Chapter 18 - Classification

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This is the Powerpoint presentation that we use with the last chapter that we teach in our Biology B course. This chapter has to do with the history and development of the classification system as we know it. This presentation has been developed to cover all of the necessary content that the students will need to know in order to be successful on the Kentucky End of Course Assessment for Biology.

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  • Linnaeus’s hierarchical system of classification uses seven taxonomic categories. This illustration shows how a grizzly bear, Ursus arctos, is grouped within each taxonomic category. Only some representative species are illustrated for each category above the species level.
  • Linnaeus’s hierarchical system of classification uses seven taxonomic categories. This illustration shows how a grizzly bear, Ursus arctos, is grouped within each taxonomic category. Only some representative species are illustrated for each category above the species level.
  • Linnaeus’s hierarchical system of classification uses seven taxonomic categories. This illustration shows how a grizzly bear, Ursus arctos, is grouped within each taxonomic category. Only some representative species are illustrated for each category above the species level.
  • Linnaeus’s hierarchical system of classification uses seven taxonomic categories. This illustration shows how a grizzly bear, Ursus arctos, is grouped within each taxonomic category. Only some representative species are illustrated for each category above the species level.
  • Linnaeus’s hierarchical system of classification uses seven taxonomic categories. This illustration shows how a grizzly bear, Ursus arctos, is grouped within each taxonomic category. Only some representative species are illustrated for each category above the species level.
  • Linnaeus’s hierarchical system of classification uses seven taxonomic categories. This illustration shows how a grizzly bear, Ursus arctos, is grouped within each taxonomic category. Only some representative species are illustrated for each category above the species level.
  • Early systems of classification grouped organisms together based on visible similarities. That approach might result in classifying limpets and barnacles together (left). Biologists now group organisms into categories that represent lines of evolutionary descent, or phylogeny, not just physical similarities. Crabs and barnacles are now grouped together (right) because they share several characteristics that indicate that they are more closely related to each other than either is to limpets. These characteristics include segmented bodies, jointed limbs, and an external skeleton that is shed during growth.
  • By comparing the DNA sequences of two or more species, biologists estimate how long the species have been separated.
  • Chapter 18 - Classification

    1. 1. Organizing Life’s Diversity
    2. 2. Why Classify? 1. To study the great diversity of organisms. 2. To organize living things into groups that have biological meaning.
    3. 3. • Classification – the grouping of objects or information based on similarities. (ie. organizing your music collection)
    4. 4. (ie: organizing a grocery store)
    5. 5. Taxonomy The science of classifying organisms and assigning each organism a universally accepted name. I
    6. 6. How to Name Organisms • Scientific names are given to all organisms because common names vary among languages and among regions within a single country. • Many organisms have misleading names so scientific names eliminate confusion about an organisms identity. Ex: prairie dog, crayfish, starfish, seahorse
    7. 7. How to name organisms • Carolus Linnaeus - developed classification system based on physical & structural similarities of organisms. – Still used today – Includes classification based on structural similarities & evolutionary relationships of species.
    8. 8. Binomial Nomenclature Each species is assigned a two-part scientific name. Developed by Linnaeus to identify species. First word = Genus Second word = species (ie. Homo sapiens = modern humans) Note: Scientific names are always written in italics or underlined
    9. 9. Taxon A group at any level of organization. Overview of Taxonomy: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F38BmgPcZ_
    10. 10. • Today’s phylogenetic classification uses a hierarchy of taxa to classify organisms. • From largest to smallest Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Dear King Phillip Came Over For Greek Salad
    11. 11. Domain • Most inclusive category • Larger than kingdom • The three domains: – Bacteria – Archaea – Eukarya
    12. 12. Kingdom Group of closely related phyla.
    13. 13. The kingdom is a large taxonomic category, consisting of closely related phyla. Grizzly bear Black bear Giant panda Red fox Abert squirrel KINGDOM Animalia Coral snake Sea star
    14. 14. Phylum Group of closely related classes
    15. 15. Several different classes make up a phylum. Grizzly bear Black bear Giant panda PHYLUM Red fox Chordata Abert squirrel Coral snake
    16. 16. Class Group of similar orders
    17. 17. The next larger category, the class, is composed of similar orders. Grizzly bear Black bear Giant panda Class Mammalia Red fox Abert squirrel
    18. 18. Orders Group of similar families
    19. 19. An order is a broad category composed of similar families. Grizzly bear Black bear Giant panda Red fox
    20. 20. Family Group of genera that share many characteristics.
    21. 21. Genera that share many characteristics are grouped in a larger category, the family. Grizzly bear Black bear Giant panda
    22. 22. Genus Group of closely related species. Makes up the first part of scientific name.
    23. 23. Species Group of similar organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring. Makes up the second part of the scientific name
    24. 24. • Each level is called a taxon, or taxonomic category. • Species and genus are the two smallest categories. Grizzly Black bear bear
    25. 25. Human Classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Primates Family: Hominidae Genus: Homo Species: sapiens Subspecies: H. s. sapiens
    26. 26. Evolutionary Classification Biologist now group organisms into categories that represent lines of evolutionary descent.
    27. 27. Cladogram (Phylogenetic Tree) A diagram that shows the evolutionary relationship among a group of organisms.
    28. 28. Cladogram & Phylogenetic Tree
    29. 29. Evolutionary Classification Appendages Crab Conical Shells Barnacle Limpet Barnacle Crab Molted external skeleton Segmentation CLASSIFICATION BASED ON VISIBLE SIMILARITY Mollusk Crustaceans Limpet Tiny freeswimming larva CLADOGRAM
    30. 30. Dichotomous Key • Tool used to identify unfamiliar organisms. • A series of paired statements that describe physical characteristics of different organisms.
    31. 31. Molecular Clocks A gene in an ancestral species 2 mutations new mutation 2 mutations new mutation new mutation
    32. 32. Domain Eukarya Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    33. 33. Virus A noncellular, parasitic particle consisting of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat. Must have a host to reproduce
    34. 34. Prokaryote Cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles Ex bacteria and archaea
    35. 35. Eukaryote Cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles Ex protist, plants, fungi & animals
    36. 36. Radial Smmetry The body is shaped like a pie and can be divided into mirror-image halves by any plane through its center
    37. 37. Bilateral Symmetry A body shape in which a longitudinal plane divides the body into two equal but opposite halves
    38. 38. • Animals can be distinguished from one another by events that take place in their embryonic development.
    39. 39. Deuterostome Development in which the blastopore becomes the anus cleavage is indeterminate
    40. 40. Protostome Development in which the blastopore becomes the mouth and cleavage is determinate
    41. 41. Major Divisions of Animals Sponges (Porifera) Multicellular, heterotrophic, no cell walls, contain a few specialized cells and are sessile
    42. 42. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BW05vMziy2
    43. 43. Cnidarians Carnivorous animals that have stinging tentacles, simplest animals to have body symmetry & specialized tissue
    44. 44. • http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=HciagFg3ZOg
    45. 45. Mollusk Soft-bodied animals that may have an external, internal shell or no shell
    46. 46. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0a7j5prL8hc http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xRad4Y3FPdM http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lwAqhThd_EQ&safe=active
    47. 47. Arthropods Segmented body, tough exoskeleton, and jointed appendages Crustaceans: shrimps, crayfishes, lobsters, barnacles Arachnids: scorpoins, spiders, mites, ticks, harvestmen Insects: 93,200 species in North America http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GYWtj5q_MVc http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HHaWXHRi1x8&safe=active
    48. 48. Echinoderms Spiny skin, internal skeleton, water vascular system with radial symmetry
    49. 49. • http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=D3W4OCnHyCs Sea Urchins • http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=f7cXeWxxfD4
    50. 50. Fishes Aquatic vertebrates and most have scales, paired fins and gills
    51. 51. Amphibians-Vertebrate, most live in water as larva and on land as an adult, has moist skin, and lacks scales and nails
    52. 52. Reptiles Vertebrate that has dry, scaly skin, lungs, terrestrial eggs
    53. 53. Birds Vertebrates that maintain a constant body temperature, has feathers and lays shelled eggs
    54. 54. Mammals Vertebrates that have hair, nourish their young with milk, and are endotherms.
    55. 55. What can you identify? http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=hdPUtGPrrME&safe=active
    56. 56. Classification Jeopardy • https://jeopardylabs.com/play/classificationof-living-things • http://www.superteachertools.com/jeopardy /usergames/Jan201003/game1263848181.p hp

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