Brigit Staatsen, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Netherlands


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  • Chain as strong as weakest link. Problem we encounter often in carrying out HIA
  • Transport major problem in densily populated urban areas in EU. Rising problem in accession countries: increasing number of cars, less use and budget for public transport …… Some key figures to describe the problem: Road traffic injuries cause every year some 127,000 one-hundred twenty thousands deaths and 2.4 million of injuries, representing the leading cause of death for children and young people between 5 and 29 years The contribution of transport-related emissions to outdoor air pollution is associated to tens of thousands of premature deaths, while physical inactivity has been related to some 600,000 deaths every year. A substantial part of the European population is exposed to noise levels that not only result in annoyance and sleep disturbance, but may also interfere with children learning skills. Last, not least transport infrastructure is highly demanding in terms of space, and the overall land use of 1 km of motorway is estimated in up to 20 hectares. The data on air pollution are based on WHO WR2002 estimates where PM10 is used as an indicator. The data on physical inactivity are based on estimates of the World Health Report 2002.
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  • Brigit Staatsen, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Netherlands

    1. 1. Transport andhealth: pioneer ofHealth in All PoliciesMake way for healthytransport: experiences in theNetherlands and EuropeBrigit StaatsenRIVM, the Netherlands | 13 June 20131
    2. 2. Why integrated approach transport and health?RIVM, the Netherlands | 12 June 20132108,000108,000deaths anddeaths and2.4 million2.4 millioninjuries/yearinjuries/yearExposure to PM10 decreasesExposure to PM10 decreaseslife expectancy of everylife expectancy of everyperson by 9 monthsperson by 9 monthsPhysicalPhysicalinactivity : oneinactivity : onemillionmilliondeaths/yeardeaths/year(WHO-European region)(WHO-European region)More than 20% ofMore than 20% ofthe EU populationthe EU populationexposed to noiseexposed to noiselevels > 65 dB(A)levels > 65 dB(A) Promotion walking, cycling and public transportPromotion walking, cycling and public transport: significant reduction CO: significant reduction CO22 emissionsemissions
    3. 3. History of cycling in the Netherlands:Safe infrastructure due to pressure citizensRIVM, the Netherlands | 12 June 20133
    4. 4. Transport policy NetherlandsSafeguard mobility, limit negative impacts on environment and health,and create conditions for active transport (biking, walking).RIVM, the Netherlands | 12 June 20134What has been done:•Nota mobility (2004)•National Policy letter promotion measuresbiking•Project bike-highways•Promotion campaign ‘Everybody bikes’•Action programme Traffic Safety•Contribution Transport, Health andEnvironment Pan-European Programme ofWHO and UNECE (THE-PEP)
    5. 5. Implementation transport policies theNetherlands• Collaboration transport & environment sectors & companies• Financial stimuli municipalities• Awareness raising , driving, bike to work• Sharing of knowledge, best practices and tools for impactassessment outsourced via a.o. Bicycle Council• Very active Cyclist Association: benchmarkingRecent negative developments:• Expansion highways and higher speed limits• Less attention for active transport policy-makersRIVM, the Netherlands | 12 June 20135
    6. 6. Some key facts• Biking is fun and relaxing, cheap and you are alwayson time. 84% of Dutch people positive about biking.• Everybody bikes: young and old, men and women,poor and rich.• One-third of all transport up to 7.5 km by bike.• Almost half of Dutch adults <30 min. physical active.• Replacement of short car-trips: considerableenvironment and health gains.• NL highest number of cyclists in EU and high bicyclesafety, followed by Denmark and Germany.• Large inter- and international differences in cycling,linked to spatial and transport policies (cars, publictransport), culture (bike is for lower classes).RIVM, the Netherlands | 12 June 20136
    7. 7. Example Alkmaar: 10% increase biking – 2-6%reduction emissions and 3% decrease physicalinactiveRIVM, the Netherlands | 12 June 20137Source: Fietsberaad, 2012
    8. 8. Inspiring example: Biking network Houten• Starshaped network of biking routes.• Cars have to make use of a ring road.• Number of trips to school by car are much lower than average (5-10%).• Young children (>6 yrs) bike or walk to school on their own.• Retail research shows that business profits.RIVM, the Netherlands | 12 June 20138
    9. 9. Aims and workplan THE-PEPMaking THE link:(a) Stimulate integration of policies on transport, health andenvironment(b) Exchange knowledge and promising practices(c) Strengthen (inter)national and regional cooperation(d) Capacity-building(e) User-friendly overview of main relevant initiatives in EuropeanRegionRIVM, the Netherlands | 12 June 20139Source: Amsterdam Declaration, 2010
    10. 10. Netherlands and Denmark as inspirators?• Contributions NL THE-PEP:> Evidence briefings transport and health> Experts sent to several EU countries> Contribution relay estafette> Toolbox healthy transport• Ministerial High-level Meeting in Amsterdam 2009• Since start THE-PEP more and more cities in Europe are starting withbiking projects, e.g. Russia, Georgia, Macedonia, etc.• Embassy and Bicycle Council share experiences in eg USA, Brasil, UKRIVM, the Netherlands | 12 June 201310“Biking is easyfor you, but notfor us.”
    11. 11. Which approaches are effective?√ High % cycling in European cities with continuous and integralpolicy, linked to local objectives. Mix of creation safe infrastructurecombined with legal measures (speed and emission limits),financial incentives and awareness raising.RIVM, the Netherlands | 12 June 201311• For example: safe routes to school or work, speed reduction limitsurban areas, in combination with education and financial incentives(eg for employees)• Intersectoral collaboration and knowledge sharing: e.g.Switserland, NL: bike knowledge-broker• Limited evidence base: Only few longitudinal investigations ofimpacts of healthy transport measures on health.
    12. 12. Integral approachRIVM, the Netherlands | 12 June 201312Source: FietsberaadIntegral approachSmart internalorganizationSmart externalorganizationSharp problemanalysisInvolve the usersConnect finances Support of thepublicSupport ofpoliticsRegionalcooperationProject approach
    13. 13. The benefits of walking and cycling:helping other sectors achieve their own goals• Most people can do it• It is cheap and relaxing• Avoids dependence on facilities for physical activityRIVM, the Netherlands | 12 June 201313In Europe, many car trips are short - Shifting some of thesetrips to walking and cycling can help…• Improve road safety, air quality and noise• Improve accessibility and quality of urban life• Reduce congestion, energy consumption and CO2 emissions• Complement technological improvements to vehicles and fuels• Create extra jobs (tourism, bike-sharing, etc.)Source: THE PEP, 2012
    14. 14. Conclusions• Cycling improves traffic flow, is sustainable and healthy• Cycling is cheap (purchase and infrastrcuture): NL 3-26 Euro/citizen• Benefits outweigh investments (e.g. Barcelona).• Most succesful policies: integrated & continuous approach.• Biking more than sports is new for most countries• Sharing experiences and knowledge, presenting benefits in informaland practical settings helps.RIVM, the Netherlands | 12 June 2013141 Euro spent onpedestrian crossingssaves 14 Euro’s1 Euro spent onpedestrian crossingssaves 14 Euro’s
    15. 15. Challenges for the future• Continue awareness raising: Keep healthy transport on agendahealth, transport and environment sector. Raise awareness forsafety (e.g. Rome).• Make biking attractive and integral part of daily activity (easy)• Monitor and evaluate interventions, share effective ones, but keepaware of local situation (no ‘one size fits all’)• How to get physically inactive people more active (e.g. AVENUE)• Sustainable mobility is healthy mobility (chance at EU level)RIVM, the Netherlands | 12 June 201315
    16. 16. More informationwww.thepep.org Publicaties Cycling+in+the+Netherlands‘health economic assessment tool’RIVM, the Netherlands | 12 June 201316
    17. 17. Choice between unlimited car mobility…RIVM, the Netherlands | 12 June 201317
    18. 18. Or more space for bicycles and pedestrians…RIVM, the Netherlands | 12 June 201318