Way of mapping out the forces at work in any situation which are keeping things as they are. It can be used to diagnose the current situation in a clear and systematic way which shows how the situation may be changed. Idea underlying the technique is that any situation which appears stable is in fact in a state of dynamic tension between the forces for change and the forces resisting change. In order to move the situation in the desired direction the main aim is to reduce or remove restraining or blocking forces. Identify forces for and against – people, resources, time, technology, politics List key forces for reducing restraining forces and maximising promoting forces.
Comfortable Loss of control or power Not their idea Don’t believe in it – ideological Fear Feel criticised Process – lack of involvement or consultation Too much change Magnitude – may not be able to imagine the change
Change Management For Playworkers
Change Management ForPlayworkersDavid StonehouseSenior LecturerTel: 01695 657003E-mail: email@example.com the University of choice
Leaders in Change. “It is the leader who is the innovator, who is proactive and a motivator. They have a vision of how things could be and the drive and commitment to bring that vision to fulfilment” (Stonehouse, 2011:10) “managers cope with the complexities and results of change while leaders inspire and initiate change” (Smith and Langston,1999:6)the University of choice
Change Theories / Tools■ Planned Change ■ The Change■ Emergent Equation Approach ■ Comfort Zone■ Kurt Lewin ■ PDSA Cycle■ Rosabeth Moss ■ Process mapping Kanter ■ Seven Steps For■ Resistance to Improvement Changethe University of choice
Change is the constant & stability the exception. “A round man cannot be expectedto fit into a square hole right away. He must have time to modify his shape.” Mark Twainthe University of choice
“Change is not the same as transition. Change is situational: the new site, the new structure, the new team, the new role , the new procedure. Transition is the psychological process people go through to come to terms with the new situation. Remember that change is external and transition is internal.” William Bridgesthe University of choice
Ten Commandments For Executing Change (Kanter et al, 1992)1. Analyse the organisation & its need for change2. Create a shared vision & a common direction3. Separate from the past4. Create a sense of urgency5. Support a strong leader role6. Line up political sponsorship7. Craft an implementation plan8. Develop enabling structures9. Communicate, involve people & be honest10. Reinforce & institutionalise change.the University of choice
Planned Change■ Cyclical process involving diagnosis, action & evaluation, and further action & evaluation■ Triggered by the need to respond to new challenges or opportunities presented by the external environment, or in anticipation of the need to cope with potential future problems.■ An intentional attempt to improvethe University of choice
The Emergent Approach■ Change is seen as a continuous process■ Stresses the developing & unpredictable nature of change■ Environment is increasingly dynamic & uncertain■ Change as a period of organisational transition characterised by disruption, confusion & unforeseen events that emerge over long time- frames.■ No universal rules with regard to leading changethe University of choice
‘Unfreezing, Moving & Refreezing.’ – Kurt LewinUnfreezing Moving•The nature of the change •Defining problemsneeded •Identifying solutions•The methods planned to •Implementing solutionsachieve the change.•The needs of those affected Refreezing•The ways that progress will •Stabilising the situationbe planned & Monitored. •Building & rebuilding relationships •Consolidating the systemsthe University of choice
Forcefield Analysis – Lewin (1947) Driving forces S Restraining forces T for change A for equilibrium T U S Q U O For effective organisational change to take place the status quo has to change: • Identify forces for and against • Identify key forces – list actions for reducing restraining forces and maximising driving forcesthe University of choice
Key reasons for resisting change Level of See problem and solution emotional/political but resist as feel threatened involvement by the solution See problem and solution but resist as do not feel involved in finding the solution See the problem but don’t agree with the solution See the problem but not the solution Don’t see the problem Don’t care Level of understandingthe University of choice
PANIC ZONE DISCOMFORT COMFORT ZONE ZONEComfort Zone – people stay here, don’t change, don’t learnDiscomfort Zone – people uncertain, most likely to change, most likelyto learnPanic Zone – people freeze, will not change, will not learn
Individual Resistance To Change■ Having a poor appreciation of the need to change or considering the need to change to be secondary to other issues.■ Having a poor understanding of the proposed solutions or consider the solution to be inappropriate■ Disagreeing how the change should be implementedthe University of choice
Individual Resistance To Change■ Embarrassment about admitting that what they are doing could be improved■ Lacking trust in a person or organisation.■ Anticipating a lack of resources.the University of choice
Organisational Resistance To Change■ Culture■ Maintaining Stability■ Investment in resources■ Past contracts or agreements■ Threats to power or influence.the University of choice
Rosabeth Moss Kanter Interesting Solutions to Resistance to Change■ Wait ■ Reduce the stakes■ Wear them down ■ Warn them off■ Appeal to a higher ■ Remember that only authority afterwards does an■ Invite them in innovation look like■ Send emissaries the right thing to have■ Display support done all alongthe University of choice
SWOT Analysis (Mullins, 2010) Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats ■ Analyse the problem ■ Identify priorities for action ■ Consider internal and external factors ■ Consider the consequences of actionsthe University of choice
The Change EquationDissatis- First faction X Vision X Capacity X Steps > Resistance•Dissatisfaction: with the present situation•Vision: an understanding of what the change(s) would look like•Capacity: Sufficient resources to make the change happen•First Steps: an appreciation of how the change is to be implemented
Process MappingWhat is a process?“A series of connected steps or actions which achieve an outcome.”It has:■ Start and end point. (this is the scope)■ A purpose or aim.■ Rules governing the standard or quality of inputs throughout the process.■ Can be simple & short, or complex & long.the University of choice
Think about all the different steps you dofrom getting up out of bed to going out the door to work.WAKE UP DRINK EXIT FOR WALK COLLEGE DOGPREPARE CLEAN EAT GET LUNCH TEETH DRESSEDGET KIDS WATCH WASH/ GET KIDSDRESSED T.V. SHOWER UPGET KIDS TALK TO LISTEN TO TOILET FOOD PARTNER RADIO
A Process Map of this could look something like this WASH/ WAKE UP TOILET SHOWERGET KIDS UP GET DRESSED CLEAN TEETHGET KIDS GET KIDS DRINK EATDRESSED FOOD EXIT HOUSE PREPARE LUNCH
How to Process Map?■ Get ■ Plan 2 events representatives of - 1st Process all involved people mapping and children who - 2nd Action are involved. planning■ Need support. ■ Use Post-it notes in different colours and flip charts.the University of choice
Model for improvement What are we trying to project aims accomplish? PDSA CYCLE
Model for improvement What are we trying to project aims accomplish? How will we know that a global measurements change is an improvement? PDSA CYCLE
Model for improvement What are we trying to project aims accomplish? global measurements How will we know that a change is an improvement? change principlesWhat changes can we make thatwill result in the improvements that we seek ? PDSA CYCLE
Model for improvement What are we trying to project aims accomplish? How will we know that a global measurements change is an improvement?What changes can we make that change principleswill result in the improvements that we seek ? Plan PDSA CYCLE
Model for improvement What are we trying to project aims accomplish? global measurements How will we know that a change is an improvement? change principlesWhat changes can we make thatwill result in the improvements that we seek ? Plan PDSA Do CYCLE
Model for improvement What are we trying to project aims accomplish? How will we know that a global measurements change is an improvement?What changes can we make that change principleswill result in the improvements that we seek ? Plan PDSA Study Do CYCLE
Model for improvement What are we trying to project aims accomplish? How will we know that a global measurements change is an improvement?What changes can we make that change principleswill result in the improvements that we seek ? Act Plan PDSA Study Do CYCLE
Seven Steps For ImprovementStep 1. Step 2.Define the aim for the Consider how you areproject: going to know if a change- the group of children / is an improvement:young people. -what measures are you- your targets. going to use -how are you going to report progress to interested parties
Seven Steps For ImprovementStep 3. Step 4.Involve everyone in Investigate all themapping / analysing the changes that are likely toprocess: make an improvement in- to really understand the line with the aims set:problems for all parties - talk to other playwork- to start to measure & settings, organisations.create the baselines foryour improvements.
Seven Steps For ImprovementStep 5. Step 6.Test out the change ideas Implement the changesto see if they actually do that you have identifiedmake improvements: that will make- consider the knock on improvements.effects that making onechange will have to thatprocess & other parts ofthe system or differentsystems.
Seven Steps For Improvement Step 7. Review changes to ensure improvement & Celebrate successthe University of choice
ReferencesKanter, R.M; Stein and Jick (1992) The Challenge ofOrganizational Change. New York: Free Press.Mullins, L.J. (2010) Management and OrganisationalBehaviour. Ninth Edition. London:Financial Times Prentice Hall.Smith, A. & Langston, A. (1999) Managing Staff in Early YearsSettings. London: Routledge.Stonehouse, D. (2011) ‘Are You A Manager Or Leader OfPlaywork? Part Two.’ IP-DiP: For Professionals In Play.Weekly. 21st January (32) pp. 7-11.the University of choice
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