Solar Dynamics Observatory_June 2010

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Presented to Longmont Astronomical Society, 17 June 2010

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Solar Dynamics Observatory_June 2010

  1. 1. Solar Dynamics Observatory Longmont Astronomical Society Longmont, CO – 17 June 2010 Suzanne Metlay, Ph.D. Education & Public Outreach Lead Secure World Foundation Superior, CO
  2. 2. NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory <ul><li>Launched 11 Feb 2010 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 year mission (follow-on to SOHO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NASA’s Living with a Star Program </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiwavelength observation of Sun’s atmosphere, magnetic field </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar wind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar irradiance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coronal Mass Ejections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunspot Activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geosynchronous orbit above ground station in New Mexico </li></ul><ul><ul><li>White Sands, NM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>90 minutes to obtain, process, and upload images to web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://sdowww.lmsal.com/suntoday </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.lmsal.com/helio-informatics/hpkb/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>SDO images have 10x higher resolution than high definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4096 x 4096 pixels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Twice as much detail as STEREO images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 GB data every minute </li></ul></ul>Space Weather
  3. 3. SDO Science Questions <ul><li>Hope to gain insight into: </li></ul><ul><li>How and why the Sun's magnetic field changes? </li></ul><ul><li>How energy is stored in the magnetic field? </li></ul><ul><li>How is solar energy released into Sun-Earth system? </li></ul><ul><li>How does solar variability affect space weather? </li></ul><ul><li>SDO is the 1 st spacecraft to observe Sun’s magnetic field and atmosphere at the same time in multiple wavelengths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different colors indicate different temperatures and layers of atmosphere </li></ul></ul>SDO Full-disk Multiwavelength image 30 March 2010
  4. 4. SDO Instruments <ul><li>2 High-gain Antennae & 2 Solar Arrays </li></ul><ul><li>3-axis stabilized </li></ul><ul><li>3 Instruments: </li></ul><ul><li>Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual light feeds designed and built at </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full-disk solar imaging in UV and extreme UV </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Helioseismic & Magnetic Imager (HMI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stanford University </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full-disk high-resolution measurements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of longitudinal and vector magnetic fields </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extreme Ultraviolet Variability </li></ul><ul><li>Experiment (EVE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LASP (Univ. Colorado at Boulder) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes data every 10 seconds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures energetic EUV photons </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. First Light <ul><li>Solar Prominence recorded 30 March 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Note twisting motion of magnetic field </li></ul><ul><li>http://sdo.gsfc.nasa.gov/gallery/youtube.php - SDO launch and deployment animation </li></ul><ul><li>http://sdo.gsfc.nasa.gov/assets/img/firstlight/movies/prominence20100330_sm.mov </li></ul>
  6. 6. Structure of the Sun <ul><li>Near surface convection generates acoustic waves </li></ul><ul><li>Periods of nearly 5 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>How does this relate to solar cycle? </li></ul>
  7. 7. HMI Instrument HMI monitors magnetic field activity on solar surface How does surface activity relate to inner dynamics? <ul><li>http://sdo.gsfc.nasa.gov/gallery/youtube.php </li></ul><ul><li>Sun’s magnetic field in HD </li></ul><ul><li>Solar dynamo visualizations </li></ul>
  8. 8. Dark Filament above Active Regions <ul><li>Dark elongated filament </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly above surface of Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Cooler clouds of gas suspended by </li></ul><ul><li>tenuous magnetic fields </li></ul><ul><li>Often unstable and commonly erupt </li></ul><ul><li>Bright active regions </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate where magnetic field is heating </li></ul><ul><li>Shafts of plasma trace magnetic field </li></ul><ul><li>lines emerging from them </li></ul><ul><li>“ This one is estimated to be at least 60 Earth diameters long (about 500,000 miles).” </li></ul><ul><li>― SDO Gallery Pick of the Week: </li></ul><ul><li>http://sdo.gsfc.nasa.gov/gallery/potw.php?v=item&id=1 </li></ul>Close-up of AIA image taken in 211Å (EUV Fe line) on 18 May 2010
  9. 9. AIA Instrument Guide Telescope (GT) Camera Electronics Box (CEB) CEB Radiator CCD Radiator CEB is independently mounted to IM <ul><li>http://sdo.gsfc.nasa.gov/gallery/youtube.php </li></ul><ul><li>“ Many Different Views of the Sun – HMI and AIA” </li></ul><ul><li>“ SDO: High-res through the Sun’s atmosphere” </li></ul><ul><li>“ AIA multi-temperature images of eruption and flare” </li></ul><ul><li>4 Telescopes – Sampling: 0.6 arcsec per pixel </li></ul><ul><li>7 EUV channels: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fe sequence (6 iron lines) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He II (Helium @ 304Å) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1 UV Channel: 1600Å, 1700Å, white light filters </li></ul><ul><li>Field of view: </li></ul><ul><li>41 arcmin along detector axes </li></ul><ul><li>46 arcmin along detector diagonal </li></ul>
  10. 10. AIA Wavelengths <ul><li>UV channel has three filters: White light, C IV 1550, UV Continuum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>White light for ground calibration, co-alignment with HMI & ground-based instruments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He II 304Å </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observes chromosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor filaments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key driver to chemistry of the Earth’s outermost atmospheric layers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fe ions (various wavelengths) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observes corona and flaring regions </li></ul></ul>Channel Visible 1700Å 304Å 1600Å 171Å 193Å 211Å 335Å 94Å 131Å  †† - - 12.7 - 4.7 6.0 7.0 16.5 0.9 4.4 Ion(s) Continuum Continuum He II C IV+cont. Fe IX Fe XII, XXIV Fe XIV Fe XVI Fe XVIII Fe XX, XXIII Region of Atmosphere* Photosphere Temperature minimum, photosphere Chromosphere, transition region, Transition region + upper photosphere Quiet corona, upper transition region Corona and hot flare plasma Active-region corona Active-region corona Flaring regions Flaring regions Char. log( T ) 3.7 3.7 4.7 5.0 5.8 6.1, 7.3 6.3 6.4 6.8 7.0, 7.2 AIA wavelength bands *Absorption allows imaging of chromospheric material within the corona; †† FWHM, in Å Fe XVIII 94 Å Fe XX/XXIII 133 Å 1600Å? Fe IX/X 171 Å Fe XII 195 Å Fe XIV 211 Å C IV 1550 Å He II 304 Å Fe XVI 335 Å
  11. 11. EVE Instrument <ul><li>Solar flare on 30 April 2010 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EVE detects broad secondary peak of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EUV photons missed by GOES spacecraft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary peak lasts longer and has nearly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4x as much energy as primary peak </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Energetic extreme ultraviolet photons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prime driver to heat Earth’s upper atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates ionosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constantly changing output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moment to moment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solar cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>http://sdo.gsfc.nasa.gov/gallery/youtube.php </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Sun lights up for EVE” </li></ul>
  12. 12. NASA Monitors Sun and Space Weather <ul><li>Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) </li></ul><ul><li>Launched1997 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detects solar wind gusts, CMEs, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides warnings: 30 minutes or more </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) </li></ul><ul><li>Launched 2006 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two spacecraft stationed on opposite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sides of Sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combined view of 90% of solar surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sees active sunspots on Sun's farside </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) </li></ul><ul><li>Launched 2010 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Images active regions on entire Sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with unprecedented resolution & speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic field data coupled to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>atmospheric and internal dynamic data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitors the sun's extreme UV output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Response of Earth's atmosphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to solar variability. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Space Weather Effects <ul><li>Space Weather events: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar flares </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coronal mass ejections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation emission through coronal holes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energetic charged particles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Degrade or destroy satellites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased drag from thermal expansion of Earth’s atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface charging, electrostatic discharge, or other damage to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>onboard electronics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Damaged solar panels, power loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phantom commands, data corruption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ground stations may also suffer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corruption of navigational data, leading to signal timing or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>position errors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scatter, interruption or loss of communications data from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ionization of Earth’s atmosphere </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. ZombieSat <ul><li>Galaxy 15 satellite = “ZombieSat” </li></ul><ul><li>Launched 2005 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built by Orbital Sciences Corp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operated by IntelSat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigation/Communications in geostationary orbit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control lost 5 April 2010, likely due to </li></ul><ul><li>space weather event </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drifting through orbital paths of other satellites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SES AMC-11 had to be moved out of the way </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passed within 0.2 degrees of AMC-11 during </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>closest approach on 1 June 2010 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No interference reported </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Transponders still on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could still interfere with TV signals through </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>end of June 2010 </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Galaxy 15 drifting through GEO and EM spectrum Tim Rickard “Brewster Rockit” 24 May 2010
  16. 16. Questions? Thank You! [email_address] [email_address]
  17. 17. NEW! -- 2 Planetarium Shows Coming in 2010 <ul><li>PLANETARIUM SHOWS & EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS WILL BE DISTRIBUTED </li></ul><ul><li>AT NO COST TO INTERNATIONAL PLANETARIUM SOCIETY MEMBERS AND AFFILIATES </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Crowded Sky” – 25-minute SHOW FREE PUBLIC SHOW: 25 June 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>What is in Earth orbit? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active satellites are vastly outnumbered by derelict satellites, rocket bodies, other objects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where are satellites located? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GEO, MEO, LEO </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do people use satellite technology? </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Clicker question interlude – Supplementary EDUCATIONAL material Release date: 25 June 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Guided question and answer session for general public or classroom use </li></ul><ul><li>Questions appropriate for university students in introductory courses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional questions available for general public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tied to US national science content standards for grades 9-12 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Planetarium staff conduct this segment live </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsive to current news events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Updated fact sheets will be provided by Secure World Foundation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and/or Fiske Planetarium throughout life of planetarium shows </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>“ Life of a Satellite”– 25-minute SHOW Planned release date: November 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Launch to de-orbit of WorldView-2 satellite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WorldView-2 satellite is owned and operated by DigitalGlobe, Inc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>On-orbit hazards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orbital debris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space weather </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Show actual satellite operations </li></ul>

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