Summative Assessment “ Summative assessment is used to indicate the extent of a learner's success in meeting the assessment criteria used to gauge the intended learning outcomes of a module or programme.” (UK QAA, 2006) “ Any assessment activity which results in a mark or grade which is subsequently used as a judgement on student performance. Ultimately judgements using summative assessment marks will be used to determine the classification of award at the end of a course or programme.” (Irons 2008, p.7)
Types Unseen & seen examination in controlled conditions (e.g. 3 questions in 3 hours) Open Book or Take-Away exam Multiple Choice Test in controlled conditions (paper-based) In-class test Essay or report (e.g. on an individual or group project) Portfolio Dissertation Presentation (may be peer-assessed and/or tutor-assessed) Performance (e.g. musical or dramatic) Oral examination (e.g. foreign language speaking skills) Attendance Participation in lectures and/or seminars/online discussion boards, or group work (may be peer-assessed and/or tutor-assessed) Creation / production of physical (or virtual) artefact Different methods of summative assessment may be appropriate for the evaluation of different parts of the subject matter (Ramsden, 2003). There will rarely be one method that satisfies all educational objectives (Light & Cox, 2001).
Summative Assessment of Creative Practical Projects
Background : BA TV and Radio at Salford.
Aims of programme and practice within prog.
Assessment of practical projects eg films.
Rationale : Questioning current practice re upper limit on summative feedback marks.
Exploring questions raised through pedagogic engagement with PGCAP.
Investigating research findings from students.
How we assess creative work
BA TV and Radio uses qualitative assessment using contextualised methods to assess functioning knowledge. Based on constructive alignment.
Biggs (1999) urges use of holistic / hermeneutic judgement.
“ The point of qualitative assessment is not how much the final score is but how well the performance matches the objective “ (Biggs 1999).
“ ..all the feedback is positive but if it’s that good why didn’t I get 100% ?” ( University of Glasgow, 2010).
The Sistine Chapel Ceiling Annabelle
Michal Angelo’s Perfect Circle Annabelle
The perfection app Annabelle
My Research Findings
Sample of 25 students on Level 4 BATAR.
Asked should a creative project , such as a film be able to score 100% in assessment ?
50 – 50 split on yes or no.
“ What’s the point of offering a 100% option if you can never get it ?”.
“ No piece of work is 100% perfect, there’s always something to improve on”.
Qualitative assessment of creative practical projects requires judgement, subjectivity even.
Biggs analysis of holistic assessment useful.
More research needed on whether a 100% mark should ever be awarded.
What is examination?
Exam or test: Away of assessment to measure taker’s knowledge, skills, understanding or physical fitness.
What are the different forms?
Confined area (Physical).
What are the styles?
Closed book test (memory).
Open book test (supplementary tools).
How can be administered?
Formal testing often results in a grade or test score (Thissen & Wainer, 2001).
Evaluate the taker’s performance & knowledge (weakness & strength).
Encourage people to work & learn.
Builds confidence & bring pleasure when doing well.
Open opportunities, e.g. scholarships, jobs.
Loss of confidence when doing bad.
Does not reflect the right level if not aligned well with course.
can be time consuming and difficult to prepare.
Exam: Advantages & Disadvantages Eyad
Prepare carefully, match between test and curriculum contents.
Strong cooperation between faculty members and get help from expert.
Check results against those obtained from other assessment methods.
Exam: Recommendations Eyad
In class exercise I Encouraging discussions - an idea how much students know, have learned and understand. - advantages: discussions support active learning, give instructors feedback on student learning and can support higher-order thinking. - disadvantages: discussions can be uncomfortable for students, time consuming, and difficult to control or keep on topic (Cashin and McKnight, 1986).
‘ One off’ sessions
difficult to monitor students’ learning
difficult to define and introduce any form of assessment
The primary goal is to choose a method which most effectively assesses the objectives of the unit of study (Dunn, 2000)
Practical in class exercise at the end of the session:
the usefulness of the exercise can be measured in the quality of the discussion that is generated :
questions students have can be discussed further
exercise prompts them to actions
In class exercise II Sonja
Next steps: peer assessment
the increase in personal motivation as a result of their active involvement in the assessment process;
the opportunity to compare and discuss the assignment;
the opportunity to gain knowledge and develop a greater understanding of the assignment content and assessment process.
personal bias on the marks awarded;
the interpretation of criteria and the ability of the students to assess
In class exercise III
Brindley and Scoffield, 1998
Essays / Assignments Rationale:- Arguably, the most common approach to assessment within the programme I teach, and the school / college / university? What are they? Questions inviting extended written responses. Varying approaches to content: from book review to literature review, from reflection to academic argument. Teacher decides parameters: Clear guidance and criteria set (as opposed to projects). Dan
Should be able to test high level cognitive skills (analysis and synthesis) Divergent rather than convergent thinking Important for self expression and commitment Enable the student to explore deeply a field or topic Develop initiative and resourcefulness Enhance time and project management skills Provide personal ownership of learning Foster independence and creative problem solving Advantages Drawbacks Can be narrow in relation to content of modules Reliability Understanding of wording / interpretation of question / Criteria Regurgitation of lectures Difficult to mark fairly – enhance differential marker tendencies Time consuming to set up, monitor and feedback Difficult to assess failure Fear of plagiarism Differences in help sought by students Dan
Essays in Nurse education Recent development as nurse education moved into higher education in the 1990’s as part of process of becoming more ‘professional’. Academic element to study. Brennan (1999), argued for essays to be embraced as part of this and developed not just as assessment tasks but teaching tool through design, implementation and feedback. Theory / practice divide (Gallagher, 2004) – separation of learning, teaching and assessment strategies into academic / practical Conflict of academic freedoms conflicting with codes of conduct (Snelling & Lipscomb, 2004) Course / School information NMC / GSCC requirements Academic standards? Dan
Student perspective Students surveyed suggested that assignments / essays: Are time consuming; Only state what has been learned Can be done in own time and support can be requested Promotes research and furthering of knowledge and critical thinking Way for tutors to assess learning and understanding Way of seeing if I understand what has been taught Assess knowledge, competence, fitness for practice The course is about ‘doing’ – and assignments don’t really demonstrate this ability. Can ‘know’ but not necessarily ‘do’ Should not be the only form of assessment Dan
Why use assignments Despite there being no apparent formal requirement for the use of essays / assignments within any of the programme or school requirements, they do predominate as the primary assessment method. Course requirements don’t usually prescribe use of essays, but often state that assessment should be equivalent of ......word essay. Does this reinforce view that this is the norm? the standard? Are they used and “designed as coherent part of the curriculum” (Merricks, 2002)? In future need to move away from a reliance on essays as the principle assessment strategy and look at alternative methods of assessment that are more closely aligned with learning outcomes and student development (Ellis, 2001). In Nursing especially where there is an ongoing tension between the academic (theory) and the practice, ways need to be explored of seamless assessment that values both equally and not one above the other. Dan
Different disciplines will use different assessment methods Practical Projects Exams In Class Exercises Essays/Assignments Keeping in mind constructive alignment (Biggs, 1999): Expected outcomes to be aligned with the learning activities and assessment method Conclusion
Conclusion “ ...the more you can bring teaching, learning, and assessment together; the more successful you and your students will become in knowing how and to what extent meaningful progress is being made (Ellis 2001, p.38).”
Biggs, J. 1999: Teaching for Quality Learning at University . SRHE and Open University Press, Buckingham. Ellis, A.K. 2001. Teaching, learning and assessment together: The reflective classroom . Larchmont: Eye on Education. Irons, A. 2009. Enhanced learning through formative assessment and feedback . London: Routledge. Light, G. & Cox, R. (2001). Learning and teaching in higher education. London: PCP Publishing. Merricks, L. 2002. Assessment in post-compulsory education. In Jarvis, P. The theory and practice of teaching. London: Kogan Page. Pp159-170. Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (QAA). (2006). Code of practice for the assurance of academic quality and standards in higher education. Section 6: Assessment of students .Second Edition Ramsden, P. (2003). Learning to teach in higher education . Second edition. London: Routledge Farmer. Reece, I. & Walker, S. (2007). Teaching, training and learning: A practical guide . Tyne& Wear: Business Education Publishers. Wakeford, R. (1999). Principles of assessment. In Fry, H. Ketteridge, S. & Marshall, S. A Handbook for teaching and learning in higher education: Enhancing academic practice. pp 59-69. London: Kogan Page. General References
Sonja References Brindley, C. and Scoffield, S. (1998) ‘Peer Assessment in Undergraduate programmes’, Teaching in Higher Education , 3 (1), pp 79 – 90. Cashin, W.E. and McKnight, P.C. (1986) ‘Improving Discussions’, Idea Paper No 15, on The Idea Center website, <www.theideacenter.org/sites/default/files/Idea_Paper_15.pdf > [accessed 20/03/2011] L. Dunn (2000) ‘Selecting Methods of Assessment’, on Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development website, <www.brookes.ac.uk/services/ocsd/2_learntch/methods.html> [accessed 20/03/2011] Thissen, D., & Wainer, H. (2001). Test Scoring. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Page 1, sentence 1
Dan References Brennan, M.J. (1995). Essay writing in nursing: alerting students and teachers to the educational benefits. In Nurse Education Today. Vol 15 (5) pp351-356. Gallagher, P. (2004). How the metaphor of a gap between theory and practice has influenced nurse education. In Nurse Education Today. Vol 24 (4) pp263-268. Snelling, P.C. & Lipscomb, M. (2004) Academic freedom, analysis and the code of professional conduct. In Nurse Education Today. Vol 24 (8) pp615-612.