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THE END OF THE CAR CITY
”A convenient truth”
Alexander Ståhle, PHD & CEO
ǀ URBAN RESEARCH & DESIGNSPACESCAPE
Why cities?
Proximity creates livability
Proximity creates innovation
Proximity creates social wellfare
Vad gör en attraktiv plats?
Fungerar planen som det var tänkt?
Vad skapar närhet och flöden?
SOFO
Proximity creates value
Housing value is 90% walkability in Stockholm
Appartment prices in Stockholm regionUrban qualities
“Walkability command a premium of $4-34,000”
CEO for Cities (2009)
”Walkable urban””Drivable suburban”
SHOPS
DENSITYDENSITY
SHOPS
STOCKHOLM MALMÖÖREBRO
RESTAURANTS
DENSITY
“Cities are proximity, density, closeness”
Edward Gla...
Density decreases car use
Density
Travel
Dunphy RT and Fisher K (1996)
Average commute in Hong Kong is 11 min
“Individuals living near transit had a significantly
higher level of trust and reciprocity and
connections with neighbors....
“Denser areas have greater economic mobility.“
(Measuring sprawl, SGA, 2014)
“The compact walkable city enhance livelihoods for
the poor through affordable mobility.
It lower social segregation throu...
“An advanced city is not where the poor drive cars,
but where the rich take public transport” Enrique Penalosa
Car accessiblity do not affect
appartment prices or office rents in Stockholm
Public transport accessibility
Officerent
Failing office areas without transit and walkability
Infra City, Upplands Väsby
Inside Infra City, Upplands Väsby
Inside failing office areas…
"People in denser areas are more physically active."
(Neighborhood environment and physical activity, Eriksson, 2013)
"People in denser areas have
longer life expectancies." (Measuring sprawl, SGA, 2014)
5% drive to shop downtown
in New York and in Stockholm
(PPS 2010, Spacescape 2012)
"Pedestrians spend 65% more than drivers"
Transport for London (2014)
“1/3 of America’s malls are dead or dying”
deadmalls.com
Wallmart and IKEA goes urban
Gallerian shopping mall, Stockholm
Photoshop Gallerian shopping mall, Stockholm
Why not car cities?
People in cars can…
People in cars can´t interact
”When in my car I get
a different set of values”
Louis CK
New study on “road rage” (Gatersleben, Murtagh, White 2013):
•Car use has negative effects on urban communities by affecti...
Car traffic segregate neighborhoods
Livable streets, Donald Appleyard (1981)
Car traffic is the most common complaint
Västra Ursvik, Sundbyberg
Rinkeby
Ursvik
Car dependency is unequal
- Women and poor drive less
(A car costs approx. $900 a month)
Cars take up space
Cars take up too much space
“Parking is the most incorrectly valued urban
asset... A $310 bn parking subsidy, 5X the
education budget.”
(Public Parkin...
Car infrastructure is heavily subsidized
Sprawl consumes land
“In the last decade, an area larger than the entire state
of Maryland -- more than 33,000 square km o...
Ecosystems are destroyed and fragmented
”Green” cars?
Traffic make 20-25% of all CO2
Peak oil…?
The ecological footprint of a car is X800
Acid rain kills nature and pollutes water
”Long live the pedestrians” says who?
Car speed means death
Streets where playgrounds before the car
Allmänna vägen, Göteborg 1910
Bad density means more sprawl
- forces families to move to the suburbs
Cars kill 1,2 Mn and injure 39 Mn every year
Car driving promotes obesity and early death
2,4 Mn people dies from smog every year
”Car driving is like drug addiction”
(The compulsive habit of cars, Trends in cognitive science, 2014)
”Choice blindness”
Car city
Car city Walk city
The end of the suburbs – A war on the dream?
Who says walk cities?
“We should embrace policies that
promote the compact city”
Joan Clos, UN Habitat
“City transport is about moving people, not vehicles”
Rachel Kyte, World Bank
“High quality sidewalks are the most basic element
of a democratic city.” Enrique Peñalosa, ITDP
“Pedestrians and cyclists and bus riders are more
important — than car riders.” Michael Bloomberg, NYC
New American policies for walk cities
New York Chicago
New Swedish policies for walk cities
Walk cities reclaimed
Cities are being reclaimed and repaired
Squares are reclaimed
Time square, NY
Freeways are reclaimed
CicLAvia, Los Angeles
This used to be as freeway…”
Hayes Valley San Francisco
Parks are reclaimed
Champs Elysées, Paris
Parking spaces are reclaimed
Gardens are reclaimed
Playgrounds are reclaimed
Downtowns are reclaimed
Detroit
Small towns too – FLEN 2013
Small towns too – FLEN 2015
Small towns too – FLEN 2020
ǀ URBAN RESEARCH & DESIGNSPACESCAPE
Alexander Ståhle
PhD & CEO Spacescape
alexander.stahle@spacescape.se
www.spacescape.se
The end of the car city - A convenient truth
The end of the car city - A convenient truth
The end of the car city - A convenient truth
The end of the car city - A convenient truth
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Transcript of "The end of the car city - A convenient truth"

  1. 1. THE END OF THE CAR CITY ”A convenient truth” Alexander Ståhle, PHD & CEO ǀ URBAN RESEARCH & DESIGNSPACESCAPE
  2. 2. Why cities?
  3. 3. Proximity creates livability
  4. 4. Proximity creates innovation
  5. 5. Proximity creates social wellfare
  6. 6. Vad gör en attraktiv plats? Fungerar planen som det var tänkt? Vad skapar närhet och flöden? SOFO Proximity creates value
  7. 7. Housing value is 90% walkability in Stockholm Appartment prices in Stockholm regionUrban qualities
  8. 8. “Walkability command a premium of $4-34,000” CEO for Cities (2009) ”Walkable urban””Drivable suburban”
  9. 9. SHOPS DENSITYDENSITY SHOPS STOCKHOLM MALMÖÖREBRO RESTAURANTS DENSITY “Cities are proximity, density, closeness” Edward Glaeser
  10. 10. Density decreases car use Density Travel Dunphy RT and Fisher K (1996)
  11. 11. Average commute in Hong Kong is 11 min
  12. 12. “Individuals living near transit had a significantly higher level of trust and reciprocity and connections with neighbors.” Patterns of social capital associated with transit oriented development, Journal of Transport Geography, 2014
  13. 13. “Denser areas have greater economic mobility.“ (Measuring sprawl, SGA, 2014)
  14. 14. “The compact walkable city enhance livelihoods for the poor through affordable mobility. It lower social segregation through proximity of affordable housing to places of work”. Joan Clos, UN Habitat
  15. 15. “An advanced city is not where the poor drive cars, but where the rich take public transport” Enrique Penalosa
  16. 16. Car accessiblity do not affect appartment prices or office rents in Stockholm Public transport accessibility Officerent
  17. 17. Failing office areas without transit and walkability Infra City, Upplands Väsby
  18. 18. Inside Infra City, Upplands Väsby Inside failing office areas…
  19. 19. "People in denser areas are more physically active." (Neighborhood environment and physical activity, Eriksson, 2013)
  20. 20. "People in denser areas have longer life expectancies." (Measuring sprawl, SGA, 2014)
  21. 21. 5% drive to shop downtown in New York and in Stockholm (PPS 2010, Spacescape 2012)
  22. 22. "Pedestrians spend 65% more than drivers" Transport for London (2014)
  23. 23. “1/3 of America’s malls are dead or dying” deadmalls.com
  24. 24. Wallmart and IKEA goes urban
  25. 25. Gallerian shopping mall, Stockholm
  26. 26. Photoshop Gallerian shopping mall, Stockholm
  27. 27. Why not car cities?
  28. 28. People in cars can…
  29. 29. People in cars can´t interact
  30. 30. ”When in my car I get a different set of values” Louis CK
  31. 31. New study on “road rage” (Gatersleben, Murtagh, White 2013): •Car use has negative effects on urban communities by affecting social perceptions. •More car use through a relatively poor area is associated with less positive views of that area. •More walking through a relatively poor area is related to more positive views of the area. •Attitudes towards young people are more negative when they are seen from a car. •Attitudes towards young people are most positive when seen from a pedestrian perspective. ”Attitudes to people more negative when seen from a car”
  32. 32. Car traffic segregate neighborhoods Livable streets, Donald Appleyard (1981)
  33. 33. Car traffic is the most common complaint Västra Ursvik, Sundbyberg Rinkeby Ursvik
  34. 34. Car dependency is unequal - Women and poor drive less (A car costs approx. $900 a month)
  35. 35. Cars take up space
  36. 36. Cars take up too much space
  37. 37. “Parking is the most incorrectly valued urban asset... A $310 bn parking subsidy, 5X the education budget.” (Public Parking Fees and Fines, Public Works Management & Policy, 2014)
  38. 38. Car infrastructure is heavily subsidized
  39. 39. Sprawl consumes land “In the last decade, an area larger than the entire state of Maryland -- more than 33,000 square km of farmland, woodlands and other natural habitat beyond the edges of the nation's cities” (2014)
  40. 40. Ecosystems are destroyed and fragmented
  41. 41. ”Green” cars?
  42. 42. Traffic make 20-25% of all CO2 Peak oil…?
  43. 43. The ecological footprint of a car is X800
  44. 44. Acid rain kills nature and pollutes water
  45. 45. ”Long live the pedestrians” says who?
  46. 46. Car speed means death
  47. 47. Streets where playgrounds before the car Allmänna vägen, Göteborg 1910
  48. 48. Bad density means more sprawl - forces families to move to the suburbs
  49. 49. Cars kill 1,2 Mn and injure 39 Mn every year
  50. 50. Car driving promotes obesity and early death
  51. 51. 2,4 Mn people dies from smog every year
  52. 52. ”Car driving is like drug addiction” (The compulsive habit of cars, Trends in cognitive science, 2014)
  53. 53. ”Choice blindness”
  54. 54. Car city
  55. 55. Car city Walk city
  56. 56. The end of the suburbs – A war on the dream?
  57. 57. Who says walk cities?
  58. 58. “We should embrace policies that promote the compact city” Joan Clos, UN Habitat
  59. 59. “City transport is about moving people, not vehicles” Rachel Kyte, World Bank
  60. 60. “High quality sidewalks are the most basic element of a democratic city.” Enrique Peñalosa, ITDP
  61. 61. “Pedestrians and cyclists and bus riders are more important — than car riders.” Michael Bloomberg, NYC
  62. 62. New American policies for walk cities New York Chicago
  63. 63. New Swedish policies for walk cities
  64. 64. Walk cities reclaimed
  65. 65. Cities are being reclaimed and repaired
  66. 66. Squares are reclaimed Time square, NY
  67. 67. Freeways are reclaimed CicLAvia, Los Angeles
  68. 68. This used to be as freeway…” Hayes Valley San Francisco
  69. 69. Parks are reclaimed Champs Elysées, Paris
  70. 70. Parking spaces are reclaimed
  71. 71. Gardens are reclaimed
  72. 72. Playgrounds are reclaimed
  73. 73. Downtowns are reclaimed Detroit
  74. 74. Small towns too – FLEN 2013
  75. 75. Small towns too – FLEN 2015
  76. 76. Small towns too – FLEN 2020
  77. 77. ǀ URBAN RESEARCH & DESIGNSPACESCAPE Alexander Ståhle PhD & CEO Spacescape alexander.stahle@spacescape.se www.spacescape.se
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