Week 10 Legal Ethical Considerations


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  • Berne Convention; automatic on completion of artwork; recognised copyright between sovereign nations; based on life of the author + 50 years; did not require copyright notice but standard “© Name Year” did invoke the convention UCC: developed as an alternative to Berne Convention by US, Soviet Union and developing nations; requires copyright notice In the 18th century, copyright in the US only lasted 14 years. Sonny Bono extension makes it 70 years after death of creator and 95 years after publication for works owned by corporations.
  • Examples of how creativity is shackled: if fairytales hadn’t been in the public domain, Disney would never have been able to make the Snow White movie or the Cinderella movie or any of the rest of the,. With Disney’s eternally extended copyrights, no one can ever do the same creative remake with Mickey Mouse.
  • The way that the Kevin Smith films mobilise discussion of Star Wars and even the stars of Star Wars when the real Mark Hamill appears in one film.
  • If we argue that the author’s intention is irrelevant anyway, as we began to back in week one, then it is possible that the postmodern attitude towards authorship necessitates and assumes a participatory model of cultural consumption.
  • Famous examples of over-reach: Adobe Systems released in 2000 a public domain work, Lewis Carroll 's Alice in Wonderland , with DRM controls asserting that "this book cannot be read aloud" and so disabling use of the text-to-speech feature normally available in Adobe eBook Reader (source: Wikipedia) DRM can be used for purely capitalist purposes such as DVD region management which actually has nothing to do with rights of the creator. Content Scrambling System encoded DVD content so people couldn’t copy it. That was hacked in 1999 and DVDs can now be read and copied although it is still technically a breach of copyright and a punishable offence in Australia. Examples of DRM include encoding, physical protection, certificate-based protection and digital watermarks. DRM has primarily been used in eBooks, music, games and software.
  • Week 10 Legal Ethical Considerations

    1. 1. Copyright, Intellectual Property and other Legal and Ethical matters Writing & Editing for Digital Media, Week 10
    2. 2. Intellectual Property <ul><ul><li>The idea that ideas can be owned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World Intellectual Property Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP Australia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Australian Copyright Council </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What ’ s covered? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Patents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trademarks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other stuff: circuit layouts, plants, trade secrets </li></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. All rights reserved? <ul><ul><li>Economic rights: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The right to reproduce </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The right to deny reproduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The right to economic benefit — sales, royalties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The right to loan — libraries ’ lending rights </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral rights: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The right of attribution — to have the work recognised as their work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The right of integrity — to prevent distortion, destruction or misrepresentation </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Copyright timeline <ul><ul><li>1886: Berne Convention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1952: Universal Copyright Convention adopted at Geneva </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1968: Australian simplified Copyright Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1989: US finally becomes part of Berne Convention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1993: European Union directive harmonising copyright between UCC and Berne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1998: US “ Sonny Bono ” copyright extension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2004: Australian-US Fair Trade Agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2006: Copyright Amendment Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2007: Australian moral rights amendment - part IV, Copyright Act </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. The current situation <ul><ul><li>Copyright protection is provided for under the Copyright Act 1968; a copyright notice is not required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a result of Australia signing the FTA with the US in 2004, we have extended copyright from 50 to 70 years from author ’ s death (with some exceptions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Copyright Amendment Act 2006 brought in fair dealing provisions for digital backups for home use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to date fair dealing information </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Changes due to Australia-US Free Trade Agreement 2004 <ul><ul><li>New rights, both economic and moral for performers in sound recordings; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extension of the term of protection for most copyright material by 20 years; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation of a scheme for limitation of remedies available against Carriage Service Providers for copyright infringement; (note: iiNet is being sued at the moment) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wider criminal provisions for copyright infringement; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broader protection for electronic rights management; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection against a wider range of unauthorised reproductions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Source: IP Australia </li></ul>
    7. 7. Currently before the courts: iiNet <ul><ul><li>A consortium of film distribution companies is currently suing ISP iiNet before the Federal Court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The outcome could set a precendent about whether ISPs can be held responsible for their users' pirated content. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Record company investigators tracked 97,942 instances of iiNet customers sharing files illegally over 59 weeks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>iiNet is expected to use privacy of users as a defence. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Source: ABC Online  http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2009/10/06/2706449.htm </li></ul><ul><li>a </li></ul>
    8. 8. Currently before the courts: Fairfax v Reed Elsevier <ul><ul><li>Fairfax is attempting to claim copyright over the headlines and bylines from The Australian Financial Review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reed Elsevier's ABIX service reproduces many AFR headlines and bylines verbatim as part of its news aggregation service for its subscribers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fairfax argued its headlines and bylines constituted &quot;a substantial part of each article&quot; (beyond 'fair use')and were protected literary works. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Source: The Australian (Sept 2008)  http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,,24290126-7582,00.html </li></ul><ul><li>a </li></ul>
    9. 9. Problems with copyright <ul><ul><li>Restricts dissemination of knowledge to those who can afford to pay for it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These days, serves corporations rather than authors, artists, creators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporations mostly concerned with economic rights not moral rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wishes of creator not respected by subsequent licence holders e.g.:Michael Jackson selling rights for Beatles ’ songs to be used in advertisements; Use of Kurt Cobain's likeness in Rock Band. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic application is a blanket solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creativity shackled, reduces free critique ( Lawrence Lessig ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artificially imposes scarcity in order to benefit corporations ( John Gilmore, EFF ) </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Online threats to intellectual property <ul><ul><li>Jenkins argues that “reworking cultural materials has become a central part of the process of media consumption” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ textual poaching’ — sampling, intertextuality, quoting, filmic reference, remakes, spoofs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redistribution, commercial appropriation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The challenges of ‘fan culture’ — embracing your audience </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. The work of art in the age of digital reproduction <ul><ul><li>Controversy has surrounded the introduction of every new technology: cassette, VCR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even easier to copy and manipulate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boundaries of original and copy are blurred </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Which is the ‘ original ’ Star Wars now? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The copy is technically identical to the original as they ’ re both just bits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is textual poaching the logical outcome of postmodernist approaches to meaning? </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Alternative solutions <ul><ul><li>Copyleft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The open source movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General Public License (GPL) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But what ’ s to stop commercial exploitation? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative Commons </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Corporate solutions <ul><ul><li>Copyright licenses with individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright transfer required before payment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright of work by staff belongs to corporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syndication: bulk licenses of agency works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Next step: embed copyright licenses electronically in digital works to prevent copying (digital rights management or DRM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New problems: lending rights eroded ( Stallman: “ The Right to Read ” ); fair use rights eroded; DRM systems have no expiry date </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Fair use for students <ul><ul><li>Because of special provisions in the Copyright Act (sections 40 and 103C), you can use copyright material for research or study, provided your use is “fair”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The &quot;10% rule&quot;   for reproducing text in electronic form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10% of the number of words; or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>one chapter, if the work is divided into chapters. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Download the Fact Sheet for students and researchers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Download Information Sheet G11 for information on copyright and photographs </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>5 factors affecting fair use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the purpose and character of the dealing  (for example, copying in connection with a course is more likely to be fair than copying for research which may be used commercially); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the nature of the work  (for example, it may be less fair to copy a work resulting from a high degree of skill than a mundane work); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the possibility of obtaining the work within a reasonable time at an ordinary commercial price  (generally, it is unlikely to be fair to photocopy all or most of a work that you can buy); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the effect of the dealing on the potential market for, or value of, the work  (making a copy is unlikely to be fair if the publisher sells or licenses copies, for example from its website); and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in a case where part only of the work is copied, the amount and substantiality of the part copied in relation to the whole work  (it is less fair to copy a large or important part of the work than to copy a small or unimportant part </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. More information <ul><ul><li>The Australian Copyright Council </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http://www.copyright.org.au </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Writers Guide to making a digital living  http://www.australiacouncil.gov.au/writersguide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arts Law Centre of Australia Online - Legal issues for bloggers:  http://www.artslaw.com.au/legalinformation/LegalIssuesForBloggers.asp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyfight blog </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http://copyfight.corante.com/ </li></ul>