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Solar Dynamics Observatory_June 2010

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Presented to Longmont Astronomical Society, 17 June 2010

Presented to Longmont Astronomical Society, 17 June 2010

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  • 1. Solar Dynamics Observatory Longmont Astronomical Society Longmont, CO – 17 June 2010 Suzanne Metlay, Ph.D. Education & Public Outreach Lead Secure World Foundation Superior, CO
  • 2. NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory
    • Launched 11 Feb 2010
      • 5 year mission (follow-on to SOHO)
      • NASA’s Living with a Star Program
    • Multiwavelength observation of Sun’s atmosphere, magnetic field
      • Solar wind
      • Solar irradiance
      • Solar cycle
      • Coronal Mass Ejections
      • Sunspot Activity
    • Geosynchronous orbit above ground station in New Mexico
      • White Sands, NM
      • 90 minutes to obtain, process, and upload images to web
        • http://sdowww.lmsal.com/suntoday
        • http://www.lmsal.com/helio-informatics/hpkb/
    • SDO images have 10x higher resolution than high definition
      • 4096 x 4096 pixels
      • Twice as much detail as STEREO images
      • 1 GB data every minute
    Space Weather
  • 3. SDO Science Questions
    • Hope to gain insight into:
    • How and why the Sun's magnetic field changes?
    • How energy is stored in the magnetic field?
    • How is solar energy released into Sun-Earth system?
    • How does solar variability affect space weather?
    • SDO is the 1 st spacecraft to observe Sun’s magnetic field and atmosphere at the same time in multiple wavelengths
      • Different colors indicate different temperatures and layers of atmosphere
    SDO Full-disk Multiwavelength image 30 March 2010
  • 4. SDO Instruments
    • 2 High-gain Antennae & 2 Solar Arrays
    • 3-axis stabilized
    • 3 Instruments:
    • Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA)
      • Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab
      • Individual light feeds designed and built at
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      • Full-disk solar imaging in UV and extreme UV
    • Helioseismic & Magnetic Imager (HMI)
      • Stanford University
      • Full-disk high-resolution measurements
      • of longitudinal and vector magnetic fields
    • Extreme Ultraviolet Variability
    • Experiment (EVE)
      • LASP (Univ. Colorado at Boulder)
      • Takes data every 10 seconds
      • Measures energetic EUV photons
  • 5. First Light
    • Solar Prominence recorded 30 March 2010
    • Note twisting motion of magnetic field
    • http://sdo.gsfc.nasa.gov/gallery/youtube.php - SDO launch and deployment animation
    • http://sdo.gsfc.nasa.gov/assets/img/firstlight/movies/prominence20100330_sm.mov
  • 6. Structure of the Sun
    • Near surface convection generates acoustic waves
    • Periods of nearly 5 minutes
    • How does this relate to solar cycle?
  • 7. HMI Instrument HMI monitors magnetic field activity on solar surface How does surface activity relate to inner dynamics?
    • http://sdo.gsfc.nasa.gov/gallery/youtube.php
    • Sun’s magnetic field in HD
    • Solar dynamo visualizations
  • 8. Dark Filament above Active Regions
    • Dark elongated filament
    • Clearly above surface of Sun
    • Cooler clouds of gas suspended by
    • tenuous magnetic fields
    • Often unstable and commonly erupt
    • Bright active regions
    • Indicate where magnetic field is heating
    • Shafts of plasma trace magnetic field
    • lines emerging from them
    • “ This one is estimated to be at least 60 Earth diameters long (about 500,000 miles).”
    • ― SDO Gallery Pick of the Week:
    • http://sdo.gsfc.nasa.gov/gallery/potw.php?v=item&id=1
    Close-up of AIA image taken in 211Å (EUV Fe line) on 18 May 2010
  • 9. AIA Instrument Guide Telescope (GT) Camera Electronics Box (CEB) CEB Radiator CCD Radiator CEB is independently mounted to IM
    • http://sdo.gsfc.nasa.gov/gallery/youtube.php
    • “ Many Different Views of the Sun – HMI and AIA”
    • “ SDO: High-res through the Sun’s atmosphere”
    • “ AIA multi-temperature images of eruption and flare”
    • 4 Telescopes – Sampling: 0.6 arcsec per pixel
    • 7 EUV channels:
      • Fe sequence (6 iron lines)
      • He II (Helium @ 304Å)
    • 1 UV Channel: 1600Å, 1700Å, white light filters
    • Field of view:
    • 41 arcmin along detector axes
    • 46 arcmin along detector diagonal
  • 10. AIA Wavelengths
    • UV channel has three filters: White light, C IV 1550, UV Continuum
      • White light for ground calibration, co-alignment with HMI & ground-based instruments
    • He II 304Å
      • Observes chromosphere
      • Monitor filaments
      • Key driver to chemistry of the Earth’s outermost atmospheric layers
    • Fe ions (various wavelengths)
      • Observes corona and flaring regions
    Channel Visible 1700Å 304Å 1600Å 171Å 193Å 211Å 335Å 94Å 131Å  †† - - 12.7 - 4.7 6.0 7.0 16.5 0.9 4.4 Ion(s) Continuum Continuum He II C IV+cont. Fe IX Fe XII, XXIV Fe XIV Fe XVI Fe XVIII Fe XX, XXIII Region of Atmosphere* Photosphere Temperature minimum, photosphere Chromosphere, transition region, Transition region + upper photosphere Quiet corona, upper transition region Corona and hot flare plasma Active-region corona Active-region corona Flaring regions Flaring regions Char. log( T ) 3.7 3.7 4.7 5.0 5.8 6.1, 7.3 6.3 6.4 6.8 7.0, 7.2 AIA wavelength bands *Absorption allows imaging of chromospheric material within the corona; †† FWHM, in Å Fe XVIII 94 Å Fe XX/XXIII 133 Å 1600Å? Fe IX/X 171 Å Fe XII 195 Å Fe XIV 211 Å C IV 1550 Å He II 304 Å Fe XVI 335 Å
  • 11. EVE Instrument
    • Solar flare on 30 April 2010
      • EVE detects broad secondary peak of
      • EUV photons missed by GOES spacecraft
      • Secondary peak lasts longer and has nearly
      • 4x as much energy as primary peak
    • Energetic extreme ultraviolet photons
      • Prime driver to heat Earth’s upper atmosphere
      • Creates ionosphere
      • Constantly changing output
        • Moment to moment
        • Solar cycle
    • http://sdo.gsfc.nasa.gov/gallery/youtube.php
    • “ The Sun lights up for EVE”
  • 12. NASA Monitors Sun and Space Weather
    • Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE)
    • Launched1997
      • Detects solar wind gusts, CMEs, etc.
      • Provides warnings: 30 minutes or more
    • Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)
    • Launched 2006
      • Two spacecraft stationed on opposite
      • sides of Sun
      • Combined view of 90% of solar surface
      • Sees active sunspots on Sun's farside
    • Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)
    • Launched 2010
      • Images active regions on entire Sun
      • with unprecedented resolution & speed
      • Magnetic field data coupled to
      • atmospheric and internal dynamic data
      • Monitors the sun's extreme UV output
        • Response of Earth's atmosphere
        • to solar variability.
  • 13. Space Weather Effects
    • Space Weather events:
      • Solar flares
      • Coronal mass ejections
      • Radiation emission through coronal holes
      • Energetic charged particles
    • Degrade or destroy satellites
      • Increased drag from thermal expansion of Earth’s atmosphere
      • Surface charging, electrostatic discharge, or other damage to
      • onboard electronics
      • Damaged solar panels, power loss
      • Phantom commands, data corruption
    • Ground stations may also suffer
      • Corruption of navigational data, leading to signal timing or
      • position errors
      • Scatter, interruption or loss of communications data from
      • ionization of Earth’s atmosphere
  • 14. ZombieSat
    • Galaxy 15 satellite = “ZombieSat”
    • Launched 2005
      • Built by Orbital Sciences Corp
      • Operated by IntelSat
      • Navigation/Communications in geostationary orbit
    • Control lost 5 April 2010, likely due to
    • space weather event
      • Drifting through orbital paths of other satellites
        • SES AMC-11 had to be moved out of the way
        • Passed within 0.2 degrees of AMC-11 during
        • closest approach on 1 June 2010
          • No interference reported
    • Transponders still on
      • Could still interfere with TV signals through
      • end of June 2010
  • 15. Galaxy 15 drifting through GEO and EM spectrum Tim Rickard “Brewster Rockit” 24 May 2010
  • 16. Questions? Thank You! [email_address] [email_address]
  • 17. NEW! -- 2 Planetarium Shows Coming in 2010
    • PLANETARIUM SHOWS & EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS WILL BE DISTRIBUTED
    • AT NO COST TO INTERNATIONAL PLANETARIUM SOCIETY MEMBERS AND AFFILIATES
    •  
    • “ The Crowded Sky” – 25-minute SHOW FREE PUBLIC SHOW: 25 June 2010
    • What is in Earth orbit?
      • Active satellites are vastly outnumbered by derelict satellites, rocket bodies, other objects
    • Where are satellites located?
      • GEO, MEO, LEO
    • How do people use satellite technology?
    •  
    • Clicker question interlude – Supplementary EDUCATIONAL material Release date: 25 June 2010
    • Guided question and answer session for general public or classroom use
    • Questions appropriate for university students in introductory courses
      • Additional questions available for general public
      • Tied to US national science content standards for grades 9-12
    • Planetarium staff conduct this segment live
      • Responsive to current news events
      • Updated fact sheets will be provided by Secure World Foundation
      • and/or Fiske Planetarium throughout life of planetarium shows
    •  
    • “ Life of a Satellite”– 25-minute SHOW Planned release date: November 2010
    • Launch to de-orbit of WorldView-2 satellite
      • WorldView-2 satellite is owned and operated by DigitalGlobe, Inc.
    • On-orbit hazards
      • Orbital debris
      • Space weather
    • Show actual satellite operations

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