1. THE END OF THE CAR CITY
”A convenient truth”
Alexander Ståhle, PHD & CEO
ǀ URBAN RESEARCH & DESIGNSPACESCAPE
2. Why cities?
3. Proximity creates livability
4. Proximity creates innovation
5. Proximity creates social wellfare
6. Vad gör en attraktiv plats?
Fungerar planen som det var tänkt?
Vad skapar närhet och flöden?
Proximity creates value
7. Housing value is 90% walkability in Stockholm
Appartment prices in Stockholm regionUrban qualities
8. “Walkability command a premium of $4-34,000”
CEO for Cities (2009)
”Walkable urban””Drivable suburban”
“Cities are proximity, density, closeness”
10. Density decreases car use
Dunphy RT and Fisher K (1996)
11. Average commute in Hong Kong is 11 min
12. “Individuals living near transit had a significantly
higher level of trust and reciprocity and
connections with neighbors.”
Patterns of social capital associated with transit oriented development, Journal of Transport Geography, 2014
13. “Denser areas have greater economic mobility.“
(Measuring sprawl, SGA, 2014)
14. “The compact walkable city enhance livelihoods for
the poor through affordable mobility.
It lower social segregation through proximity of
affordable housing to places of work”.
Joan Clos, UN Habitat
15. “An advanced city is not where the poor drive cars,
but where the rich take public transport” Enrique Penalosa
16. Car accessiblity do not affect
appartment prices or office rents in Stockholm
Public transport accessibility
17. Failing office areas without transit and walkability
Infra City, Upplands Väsby
18. Inside Infra City, Upplands Väsby
Inside failing office areas…
19. "People in denser areas are more physically active."
(Neighborhood environment and physical activity, Eriksson, 2013)
20. "People in denser areas have
longer life expectancies." (Measuring sprawl, SGA, 2014)
21. 5% drive to shop downtown
in New York and in Stockholm
(PPS 2010, Spacescape 2012)
22. "Pedestrians spend 65% more than drivers"
Transport for London (2014)
23. “1/3 of America’s malls are dead or dying”
24. Wallmart and IKEA goes urban
25. Gallerian shopping mall, Stockholm
26. Photoshop Gallerian shopping mall, Stockholm
27. Why not car cities?
28. People in cars can…
29. People in cars can´t interact
30. ”When in my car I get
a different set of values”
31. New study on “road rage” (Gatersleben, Murtagh, White 2013):
•Car use has negative effects on urban communities by affecting social perceptions.
•More car use through a relatively poor area is associated with less positive views of that area.
•More walking through a relatively poor area is related to more positive views of the area.
•Attitudes towards young people are more negative when they are seen from a car.
•Attitudes towards young people are most positive when seen from a pedestrian perspective.
”Attitudes to people more negative
when seen from a car”
32. Car traffic segregate neighborhoods
Livable streets, Donald Appleyard (1981)
33. Car traffic is the most common complaint
Västra Ursvik, Sundbyberg
34. Car dependency is unequal
- Women and poor drive less
(A car costs approx. $900 a month)
35. Cars take up space
36. Cars take up too much space
37. “Parking is the most incorrectly valued urban
asset... A $310 bn parking subsidy, 5X the
(Public Parking Fees and Fines, Public Works Management & Policy, 2014)
38. Car infrastructure is heavily subsidized
39. Sprawl consumes land
“In the last decade, an area larger than the entire state
of Maryland -- more than 33,000 square km of
farmland, woodlands and other natural habitat
beyond the edges of the nation's cities” (2014)
40. Ecosystems are destroyed and fragmented
41. ”Green” cars?
42. Traffic make 20-25% of all CO2
43. The ecological footprint of a car is X800
44. Acid rain kills nature and pollutes water
45. ”Long live the pedestrians” says who?
46. Car speed means death
47. Streets where playgrounds before the car
Allmänna vägen, Göteborg 1910
48. Bad density means more sprawl
- forces families to move to the suburbs
49. Cars kill 1,2 Mn and injure 39 Mn every year
50. Car driving promotes obesity and early death
51. 2,4 Mn people dies from smog every year
52. ”Car driving is like drug addiction”
(The compulsive habit of cars, Trends in cognitive science, 2014)
53. ”Choice blindness”
54. Car city
55. Car city Walk city
56. The end of the suburbs – A war on the dream?
57. Who says walk cities?
58. “We should embrace policies that
promote the compact city”
Joan Clos, UN Habitat
59. “City transport is about moving people, not vehicles”
Rachel Kyte, World Bank
60. “High quality sidewalks are the most basic element
of a democratic city.” Enrique Peñalosa, ITDP
61. “Pedestrians and cyclists and bus riders are more
important — than car riders.” Michael Bloomberg, NYC
62. New American policies for walk cities
New York Chicago
63. New Swedish policies for walk cities
64. Walk cities reclaimed
65. Cities are being reclaimed and repaired
66. Squares are reclaimed
Time square, NY
67. Freeways are reclaimed
CicLAvia, Los Angeles
68. This used to be as freeway…”
Hayes Valley San Francisco
69. Parks are reclaimed
Champs Elysées, Paris
70. Parking spaces are reclaimed
71. Gardens are reclaimed
72. Playgrounds are reclaimed
73. Downtowns are reclaimed
74. Small towns too – FLEN 2013
75. Small towns too – FLEN 2015
76. Small towns too – FLEN 2020
77. ǀ URBAN RESEARCH & DESIGNSPACESCAPE
PhD & CEO Spacescape