Kennedy </li></ul>
  19. 20. What Motivates You?
  20. 21. Work Motivation <ul><li>Economic Rewards (Extrinsic motivation) - pay, job security, benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic Satisfaction – Psychological rewards, interest in the job itself </li></ul><ul><li>Social Relationships – friendship’s, group working, status. </li></ul>
  21. 22. A Small Number of Theories Of Motivation <ul><li>Physical Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Force-Field Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Expectancy-Value Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Equity Theory – (Adams) </li></ul><ul><li>Goal Theory – (Locke) </li></ul><ul><li>Motivational-Hygiene theory – (Herzberg) </li></ul><ul><li>Sociological Influences </li></ul><ul><li>Human Resources Model (X,Y, & Z) – (McGregor) </li></ul><ul><li>There are many more!!!!! </li></ul>
  22. 23. Theories Of Motivation - Physical Needs <ul><li>Working conditions, are staff able to satisfy basic needs at work, hunger, thirst or sleep. </li></ul><ul><li>Also the realisation that the leader is aware of any problems & is actually seeking out interventions can be motivational </li></ul>
  23. 24. Theories Of Motivation - Psychological Needs <ul><li>People can be expected to perform better to the extent that goals are difficult, specific & attractive. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Theories Of Motivation - Force-Field Theory <ul><li>This refers to the extent that people can view the ‘big picture,’ giving them an opportunity to gain an insight into the problem. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Theories Of Motivation - Expectancy-Value Theory <ul><li>People will choose the behaviour with the largest combination of expected success & value. </li></ul><ul><li>Persons own capability of meting a desired goal </li></ul><ul><li>The value of the goal </li></ul><ul><li>The probability that the goal will be fully realised </li></ul><ul><li>The cost (be it personal or financial) </li></ul><ul><li>The risk (be it esteem, status or safety) </li></ul>
  26. 27. Theories Of Motivation Equity Theory – Adams. <ul><li>This states that a person’s motivation is affected by whether that person feels they are being treated fairly in comparison with other people. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Theories Of Motivation Goal Theory –Locke <ul><li>A person’s goals or intentions play an important part in a person’s behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Manager needs to set challenging but realistic goals. Involve employees in goal setting and provide feedback. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Theories Of Motivation - Motivation-Hygiene Theory (Herzberg) <ul><li>Two-Factor Theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Hygiene or maintenance Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Salary, job security, working conditions, supervision, policy and administration and interpersonal relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivators or Growth factors </li></ul><ul><li>Personal growth and development, nature of the work, responsibility, recognition and sense of achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>Stresses the importance of job enrichment to improve the meaningfulness of assignments, perceived significance & worker autonomy. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Theories Of Motivation - Sociological Influences <ul><li>The need to be liked by others & a sense of belonging to a select group may fulfil needs of affiliation or self-esteem. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Theories Of Motivation - Human Resources Model (X,Y & Z) Douglas McGregor (1960) <ul><li>Theory X – emphases external rewards, </li></ul><ul><li>workers controlled through rewards and </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment. </li></ul><ul><li>Theory Y – workers derive satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>from the work itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Theory Z – Combination of the X & Y. </li></ul>
  31. 32. Summary Of Motivation <ul><li>Motivation is the basis for human behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>In this day of rapid change the need to maintain a creative, committed & productive workplace is very important </li></ul><ul><li>The hallmark of leadership is an ability to motivate others to develop & achieve established goals & a sense of personal accomplishment & satisfaction. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Why Bother With Theories? <ul><li>The manager / leader needs to be aware of what motivates their staff and what theories of motivation there are, so as best to apply these to their individual work situations. </li></ul><ul><li> (Mullins, 2007) </li></ul>
  33. 34. Worst Motivational Speech Ever!!!
  34. 35. Bibliography <ul><li>Daft, R.L. and Marcic, D. (2009) Understanding Management. Sixth Edition. </li></ul><ul><li>United States: South-Western Cengage Learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Harms, P.D. & Crede, M. (2010) ‘Emotional Intelligence and </li></ul><ul><li>Transformational and Transactional Leadership: A Meta-Analysis. ‘ Journal of </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership & Organisational Studies. 17 (1) 5-17. </li></ul><ul><li>Mullins, L.J. (2007) Management and Organisational Behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Eighth Edition. London: Financial Times Prentice Hall. </li></ul><ul><li>Wright, B. E. & Pandey, S. K. (2010) ‘Transformational Leadership in the </li></ul><ul><li>Public Sector: Does Structure Matter?’ Journal of Public Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Research and Theory. 20: Pp. 75-89. </li></ul><ul><li>Yukl, G. (2010) Leadership in Organizations. Seventh Edition. New </li></ul><ul><li>Jersey:Pearson. </li></ul>

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