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Solar Dynamics Observatory_June 2010
 

Solar Dynamics Observatory_June 2010

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Presented to Longmont Astronomical Society, 17 June 2010

Presented to Longmont Astronomical Society, 17 June 2010

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    Solar Dynamics Observatory_June 2010 Solar Dynamics Observatory_June 2010 Presentation Transcript

    • Solar Dynamics Observatory Longmont Astronomical Society Longmont, CO – 17 June 2010 Suzanne Metlay, Ph.D. Education & Public Outreach Lead Secure World Foundation Superior, CO
    • NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory
      • Launched 11 Feb 2010
        • 5 year mission (follow-on to SOHO)
        • NASA’s Living with a Star Program
      • Multiwavelength observation of Sun’s atmosphere, magnetic field
        • Solar wind
        • Solar irradiance
        • Solar cycle
        • Coronal Mass Ejections
        • Sunspot Activity
      • Geosynchronous orbit above ground station in New Mexico
        • White Sands, NM
        • 90 minutes to obtain, process, and upload images to web
          • http://sdowww.lmsal.com/suntoday
          • http://www.lmsal.com/helio-informatics/hpkb/
      • SDO images have 10x higher resolution than high definition
        • 4096 x 4096 pixels
        • Twice as much detail as STEREO images
        • 1 GB data every minute
      Space Weather
    • SDO Science Questions
      • Hope to gain insight into:
      • How and why the Sun's magnetic field changes?
      • How energy is stored in the magnetic field?
      • How is solar energy released into Sun-Earth system?
      • How does solar variability affect space weather?
      • SDO is the 1 st spacecraft to observe Sun’s magnetic field and atmosphere at the same time in multiple wavelengths
        • Different colors indicate different temperatures and layers of atmosphere
      SDO Full-disk Multiwavelength image 30 March 2010
    • SDO Instruments
      • 2 High-gain Antennae & 2 Solar Arrays
      • 3-axis stabilized
      • 3 Instruments:
      • Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA)
        • Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab
        • Individual light feeds designed and built at
        • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
        • Full-disk solar imaging in UV and extreme UV
      • Helioseismic & Magnetic Imager (HMI)
        • Stanford University
        • Full-disk high-resolution measurements
        • of longitudinal and vector magnetic fields
      • Extreme Ultraviolet Variability
      • Experiment (EVE)
        • LASP (Univ. Colorado at Boulder)
        • Takes data every 10 seconds
        • Measures energetic EUV photons
    • First Light
      • Solar Prominence recorded 30 March 2010
      • Note twisting motion of magnetic field
      • http://sdo.gsfc.nasa.gov/gallery/youtube.php - SDO launch and deployment animation
      • http://sdo.gsfc.nasa.gov/assets/img/firstlight/movies/prominence20100330_sm.mov
    • Structure of the Sun
      • Near surface convection generates acoustic waves
      • Periods of nearly 5 minutes
      • How does this relate to solar cycle?
    • HMI Instrument HMI monitors magnetic field activity on solar surface How does surface activity relate to inner dynamics?
      • http://sdo.gsfc.nasa.gov/gallery/youtube.php
      • Sun’s magnetic field in HD
      • Solar dynamo visualizations
    • Dark Filament above Active Regions
      • Dark elongated filament
      • Clearly above surface of Sun
      • Cooler clouds of gas suspended by
      • tenuous magnetic fields
      • Often unstable and commonly erupt
      • Bright active regions
      • Indicate where magnetic field is heating
      • Shafts of plasma trace magnetic field
      • lines emerging from them
      • “ This one is estimated to be at least 60 Earth diameters long (about 500,000 miles).”
      • ― SDO Gallery Pick of the Week:
      • http://sdo.gsfc.nasa.gov/gallery/potw.php?v=item&id=1
      Close-up of AIA image taken in 211Å (EUV Fe line) on 18 May 2010
    • AIA Instrument Guide Telescope (GT) Camera Electronics Box (CEB) CEB Radiator CCD Radiator CEB is independently mounted to IM
      • http://sdo.gsfc.nasa.gov/gallery/youtube.php
      • “ Many Different Views of the Sun – HMI and AIA”
      • “ SDO: High-res through the Sun’s atmosphere”
      • “ AIA multi-temperature images of eruption and flare”
      • 4 Telescopes – Sampling: 0.6 arcsec per pixel
      • 7 EUV channels:
        • Fe sequence (6 iron lines)
        • He II (Helium @ 304Å)
      • 1 UV Channel: 1600Å, 1700Å, white light filters
      • Field of view:
      • 41 arcmin along detector axes
      • 46 arcmin along detector diagonal
    • AIA Wavelengths
      • UV channel has three filters: White light, C IV 1550, UV Continuum
        • White light for ground calibration, co-alignment with HMI & ground-based instruments
      • He II 304Å
        • Observes chromosphere
        • Monitor filaments
        • Key driver to chemistry of the Earth’s outermost atmospheric layers
      • Fe ions (various wavelengths)
        • Observes corona and flaring regions
      Channel Visible 1700Å 304Å 1600Å 171Å 193Å 211Å 335Å 94Å 131Å  †† - - 12.7 - 4.7 6.0 7.0 16.5 0.9 4.4 Ion(s) Continuum Continuum He II C IV+cont. Fe IX Fe XII, XXIV Fe XIV Fe XVI Fe XVIII Fe XX, XXIII Region of Atmosphere* Photosphere Temperature minimum, photosphere Chromosphere, transition region, Transition region + upper photosphere Quiet corona, upper transition region Corona and hot flare plasma Active-region corona Active-region corona Flaring regions Flaring regions Char. log( T ) 3.7 3.7 4.7 5.0 5.8 6.1, 7.3 6.3 6.4 6.8 7.0, 7.2 AIA wavelength bands *Absorption allows imaging of chromospheric material within the corona; †† FWHM, in Å Fe XVIII 94 Å Fe XX/XXIII 133 Å 1600Å? Fe IX/X 171 Å Fe XII 195 Å Fe XIV 211 Å C IV 1550 Å He II 304 Å Fe XVI 335 Å
    • EVE Instrument
      • Solar flare on 30 April 2010
        • EVE detects broad secondary peak of
        • EUV photons missed by GOES spacecraft
        • Secondary peak lasts longer and has nearly
        • 4x as much energy as primary peak
      • Energetic extreme ultraviolet photons
        • Prime driver to heat Earth’s upper atmosphere
        • Creates ionosphere
        • Constantly changing output
          • Moment to moment
          • Solar cycle
      • http://sdo.gsfc.nasa.gov/gallery/youtube.php
      • “ The Sun lights up for EVE”
    • NASA Monitors Sun and Space Weather
      • Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE)
      • Launched1997
        • Detects solar wind gusts, CMEs, etc.
        • Provides warnings: 30 minutes or more
      • Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)
      • Launched 2006
        • Two spacecraft stationed on opposite
        • sides of Sun
        • Combined view of 90% of solar surface
        • Sees active sunspots on Sun's farside
      • Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)
      • Launched 2010
        • Images active regions on entire Sun
        • with unprecedented resolution & speed
        • Magnetic field data coupled to
        • atmospheric and internal dynamic data
        • Monitors the sun's extreme UV output
          • Response of Earth's atmosphere
          • to solar variability.
    • Space Weather Effects
      • Space Weather events:
        • Solar flares
        • Coronal mass ejections
        • Radiation emission through coronal holes
        • Energetic charged particles
      • Degrade or destroy satellites
        • Increased drag from thermal expansion of Earth’s atmosphere
        • Surface charging, electrostatic discharge, or other damage to
        • onboard electronics
        • Damaged solar panels, power loss
        • Phantom commands, data corruption
      • Ground stations may also suffer
        • Corruption of navigational data, leading to signal timing or
        • position errors
        • Scatter, interruption or loss of communications data from
        • ionization of Earth’s atmosphere
    • ZombieSat
      • Galaxy 15 satellite = “ZombieSat”
      • Launched 2005
        • Built by Orbital Sciences Corp
        • Operated by IntelSat
        • Navigation/Communications in geostationary orbit
      • Control lost 5 April 2010, likely due to
      • space weather event
        • Drifting through orbital paths of other satellites
          • SES AMC-11 had to be moved out of the way
          • Passed within 0.2 degrees of AMC-11 during
          • closest approach on 1 June 2010
            • No interference reported
      • Transponders still on
        • Could still interfere with TV signals through
        • end of June 2010
    • Galaxy 15 drifting through GEO and EM spectrum Tim Rickard “Brewster Rockit” 24 May 2010
    • Questions? Thank You! [email_address] [email_address]
    • NEW! -- 2 Planetarium Shows Coming in 2010
      • PLANETARIUM SHOWS & EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS WILL BE DISTRIBUTED
      • AT NO COST TO INTERNATIONAL PLANETARIUM SOCIETY MEMBERS AND AFFILIATES
      •  
      • “ The Crowded Sky” – 25-minute SHOW FREE PUBLIC SHOW: 25 June 2010
      • What is in Earth orbit?
        • Active satellites are vastly outnumbered by derelict satellites, rocket bodies, other objects
      • Where are satellites located?
        • GEO, MEO, LEO
      • How do people use satellite technology?
      •  
      • Clicker question interlude – Supplementary EDUCATIONAL material Release date: 25 June 2010
      • Guided question and answer session for general public or classroom use
      • Questions appropriate for university students in introductory courses
        • Additional questions available for general public
        • Tied to US national science content standards for grades 9-12
      • Planetarium staff conduct this segment live
        • Responsive to current news events
        • Updated fact sheets will be provided by Secure World Foundation
        • and/or Fiske Planetarium throughout life of planetarium shows
      •  
      • “ Life of a Satellite”– 25-minute SHOW Planned release date: November 2010
      • Launch to de-orbit of WorldView-2 satellite
        • WorldView-2 satellite is owned and operated by DigitalGlobe, Inc.
      • On-orbit hazards
        • Orbital debris
        • Space weather
      • Show actual satellite operations