Week 6 Participatory Publishing


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Week 6 Participatory Publishing

  1. 1. Writing & Editing for Digital Media, 2009 Week 9: User Generated Content, Crowd Sourcing and Citizen Journalism
  2. 2. Public Service Announcements First assignment See me to get your assignment back If you handed in a late assignment without the extension form attached, you lost marks. Hand in the form ASAP to get your marks back! Feedback on assignments - make sure your links are correct. For further help with links, check out: http://dev. opera.com/articles/view/18-html-links-let-s-build-a- web/
  3. 3. Public Service Announcements Blogging assignment "Ongoing content creation, discussion and participation" Content Regular new content (minimum once a week) Correctly formatted hyperlinks with informative link text Use of relevant multimedia resources Serve the audience - helpful how-tos, links and information about useful resources or events. Great, original writing & lateral thinking! Discussion & Participation Comment on other student's blogs Make an effort to host & respond to comments on your blog Cross promote your blog and other student blogs where appropriate
  4. 4. Participatory media "The people formerly known as the audience" (Rosen, 2006)
  5. 5. 100 million mental hours have been put into creating Wikipedia. (Source: Jane McGonigal, Webstock 2009)
  6. 6. On Flickr's 5th birthday, it was hosting 3.2 billion photos and videos, had 3 billion page views per month, and was receiving 5,000 new uploads PER MINUTE. (Source: Heather Champ, Flickr Community Manager, Webstock 2009)
  7. 7.    
  8. 8. "Who are these people? Seriously, who actually sits down after a long day at work and says, I'm not going to watch Lost tonight. I'm going to turn on my computer and make a movie starring my pet iguana? I'm going to mash up 50 Cent's vocals with Queen's instrumentals? I'm going to blog about my state of mind or the state of the nation or the steak-frites at the new bistro down the street? Who has that time and that energy and that passion? The answer is, you do. And for seizing the reins of the global media, for founding and framing the new digital democracy, for working for nothing and beating the pros at their own game, TIME's Person of the Year for 2006 is you." (Source: http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1569514,00.html
  9. 9. Key points from Jay Rosen: Media production is no longer one-way (creator-> consumer) - now it's multidirectional Consumers are now also creators (Axel Bruns calls this "Produsage") Media companies no longer dictate when, where or on how you access media content (daily newspaper or TV broadcast -> 24 hour online news, accessed by mobile device or phone, time shifted, downloaded or replayed) Web audiences tend to form "user communities around our favorite spaces" - Online, we tend to form "user communities around our favorite spaces": "If you want to attract a community around you, you must offer them something original and of a quality that they can react to and incorporate in their creative work.” (Tom Glocer, Reuters)
  10. 10. Key points from danah boyd: Networks are increasingly important because of the impact technology has had on the way we live and the way we gain and share information. " Technology has made networks essential" Information is acquired in three ways: push, pull, and osmosis. osmosis - 'drive by info' - eg seeing Yahoo headlines when you're logging into your webmail Push - traditional education, TV, radio are all forms of information 'pushing' "You may have choice in which channel you allow stuff to be pushed from, but it's still streaming content at you." Pull - RSS subscriptions, search, etc - the networked effect of links for learning & education
  11. 11. Key points from danah boyd: "Today, youth are also information pushers and they have more ways in which they can push what matters to them...Many youth are active creators, producers, and distributors... today's youth traffic in content." "What this means is that youth's access to certain types of information is increasingly framed by their networks. When I ask teens how they found out about a particular video or website or many other things, the answer is pretty universal: "my friends." "As a result of this networked ecology, information is a form of currency. Status is attained through the trafficking of content. The cooler the content, the more status is to be attained by being the one to show it off to your friends."
  12. 12. User Generated Content  
  13. 13. What is User Generated Content? The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) defines UCG as having three requirements: Publication, creativity and that it be non-professional (unpaid). Publication requirement: While UGC could be made by a user and never published online or elsewhere, we focus here on the work that is published in some context, be it on a publicly accessible website or on a page on a social networking site only accessible to a select group of people (eg, fellow university students). This is a useful way to exclude email, two-way instant messages and the like.
  14. 14. What is User Generated Content? Creative effort: This implies that a certain amount of creative effort was put into creating the work or adapting existing works to construct a new one; i.e. users must add their own value to the work. UGC often also has a collaborative element to it, as is the case with websites which users can edit collaboratively. For example, merely copying a portion of a television show and posting it to an online video website (an activity frequently seen on the UGC sites) would not be considered UGC. If a user uploads his/her photographs, however, expresses his/her thoughts in a blog, or creates a new music video, this could be considered UGC. Yet the minimum amount of creative effort is hard to define and depends on the context.
  15. 15. What is User Generated Content? Creation outside of professional routines and practices: User generated content is generally created outside of professional routines and practices. It often does not have an institutional or a commercial market context. In extreme cases, UGC may be produced by non-professionals without the expectation of profit or remuneration. Motivating factors include: connecting with peers, achieving a certain level of fame, notoriety, or prestige, and the desire to express oneself. Source: Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User-generated_content)
  16. 16. What is User Generated Content? Q&A databases - Metafilter (http://ask.metafilter.com/) $5 membership allows you to post comments, customize the look and behavior of the site. The privilege of posting links to main page comes after posting a few comments and being a member for at least a week. This lag is built in to allow new members to get used to the place and to understand what other members consider good links. Check out the new user guide: http://www.metafilter.com/newuser.mefi YouTube - vodcasts/blogs, responses, mashups, fan videos Blogging - Blogger, WordPress.com Podcasting User content uploaded to social networking sites & blog sites Wikis
  17. 17. Paid/unpaid? Often a business will host a site for UCG, and attempt to make money from it via advertising or other means Social networks and social blogsites are examples of this model - eg Facebook, LiveJournal. The ability for even hobby bloggers to sign up to place Google Ads on their blogs, or join blog ad networks like Nuffnang mean that the line between unpaid and paid content creators is now blurry.
  18. 18. The professional/UCG hybrid Some websites/publications contain a mixture of professional/UCG content Amazon - professional site which employers editors, but with a large amount of UGC (reader reviews, lists) Salon - professional web publication with a user blogging platform, Open Salon Registered users can have a blog on Open Salon, as well as rating and commenting on other posts, messaging other members, and more. The Open Salon home page functions like "a real-time magazine cover". It highlights the best content, but also what other members are reading, rating and commenting on. A new issue goes up every evening; which is updated the following morning and "as necessary" In the near future, we'll begin featuring the best Open Salon content on the cover of Salon.com. We'll also be unveiling ways for you to earn money for your great work on Open.
  19. 19. Group activity Split into three groups - one to represent users/creators, one to represent publishers, and one to represent community managers/editors working on a UGC site. Each group should work together to write a response to the following hypothetical scenarios. How would you respond?
  20. 20. Hypothetical  The site: LiveJournal The problem: A user has reported another user saying her user picture (which depicted breastfeeding) is inappropriate content. In 2006, a controversy erupted amongst users of the LiveJournal service (at that time, owned by Six Apart) when some users were asked to remove default user pictures containing images of breast feeding that were deemed inappropriate as they contained a view of nipples or areolae. The incident was picked up by breast feeding advocacy groups and others who were opposed to breastfeeding images being 'censored' as though they were sexual content. Identify the main issues that need to be addressed. How would you respond?
  21. 21. Hypothetical  How did LiveJournal respond? LiveJournal responded by changing the FAQ on appropriate content for default user pictures. The original FAQ said that graphic sexual content was not appropriate. The FAQ was changed to say that nudity is not appropriate in default user pictures; Breastfeeding pictures were not restricted by the original FAQ, and the current FAQ reflects the fact that they are only restricted from use as a default user picture. It should be noted that breastfeeding pictures are still allowed as user pictures that may be manually chosen while posting but may not be the default. (Source: Wikipedia) LiveJournal also published an explanation and apology: http://community. livejournal.com/boob_nazis/1763041.html
  22. 22. Hypothetical  The site: Flickr The problem: Virgin Mobile published an ad campaign using photos from Flickr, with slogans mocking the people in the photos. Now the parents of a teenage girl whose photo was used is suing Virgin Mobile and the photographer! Virgin's use of the photos under Creative Commons was legal, as there wasn't a stipulation that the photo was for non-commercial use only. However, one picture depicted 15 year-old Alison Chang at a fund-raising carwash for her church, for which her family sued Virgin Mobile and Creative Commons. The case hinges on privacy, the right of people not to have their likeness used in an ad without permission. So, while Mr. Wong may have given away his rights as a photographer, he did not, and could not, give away Alison's rights. In the lawsuit, which Mr. Wong is also a party to, there is an argument that Virgin did not honor all the terms of the nonrestrictive license.[34] On November 27, 2007, Chang filed for a voluntary dismissal of the lawsuit against Creative Commons,[35] focusing their lawsuit against Virgin Mobile. [36]
  23. 23. Hypothetical  The solution: Within days of the story of the courtcase being reported in the media, Virgin withdrew the ads, replacing the Flickr photos on its website http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,25197,22130223- 7582,00.html While Virgin hadn't violated the terms of the CC license, it came in for criticism because it had used a photo of a 15 year old girl in an ad campaign without her permission (no model release was used). The fact that the campaign was mocking her didn't help their position either. The lawsuit, brought by her family and alleging invation of her rights, especially her right to privacy, was thrown out of course due to lack of jurisdiction. (Source: Wikipedia)
  24. 24. Crowdsourcing  
  25. 25. Crowdsourcing This term was coined by in Wired in 2006: The rise of Crowdsoucing, by Jeff Howe http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/14.06/crowds.html Originally seen as the next step beyond outsourcing, crowdsourcing is a means of problem solving, or a means of production, in which the challenge is thrown out to the general public, usually via the internet istockphoto allows any photographer to make their photos available for a small fee - undercutting professional photographers or galleries
  26. 26. Crowdsourcing The Guardian's crowdsourcing experiment - the MP expenses scandal 170,000 documents reviewed in the first 80 hours, thanks to a visitor participation rate of 56 percent REader recommendations & sharing of information The Geek Feminism blog link roundup - If you have links of interest, please share them in comments here, of if you’re a delicious user, tag them “geekfeminism” to bring them to our attention. Kraft and the Vegemite iSnack 2.0 disaster. 48,000 names were suggested by members of the public The name iSnack 2.0 was chosen and there was a loud backlash Kraft then announced they were changing the name
  27. 27. The Pro-Am Revolution The social trend towards innovations which have come out of "pro-am" (passionate, high skill amateurs) labour open source technology astronomy the invention of the mountain bike! http://www.demos.co.uk/publications/proameconomy (free download) Highly recommended read! Also see the TED video of Charles Leadbeater talking about crowd-developed innovation: http://www.ted.com/index. php/talks/charles_leadbeater_on_innovation.html
  28. 28. Citizen Journalism  
  29. 29.   enabled by access to the internet and free publishing tools Blogging: WordPress.com, etc Photoblogging: Flickr Video: YouTube Live video: Ustream The Pro-Am Revolution - people with the skills, passion and time to produce independent citizen journalism to a professional standard.
  30. 30. Problems for citizen journalists *Companies claiming copyright on media uploaded to their site (ie Facebook) *Companies making it difficult to get your data *back* from their site if you want to leave (proprietary file formats, difficult migration process) *Companies soliciting and copyrighting material submitted by citizen journalisms (Fairfax - SMH/The Age)
  31. 31. Global problems for citizen journalism *Reporters without Borders- Press Freedom roundup 2008: "Predatory activity is increasingly focused on the internet." 1 blogger killed 59 bloggers arrested 1,740 websites bocked, shut down or suspended *more online journalists incarcerated than other journalists for the first time The Blogging Revolution by Antony Lowenstein
  32. 32.   In 2008, someone was for the first time killed while acting as a "Citizen Journalist"- Chinese businessman Wei Wenhua - was beaten to death by cheguan (municipal plice) while filming a clash with Tianmen demonstrators on 7 January 2008.
  33. 33. It couldn't happen here! *Anti-terrorism laws being used against ctizen journalists in Australia and the UK. *NSW government encouraging citizens to submit photos and video of crimes March 2008 - Project View- Video Image Evidence on the Web *Ben Grubb's article "Who watches the watchers" is in the readings this week.
  34. 34.   *Abuse of open acess to publishing -death threat against newspaper columnist Andrew Bolt published on IndyMedia - an illegal action by an individual which impacted on a grassroots publication *The Howard and Rudd governments both gave their support to the trial of ISP level internet filtering, which you wouldn't have the option to opt out of. *Family First Senator Steve Fielding and Independent Nick Xenephon proposed filtering (censoring) additional material in addition to the ACMA black list.
  35. 35. Tools for Citizen Journos The Center for Media & Democracy - Sourcewatch Wiki article of tools for Citizen Journalism including the Reporters without Borders handbook for bloggers and cyberdissidents It includes advice on how to start a blog, get it picked up by search engines, ethical guidelines and recommendations for the bet tool to use-as well as information on how to blog anonymously and technical ways to get around censorship
  36. 36. Pitfalls Beware: Terms of service, copyright and censorship. Do you want to control your own media and copyright? September 2007 - a Flickr user sued Virgin Mobile for using a Creative Commons licensed photo from Flickr in an ad. No model release used.
  37. 37. Legal risks I AM NOT A LAWYER! In Australia, professional journalists go to jail while trying to maintain the professional standard of protecting their sources. Non-professional citizen journos or bloggers are likely to have even less legal protections. The US was considering laws to protect bloggers in 2006, I'm not sure if it was passed. Educate yourself on the laws around copyright, defamation.
  38. 38. Resources Arts Law Centre of Australia Online - Legal issues for bloggers: http://www.artslaw.com. au/legalinformation/LegalIssuesForBloggers.asp EFF guide for bloggers - updated in Feb 2009 http://www.eff.org/issues/bloggers/legal
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