Introto odyssey 1


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Introto odyssey 1

  1. 1. Introduction to Greek Myth
  2. 2. <ul><li>The Literature of Ancient Greece Involves </li></ul><ul><li>Rage </li></ul><ul><li>Defiance </li></ul><ul><li>Rebellion </li></ul><ul><li>Love </li></ul><ul><li>Hate </li></ul><ul><li>Betrayal </li></ul><ul><li>Redemption </li></ul><ul><li>Intrigue </li></ul><ul><li>Murder </li></ul><ul><li>Adventure </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>1200 B.C.E. (Before the Common Era) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legendary date of the Trojan War which lasted for ten years. War was between the Greeks (from all parts of Greece) and the Trojans (who were their neighbors in Turkey). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>750 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>The Greek poet Homer composes the epics The Iliad and The Odyssey in their oral forms. </li></ul><ul><li>514 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Athens becomes a democracy: all male citizens meet to make decisions for the town. Women and slaves need not apply. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Everywhere you look, there’s evidence of the ancient Greeks’ influence on our society. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>An Epic </li></ul><ul><li>1. An extended narrative poem in elevated or dignified language, celebrating the feats of a legendary or traditional hero. </li></ul><ul><li>2. A literary or dramatic composition that resembles an extended narrative poem celebrating heroic feats. </li></ul>-A quest or journey -monsters that threaten the quest -helpers (including monsters) -the role of women -sons and fathers -disguises -descent into the underworld -a great return What Are Some Other Modern Day Epics?
  6. 7. <ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>The Greeks believed in polytheism, which means many gods. They worshipped and feared these gods in their daily lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitality </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient tradition demands that strangers are treated well. Today, Greece is known for its hospitality- it has become custom. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Zeus’ demand <ul><li>Zeus- king of all the gods- demanded strangers be treated graciously. </li></ul><ul><li>Hosts had a religious duty to follow. </li></ul><ul><li>People believed that gods and goddesses liked to test people, and that a stranger could be a disguised god. </li></ul><ul><li>They must treat everyone well in order to avoid offending the gods. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>What’s the original story? </li></ul><ul><li>In the beginning, Chaos was a vast nothingness. </li></ul><ul><li>Out of the nothing emerged Gaia (the earth) and some other primary beings. </li></ul><ul><li>Later Gaia gave birth to Uranus without any male assistance. </li></ul>
  9. 10. …continued <ul><li>Uranus then fertilized Gaia and they had twelve children (6 females and 6 males). These children became the Titans Oceanus, Coeus and Crius and Hyperion and Iapetus, Theia and Rhea, Themis and Mnemosyne, Phoebe and Tethys, and Cronus. </li></ul><ul><li>Cronus then castrated his father. He and his sister-wife Rhea ruled, while the other Titans became his court. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>After Cronus betrayed his father, he feared that his offspring would betray him. </li></ul><ul><li>So each time Rhea gave birth, he snatched up the child and ate it. </li></ul><ul><li>Rhea hated this and tricked him by hiding Zeus and wrapping a stone in a baby's blanket, which Cronus ate. </li></ul>Cronus Eats his Kids
  11. 12. Zeus gets his siblings back <ul><li>When Zeus was grown, he fed his father a drugged drink. </li></ul><ul><li>The drink caused Cronus to throw up Zeus' brothers and sisters, and one stone, which had been sitting in Cronus' stomach all along. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Zeus takes the throne <ul><li>Zeus then challenged Cronus and his court for kingship. Zeus and his brothers and sisters won and resided on Mount Olympus with many other deities. The prominent 12 gods were known as Olympians. </li></ul><ul><li>The Greeks worshipped the 12 main gods as well as many other creatures (ex: nymphs, furies, dryads, and nereids). </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Tales of love often involve incest, or the seduction or rape of a mortal woman by a male god, resulting in heroic offspring. </li></ul><ul><li>The stories generally suggest that relationships between gods and mortals are something to avoid ; even consenting relationships rarely have happy endings </li></ul><ul><li>The second type ( tales of punishment ) involve getting or inventing some important cultural artifact, as when Prometheus steals fire from the gods. </li></ul>Trends
  14. 15. <ul><li>Greece (the people, literature, and history) is a fascinating subject! </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Greece (the people, literature, and history) is a fascinating subject! </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>The Iliad </li></ul><ul><li>The poem is commonly dated to the 8th or 7th century BC </li></ul><ul><li>Many scholars believe it is the oldest extant work of literature in the ancient Greek language, making it the first work of European literature. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Trojan War <ul><li>The Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks) </li></ul><ul><li>It started after Paris of Troy stole Helen from her husband Menelaus, the king of Sparta . Paris and Helen fell in love (with a little help from Aphrodite) and she willingly left Menelaus. </li></ul><ul><li>The war waged for 10 years. At times it appeared that the Greeks would win and at other times it seemed that the Trojans would win. The gods took sides during the war and helped both sides periodically. </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Agamemnon (Menaleus’s brother and commander of the Achean forces) steals Achilles concubine. </li></ul><ul><li>A concubine is a women of lower legal and social status than a wife, who is, however, a fully recognized mate. </li></ul><ul><li>Achilles becomes angry and refuses to fight. While Achilles is not fighting, the Trojans gain ground in the war </li></ul>In the 9th year of the war, things began to get a little crazy .
  19. 20. The drama continues… <ul><li>Zeus commands that the gods are not allowed to interfere in the war. </li></ul><ul><li>Achilles’ cousin, Petrochlus borrows Achilles’ armour and enters battle. </li></ul><ul><li>The prince of Troy kills Petrochlus. </li></ul><ul><li>Achilles enters the war again and kills Hector, and then drags his body back to the Greek camp. Later, Achilles dies in heavy fighting. </li></ul>
  20. 21. How did Achilles die? <ul><li>He dies when Paris shoots an arrow into his heel. </li></ul><ul><li>Background: Achilles mom had tried to make him immortal by dipping him into the river Styx. </li></ul><ul><li>The only part she missed was his heel </li></ul><ul><li>So, one’s “Achilles heel” is his/ her weakness. What’s yours? </li></ul>
  21. 22. The Trojan Horse <ul><li>In the 10th year, Odysseus, a great warrior, comes up with the idea of the wooden horse. The Greeks build it from the wood in the boats. </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>The Greeks hide inside the wooden horse and leave the horse outside the gates of Troy. </li></ul><ul><li>The Trojans think that it is a gift from the Greeks . They also believe the Greeks gave up and went home. They bring the horse inside the gates of Troy. The Trojans then have a huge party to celebrate the end of the war. </li></ul><ul><li>In the middle of the night, the Greeks come out of the horse and slaughter the Trojans , who are in drunken stupors. </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>Odysseus, the great hero, is proud that his idea led to the end of the war. </li></ul><ul><li>He brags about his superiority and angers the gods by claiming that he won without their help! </li></ul><ul><li>The gods decide to punish him and his journey home is fraught with problems and disasters. It takes him 10 years to get home to Ithaca, his island kingdom. </li></ul>Odysseus’ BIG Mistake
  24. 25. The story of his travels home.. <ul><li>Is called….. The Odyssey </li></ul><ul><li>This will be the epic tale of adventure that we will be reading next </li></ul>