v0.0.2 Alex
Testing Your
Automation Code
Author: Mischa Taylor (@misheska) misheska@getchef.com
Presenter: Alex Trull (@Al...
v2.0.0
Why Are You Here?
2
3
You’ve used and want to
bulletproof
your so that
you are with
Spec
In this class
• We’ll add tests to the apache cookbook from the
Fundamentals Course
• We’ll show you how to run cookbooks ...
Using Chef is half the battle
5
“Chef is like....

tests for your infrastructure”
-Ezra Zygmuntowicz, Co-Founder EngineYar...
Chef makes things more testable
• Chef automates infrastructure in a repeatable
fashion
6
What’s the other half of the battle?
7
“Have a plan”
-Adam Jacob, Co-Founder Chef
There’s no more magic to testing
8
http://www.flickr.com/photos/dkeats/4128747046/sizes/s/in/photostream/
You Are The Testing A-Team When...
9
Recommended plan
• Build in quality and robustness up front

10
https://flic.kr/p/8W67ZC
Otherwise you could...
• Verify and validate just before going to production
until time runs out. But time always runs out...
Waiting to test when it’s “done”
12
Intention:
Reality:
Build Test Deploy
Build
T
es
De
ploy
We’re late	

no time	

to tes...
13
14
Bake testing in earlier
15
Shorter cycles,	

to start testing early as possible:
Build Test Deploy Build Test Deploy Build...
Penny saved with testing
16
Up Front Testing Saves Money
https://www.flickr.com/people/68751915@N05/
Cost of change
17
Test arrangement
• Arrange tests to get feedback fast - at the earliest
possible time

18
seconds
minutes
hours
Foodcritic...
Reason for multiple tools
• Finding a bug in something that you can’t execute
is freaking hard!
• While fixing bugs before...
The Tools
• Each tool is specialized to give feedback as early
as possible during the cookbook authoring process

20
What each tool does
• In your text editor when you type in cookbook code:
• Foodcritic analyzes your Chef style
• RuboCop ...
v2.0.0
Legend
22
Legend: Do I run that command on my workstation?
$ whoami!
i-am-a-workstation
This is an example of a command to run on yo...
$ ifconfig
Legend: Example Terminal Command and Output
lo0: flags=8049<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 16384!
! options...
OPEN IN EDITOR:
SAVE FILE!
~/hello_world
Hi!!
!
I am a friendly file.
Legend: Example of editing a file on your workstatio...
v2.0.0
Workstation Setup - Linux and
Mac OS X (VirtualBox)
Getting started
26
Install Chef
• Install Chef (if not already installed)



http://www.getchef.com/chef/install
27
Install Chef Client
28
Install on Linux
29
Install on Mac OSX
30
$ curl -L http://www.getchef.com/chef/install.sh | sudo bash
Workstation Setup - Mac OS X / Linux
% Total % Received % Xfe...
What just happened?
• Chef and all of its dependencies installed via an
operating system-specific package ("omnibus instal...
OPEN IN EDITOR: $HOME/.bash_profile
export PATH="/opt/chef/embedded/bin:$PATH"
Add Chef Client to PATH
33
$ source $HOME/.bash_profile
Make the profile active
34
$ which ruby
Check the PATH setting
/opt/chef/embedded/bin/ruby
35
$ chef-client --version
Verify Install
Chef: 11.12.2
36
Install Developer Tools
• Install Developer Tools to build native extensions
37
http://patshaughnessy.net/2011/10/31/dont-...
Install Developer Tools
• Use build-essential cookbook:



https://github.com/opscode-cookbooks/build-
essential
38
$ mkdir /tmp/cookbooks
Temporary area for cookbook downloads
39
$ cd /tmp/cookbooks
Easiest to go to cookbooks dir
40
$ knife cookbook site download build-essential!
$ tar xvf build-essential-*.tar.gz
Download build-essential cookbook
41
$ cd /tmp!
$ sudo chef-client -z -o build-essential
Use local mode to run cookbook
42
$ gcc --version
Verify Install
gcc (GCC) 4.4.7 20120313 (Red Hat 4.4.7-4)
43
Mac OS X will prompt - ignore
44
$ cd /tmp/cookbooks
Easiest to go to cookbooks dir
45
$ knife cookbook site download git!
$ knife cookbook site download dmg!
$ knife cookbook site download windows!
$ knife co...
$ tar xvf git*.tar.gz!
$ tar xvf dmg*.tar.gz!
$ tar xvf windows*.tar.gz!
$ tar xvf runit*.tar.gz!
$ tar xvf yum-3*.tar.gz!...
$ cd /tmp!
$ sudo chef-client -z -o git
Use local mode to run cookbook
48
$ git --version
Verify Install
git version 1.8.2.1
49
$ rm -rf /tmp/cookbooks
Keep it neat
50
Install VirtualBox 4.x
51
Install Vagrant 1.5.x
52
v2.0.0
Workstation Setup - Windows
(VirtualBox)
Getting started
53
Install Chef
• Install Chef (if not already installed)

http://www.getchef.com/chef/install
54
Install Chef Client
55
Install on Windows
56
Install on Windows
57
> where ruby
Check the PATH setting
58
PS> get-command ruby
Check the PATH setting
> C:opscodechefembeddedbinruby.exe
59
Output:
> chef-client --version
Verify Install
Chef: 11.12.2
60
Developer Tools - Windows
• build-essential cookbook does not currently support
Windows.
• All the necessary developer too...
> mkdir %TEMP%cookbooks
Temporary area for cookbook downloads
62
PS> mkdir $env:tempcookbooks
> cd %TEMP%cookbooks
Easiest to go to cookbooks dir
63
PS> cd $env:tempcookbooks
> knife cookbook site download build-essential!
> knife cookbook site download git!
> knife cookbook site download dmg!
> ...
> tar xvf build-essential*.tar.gz!
> tar xvf git*.tar.gz!
> tar xvf dmg*.tar.gz!
> tar xvf windows*.tar.gz!
> tar xvf runi...
> cd %TEMP%!
> chef-client -z -o git
Use local mode to run cookbook
66
PS> cd $env:temp!
PS> chef-client -z -o git
Run As
...
> git --version
Verify Install
git version 1.8.1.msysgit.1
67
> rmdir /s %TEMP%cookbooks
Keep it neat
68
PS> rm $env:tempcookbooks -Recurse -Force
Run As
Administrator
Install Sublime/Notepad++
69
Install VirtualBox 4.x
70
Install Vagrant 1.5.x
71
v2.0.0
Our Source
72
chef-fundamentals-repo
• We’re going to build on the chef-fundamentals-
repo created in the Chef Fundamentals training,
ad...
$ cd $HOME
Home directory - great place for source
74
$ cd %USERPROFILE%
$ git clone https://github.com/learnchef/chef-fundamentals-repo.git
Grab the chef-fundamentals repo from GitHub
Cloning in...
$ cd chef-fundamentals-repo
chef-fundamentals-repo
76
!"" Berksfile!
!"" cookbooks/!
!"" data_bags/!
!"" environments/!
!"...
v2.0.0
Reviewing Cookbooks with
Test Kitchen (Vagrant Version)
77
Apache Clowns & Bears
• We’ll be focusing on the Apache Clowns and
Bears cookbook in:



chef-­‐fundamentals-­‐repo/cookbo...
Cookbook Review with Test Kitchen
• Test Kitchen is a great environment in which to
develop and review cookbooks
79
Back in my day...
• Running a cookbook
involved a lot of setup:
• Configure workstation
• Configure Chef Server
• Bootstra...
No longer a chore
• Test Kitchen lets you set up sandbox environments
in which to run cookbooks right on your Chef
develop...
Supported Environments
• Test Kitchen supports:

• Virtual Machines

• Cloud Instances

• Metal - Physical Servers

• Cont...
Sandbox Benefits
• A sandbox environment:
• Is a safe place to make mistakes
• Easily reset to a clean config
• Can simula...
Virtual Machines vs. Containers
84
Hypervisor/Host OS
Guest OS
Core OS
Guest OS Guest OS
App App App
App App App
Virtual M...
85
Test Kitchen is
packaged as a
Ruby Gem
Ruby Gem
• A gem is a application or supporting library
written in ruby, installable with:



86
gem	
  install
$ sudo gem install test-kitchen --no-ri --no-rdoc
Install Test Kitchen
87
$ sudo env "PATH=$PATH" !
gem install test-kitch...
Install Test Kitchen
88
Fetching: net-scp-1.1.2.gem (100%)!
Fetching: safe_yaml-1.0.2.gem (100%)!
Fetching: thor-0.19.1.ge...
OPEN IN EDITOR: $HOME/.gemrc
gem: --no-ri --no-rdoc
Automatically add --no-ri & --no-rdoc
89
or %USERPROFILE%/.gemrc
$ cd chef-fundamentals-repo/cookbooks/apache
Go to Apache cookbook dir
90
91
We’re going to
need a lot of gems
Gemfile
• A Gemfile can be used to list all the gems you need
for cookbook testing



92
Gemfile template
• Test Kitchen can generate a Gemfile template
(among other things)



93
$ kitchen init --create-gemfile
create .kitchen.yml!
create test/integration/default!
create Gemfile!
append Gemfile!
appe...
Kitchen output on Windows
• The strange <-­‐[0m<-­‐33m characters in the Windows
output are ANSI escape sequences.
95
Kitchen output on Windows
• ANSICon also adds support for ANSI escape
sequences to Windows as a workaround:

https://githu...
chef-fundamentals-repo/cookbooks/apache/Gemfile
source 'https://rubygems.org'!
!
gem 'test-kitchen'!
gem 'kitchen-vagrant'...
$ kitchen init --create-gemfile
create .kitchen.yml!
create test/integration/default!
create Gemfile!
append Gemfile!
appe...
99
100
Gemfile is read by:
bundle	
  install
to install gems
101
No need to install bundler
• Chef install includes the bundler gem
• Outside the Chef install, bundler can be installe...
$ bundle install --path vendor/bundle
Do what Test Kitchen tells you
Fetching gem metadata from https://rubygems.org/........
103
Vendor Everything
• Gems change frequently and sometimes conflict
• -­‐-­‐path option passed to bundle	
  install 

ov...
104
If you vendor gems use:
bundle	
  exec
to read gems in

vendor/bunde
105
Test Kitchen commands
• Let’s cover a few essential Test Kitchen commands
106
kitchen list
• kitchen	
  list prints out a list of sandbox instances
defined in .kitchen.yml
$ bundle exec kitchen list
kitchen list
Instance Driver Provisioner Last Action!
default-ubuntu-1204 Vagrant ChefSolo <Not...
108
kitchen create
• kitchen	
  create	
  <instance_name> spins up a
sandbox instance
$ bundle exec kitchen create default-centos-64
kitchen create
-----> Starting Kitchen (v1.2.1)!
-----> Creating <default-c...
110
kitchen login
• kitchen	
  login	
  <instance_name> uses ssh to
login to the sandbox instance
kitchen login on Windows
• Test Kitchen requires ssh to login to guest VMs
• Easiest way to get ssh is to use the Unix com...
kitchen login on Windows
• Add the Unix tools to your path
• 64-bit: C:Program	
  Files	
  (x86)Gitbin
• 32-bit: C:Program...
$ bundle exec kitchen login default-centos-64
kitchen login
Last login: Mon Nov 25 07:00:52 2013 from 10.0.2.2!
[vagrant@d...
114
kitchen destroy
• kitchen	
  destroy	
  <instance_name> shuts down a
sandbox instance and destroys and virtual resourc...
$ bundle exec kitchen destroy default-centos-64
kitchen destroy
-----> Starting Kitchen (v1.2.1)!
-----> Destroying <defau...
116
kitchen	
  converge
performs a Chef run
in the sandbox instance
$ bundle exec kitchen converge default-centos-64
Perform Chef run
-----> Starting Kitchen (v1.2.1)!
-----> Creating <defau...
$ bundle exec kitchen converge default-centos-64
Perform Chef run
-----> Starting Kitchen (v1.2.1)!
-----> Creating <defau...
119
Our first bit of feedback!
120
121
Undefined attribute
• When you see undefined	
  method	
  ‘[]’	
  for	
  
nil:NilClass it oftentimes means you have an...
cookbooks/apache/attributes/default.rb
122
default["apache"]["indexfile"] = "index1.html"!
default["apache"]["sites"]["clo...
123
Undefined attribute
• How is ["motd"]["company"] set in the motd
cookbook?
cookbooks/motd/attributes/default.rb
124
default["motd"]["company"] = "Chef"
Good cookbooks
• Good cookbooks can be used in isolation
• They set reasonable defaults for all attributes used
• Test Kit...
Test attributes
• We won’t fix the motd cookbook in this class
• Test Kitchen supports injection of test attributes
• We’l...
Default .kitchen.yml
127
---!
driver:!
name: vagrant!
!
provisioner:!
name: chef_solo!
!
platforms:!
- name: ubuntu-12.04!...
---!
driver:!
name: vagrant!
!
provisioner:!
name: chef_solo!
!
platforms:!
- name: ubuntu-12.04!
- name: centos-6.4!
!
su...
$ bundle exec kitchen converge default-centos-64
Perform Chef run
-----> Starting Kitchen (v1.2.1)!
-----> Creating <defau...
$ bundle exec kitchen converge default-centos-64
Perform Chef run
-----> Starting Kitchen (v1.2.1)!
-----> Creating <defau...
Where to go next
• Learning Chef book excerpt
was sent to you are part of
the class registration.
• Chapter 1 covers Test
...
v2.0.0
Automated Verification in
Test Kitchen with Serverspec
(Vagrant Version)
132
133
Let’s verify that the Apache cookbook	

actually works by	

configuring Test Kitchen to allow	

web browser access by	
...
OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/.kitchen.yml
---!
driver:!
name: vagrant!
!
provisioner:!
name: chef_solo!
!
platforms:!
...
$ bundle exec kitchen destroy default-centos-64
Network config requires destory
-----> Starting Kitchen (v1.2.1)!
-----> D...
$ bundle exec kitchen converge default-centos-64
Perform Chef run
-----> Starting Kitchen (v1.2.1)!
-----> Creating <defau...
Private network set up
137
Clowns & Bears in your web browser
138
139
140
Serverspec author
• Written by Gosuke Miyashita
141
OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/Gemfile
source 'https://rubygems.org'!
!
gem 'test-kitchen'!
gem 'kitchen-vagrant'!
!
gem...
OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/Gemfile
source 'https://rubygems.org'!
!
gem 'test-kitchen'!
gem 'kitchen-vagrant'!
!
gem...
Version Constraint
144
• If a gem properly follows semantic
versioning with its versioning scheme.
You can take advantage ...
Semantic Versioning
145
Given a version number MAJOR.MINOR.PATCH, increment
the:
1.MAJOR version when you make incompatibl...
Versioning Example
146
Let’s say the following releases of a gem exist:

■Version 2.1.0 — Baseline

■Version 2.2.0 — Intro...
Version Constraint
147
gem 'library', '= 2.2.0'
Only use version 2.2.0
Optimistic Version Constraint
148
gem 'library', '>= 2.2.0'
Assume all changes from 2.x on will work,
including 3.0.0 and ...
Pessimistic Version Constraint
149
gem 'library', '>= 2.2.0', ‘< 3.0’
Explicitly exclude any versions that might
break you...
Pessimistic Version Constraint
150
gem 'library', '>= 2.2.0', ‘< 3.0’
Shorthand for:
Using the twiddle-wakka:
gem 'library...
$ bundle install
Install Serverspec
151
$ CONFIGURE_ARGS="--with-ldflags=!
'-Wno-error=unused-command-line-argument-hard-e...
v2.0.0
RSpec Syntax
152
Documentation form
153
describe	
  ‘<entity>’	
  do	
  
	
  	
  <descriptions	
  here>	
  
end
Documentation example
154
describe	
  ‘clowns	
  site’	
  do	
  
	
  	
  ...	
  
end
Description form
155
describe	
  ‘<entity>’	
  do	
  
	
  	
  it	
  ‘<description>’	
  do	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  ...	
  
...
Description example
156
describe	
  ‘clowns	
  site’	
  do	
  
	
  	
  it	
  ‘responds	
  on	
  port	
  80’	
  do	
  
	
  ...
Expectation form
157
describe	
  ‘<entity>’	
  do	
  
	
  	
  it	
  ‘<description>’	
  do	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  expect(thing...
Expectation form
158
describe	
  ‘<entity>’	
  do	
  
	
  	
  it	
  ‘<description>’	
  do	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  expect(thing...
Expectation example
159
describe	
  ‘clowns	
  site’	
  do	
  
	
  	
  it	
  ‘responds	
  on	
  port	
  80’	
  do	
  
	
  ...
Expectation form
160
describe	
  ‘<entity>’	
  do	
  
	
  	
  it	
  ‘<description>’	
  do	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  expect(thing...
Should vs Expect
161
describe	
  ‘clowns	
  site’	
  do	
  
	
  	
  it	
  ‘responds	
  on	
  port	
  80’	
  do	
  
	
  	
 ...
Expect vs. Should
162
Debate on whether or not to use expect vs. should is
epic:

http://myronmars.to/n/dev-blog/2012/06/r...
We use Expect Form
163
Because all the ChefSpec examples are in the expect
form
164
Let’s write some serverspec	

tests!
165
Default location for tests
• By default, Test Kitchen will look in the test/
integration directory for test-related fi...
chef-fundamentals-repo
166
.!
"## attributes/!
"## .bundle/!
"## CHANGELOG.md!
"## files/!
"## Gemfile!
"## Gemfile.lock!
...
167
Suite subdirectory
• Test Kitchen requires a few more directories underneath test/
integration
• First directory name ...
OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/.kitchen.yml
---!
driver:!
name: vagrant!
!
provisioner:!
name: chef_solo!
!
platforms:!
...
169
Suite subdirectory
• Our suite name is default



└──	
  test/

	
  	
  	
  	
  └──	
  integration/

	
  	
  	
  	
  	...
170
Busser directory
•The next directory level denotes the test plugin, as

Test Kitchen many different kinds of test plug...
171
Hostname directory
•Serverspec supports testing via SSH, so it requires yet

another directory level to denote the hos...
172
Hostname directory
• NOTE: Use of the localhost directory is optional







$ mkdir -p test/integration/default/serverspec
Create test directory structure
173
> mkdir testintegrationdefaultserverspec
174
*_spec.rb files
• By convention, Test Kitchen expects files with tests
to end in _spec.rb



Serverspec expectation form
• Every specialized RSpec-based testing library like
serverspec has their own special twist on...
Generic Expectation Form
176
describe	
  ‘<entity>’	
  do	
  
	
  	
  it	
  ‘<description>’	
  do	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  expe...
Serverspec Command
177
describe	
  ‘<entity>’	
  do	
  
	
  	
  it	
  ‘<description>’	
  do	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  expect(com...
Serverspec commands & matchers
• Serverspec has provides a wide variety of matchers
for each command
• Serverspec commands...
Serverspec resources
179
Port resource/be_listening matcher
180
181
Writing your first test
• Let’s create a serverspec test checking to make sure
the clowns web site is active on port 8...
Spec for clowns
182
require 'serverspec'!
!
include Serverspec::Helper::Exec!
!
describe 'clowns site' do!
it 'responds on...
183
kitchen setup
• Before running tests you need to run kitchen	
  
setup
• kitchen	
  setup loads and configures the fil...
$ bundle exec kitchen setup default-centos-64
kitchen setup
-----> Starting Kitchen (v1.2.1)!
-----> Setting up <default-c...
185
kitchen verify
• The kitchen	
  verify command will run the tests in
your *_spec.rb files in the test/integration tree
$ bundle exec kitchen verify default-centos-64
kitchen verify
-----> Starting Kitchen (v1.2.1)!
-----> Verifying <default-...
187
Verifying that the tests work
• Did the test actually do anything? Let’s verify this
by changing the port to a known i...
Replace port 80 to 85
188
require 'serverspec'!
!
include Serverspec::Helper::Exec!
!
describe 'clowns site' do!
it 'respo...
$ bundle exec kitchen verify default-centos-64
This should fail
-----> Running serverspec test suite!
/opt/chef/embedded/b...
$ bundle exec kitchen verify default-centos-64
This should fail
-----> Running serverspec test suite!
/opt/chef/embedded/b...
191
Back to success
• Remember to reset the tests back to the original port
value so they succeed again!
Reset back to port 80
192
require 'serverspec'!
!
include Serverspec::Helper::Exec!
!
describe 'clowns site' do!
it 'respo...
$ bundle exec kitchen verify default-centos-64
kitchen verify
-----> Starting Kitchen (v1.2.1)!
-----> Verifying <default-...
194
Testing bears
• Let’s add another test to do a similar check for the
bears port
Spec for bears
195
require 'serverspec'!
!
include Serverspec::Helper::Exec!
!
describe 'bears site' do!
it 'responds on p...
196
No need to run kitchen setup
• You only need to run kitchen	
  setup once per
node. (Though it doesn’t hurt to run it ...
$ bundle exec kitchen verify default-centos-64
...!
----> Running serverspec test suite!
/opt/chef/embedded/bin/ruby -I/tm...
198
Code cleanup
• Common code can be moved to a file called
spec_helper.rb in test/integration/default/
serverspec
199
Code cleanup
• Let’s move common code between clowns & bears
to spec_helper.rb
spec_helper.rb
200
require 'serverspec'!
!
include Serverspec::Helper::Exec
OPEN IN EDITOR:
apache/test/integration/defaul...
require spec_helper clowns
201
require 'spec_helper'!
!
describe 'clowns site' do!
it 'responds on port 80' do!
expect(por...
require spec_helper bears
202
require 'spec_helper'!
!
describe 'bears site' do!
it 'responds on port 81' do!
expect(port ...
$ bundle exec kitchen verify default-centos-64
Testing clowns and bears w/spec_helper.rb
...!
----> Running serverspec tes...
$ bundle exec kitchen verify default-centos-64
Testing clowns and beras
...!
----> Running serverspec test suite!
/opt/che...
205
Are the web sites really working?
• While we’ve added checks to verify that the test
node is listening on ports 80 and...
command resource/return_stdout matcher
206
Check clown content
207
require 'spec_helper'!
!
describe 'clowns site' do!
it 'responds on port 80' do!
expect(port 80).t...
208
Check bear content
209
require 'spec_helper'!
!
describe 'bears site' do!
it 'responds on port 81' do!
expect(port 81).to ...
$ bundle exec kitchen verify default-centos-64
Testing for content
...!
-----> Running serverspec test suite!
/opt/chef/em...
211
kitchen test
• The kitchen	
  test command will automate all the
previous actions you’ve learned so far into one comma...
212
kitchen test
• The kitchen	
  test command is intended to be used
as a final check on a fresh image before committing
...
$ bundle exec kitchen test default-centos-64
kitchen test
-----> Starting Kitchen (v1.2.1)!
-----> Cleaning up any prior i...
Where to go next
• Jenkins cookbook is chock full of advanced
Serverspec techniques:



https://github.com/opscode-cookboo...
Where to go next
• jenkins/test/shared/support contains
examples for implementing custom Serverspec
matchers used in jenki...
Where to go next
• test/fixtures contains mini-cookbooks to
exercise resource providers
• Aliased in Berksfile:
•cookbook	...
Where to go next
• Uses data/path directive in .kitchen.yml to share
test data between serverspec suites
• Directory speci...
RECAP: Why Test?
• It’s important to find bugs fast

218
Better, Faster, Stronger
• Test Kitchen is an invaluable tool for managing
sandbox environments and truly verifying that a...
v2.0.0
Detect Suspicious Cookbook
Code with Foodcritic
220
Feedback on Chef Coding Style
• Foodcritic provides feedback on your Chef coding
style
• It is designed to be used as you ...
Feedback on Chef Coding Style
• Let’s install Foodcritic on your development
workstation so you can give it a spin
• Add F...
OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/Gemfile
source 'https://rubygems.org'!
!
gem 'test-kitchen'!
gem 'kitchen-vagrant'!
!
gem...
$ sudo yum install -y libxslt-devel libxml2-devel
Install Prerequisites
224
$ sudo apt-get install -y libxslt-dev libxml2-...
$ bundle install
Install Foodcritic
225
$ CONFIGURE_ARGS="--with-ldflags=!
'-Wno-error=unused-command-line-argument-hard-e...
$ bundle exec foodcritic --version
Verify install
foodcritic 3.0.3
226
$ bundle exec foodcritic .
Run Foodcritic on your cookbook
227
FC003: Check whether you are running with chef
server befor...
228
More feedback!
229
Fast feedback!
Feedback on Chef Coding Style
• Foodcritic comes with a set of checks called rules
• Foodcritic rules are documented at ht...
Default Rules
231
232
What about the	

FC003 & FC008 issues	

in the apache cookbook?
FC008 - Generated cookbook metadata needs updating
233
234
Let’s fix!
cookbooks/apache/metadata.rb
235
name 'apache'!
maintainer 'YOUR_COMPANY_NAME'!
maintainer_email 'YOUR_EMAIL'!
license 'Al...
OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/metadata.rb
name 'apache'!
maintainer 'Mischa Taylor'!
maintainer_email 'misheska@getchef...
$ bundle exec foodcritic .
Rerun foodcritic
237
FC003: Check whether you are running
with chef server before using server-...
238
Two down,	

one to go!
FC003 - Check for chef server before using server-specific features
239
240
Ignoring FC003
• Let’s say, for now, we don’t want to fix ip-­‐
logger.rb, and we’d like to squelch the FC003
check
241
--tags parameter
• The -­‐-­‐tags	
  <TAGS> parameter can be used to
specify a list of rules for foodcritic to use
•fo...
$ bundle exec foodcritic --tags ~FC003 .
Ignore FC003
242
$ bundle exec foodcritic --tags ~FC003 .
Ignore FC003
243
WIN
244
Custom rules
• Etsy created some custom Foodcritic rules to check
for issues that caused production outages/
performan...
Etsy Foodcritic Rules
• ETSY001 - Package or yum_package resource used with :upgrade
action!
• ETSY002 - Execute resource ...
$ git clone https://github.com/etsy/
foodcritic-rules ../../foodcritic/etsy!
$ rm -rf ../../foodcritic/etsy/.git
Installin...
247
--include parameter
• The -­‐-­‐include	
  <PATH> parameter species
additional paths to load rules (shortened with -I)
$ bundle exec foodcritic -t ~FC003 -I ../../
foodcritic .
Including Custom Rules
ETSY005: Action :restart sent to a core
s...
249
Editor support
• Many popular editors can be configured to run
Foodcritic inside the editor (including Vim, GNU
Emacs ...
v2.0.0
Detect Suspicious Ruby Code
with RuboCop
250
RuboCop - Feedback on Ruby Style
• Many people new to Ruby would like some guidance
on how to write idiomatic Ruby
• Get t...
RuboCop Author
• Written by Bozhidar Batsov:

https://github.com/bbatsov/rubocop
252
RuboCop - Feedback on Ruby Style
• Follows community-driven style guide:

https://github.com/bbatsov/ruby-style-guide
!
• ...
RuboCop - Feedback on Ruby Style
• Let’s install RuboCop on your development
workstation so you can give it a spin
• Add R...
OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/Gemfile
source 'https://rubygems.org'!
!
gem 'test-kitchen'!
gem 'kitchen-vagrant'!
!
gem...
$ bundle install
Install RuboCop
256
$ CONFIGURE_ARGS="--with-ldflags=!
'-Wno-error=unused-command-line-argument-hard-erro...
$ bundle exec rubocop --version
Verify Install
0.20.1
257
Running RuboCop
• Just run the rubocop command - it recursively
checks all the *.rb files in all subdirectories
underneath...
$ bundle exec rubocop
Run RuboCop on your cookbook
attributes/default.rb:3:19: C: Prefer single-quoted strings when you do...
rubocop-todo.yml via --auto-gen-config
• rubocop-todo.yml will help generate TODOs for each
item on the offense list
• It ...
$ bundle exec rubocop --auto-gen-config
Generate rubocop-todo.yml
attributes/default.rb:3:28: C: Prefer single-quoted stri...
.rubocop.yml Configures RuboCop
• .rubocop.yml can be used to configure RuboCop
(similar to .kitchen.yml in Test Kitchen)
...
OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/.rubocop.yml
inherit_from:	
  rubocop-­‐todo.yml
Include rubocop-todo.yml
263
$ bundle exec rubocop
Run RuboCop on your cookbook
Inspecting 7 files!
.......!
!
7 files inspected, no offenses detected
...
Easy peasy
• Wow, now more offenses...not really
265
Match Chef community standards
• First, we’ll move some of the Cops from rubocop-
todo.yml to .rubocop.yml for things that...
Missing utf-8 encoding comment
267
OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/.rubocop.yml
inherit_from:	
  rubocop-­‐todo.yml	
  
!
Encoding:	
  
	
  	
  Enabled:	
  ...
Line is too long
269
OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/.rubocop.yml
inherit_from:	
  rubocop-­‐todo.yml	
  
!
Encoding:	
  
	
  	
  Enabled:	
  ...
Use the new Ruby 1.9 hash syntax
271
OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/.rubocop.yml
inherit_from:	
  rubocop-­‐todo.yml	
  
!
Encoding:	
  
	
  	
  Enabled:	
  ...
Prefer single-quoted strings
273
OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/.rubocop.yml
inherit_from:	
  rubocop-­‐todo.yml	
  
!
Encoding:	
  
	
  	
  Enabled:	
  ...
$ bundle exec rubocop --auto-gen-config
Regenerate rubocop-todo.yml
metadata.rb:2:11: C: Put one space between the method ...
Rubocop Workflow
• Uncomment lines in rubocop-todo.yml
• Fix offenses
• git commit
• Repeat
276
Only really critical issue
277
Trailing whitespace & Git
• Whitespace differences make diffs longer and
diverts focus from more important changes
• Even ...
279
Editor support
• Many popular editors can be configured to run
RuboCop inside the editor (including Vim, GNU
Emacs and...
v2.0.0
Runnable documentation with
ChefSpec
280
RECAP: Why Not Begin With Testing?
• Finding a bug in something that you can’t execute
is freaking hard!
• While fixing bu...
What is ChefSpec?
• ChefSpec helps produce runnable documentation.
Its primary purpose is to help document and
organize yo...
ChefSpec Authors
• Written by Andrew Crump and Seth Vargo
283
ChefSpec - Runnable Documentation
• Let’s install ChefSpec on your development
workstation so you can give it a spin
• Add...
OPEN IN EDITOR: chef-fundamentals-repo/Gemfile
source 'https://rubygems.org'!
!
gem 'test-kitchen'!
gem 'kitchen-vagrant'!...
$ bundle install
Install ChefSpec
286
$ CONFIGURE_ARGS="--with-ldflags=!
'-Wno-error=unused-command-line-argument-hard-err...
ChefSpec builds on RSpec
• ChefSpec uses the RSpec description form to create
runnable documentation (in a similar vein to...
Documentation form
288
describe	
  ‘<recipe_name>’	
  do	
  
	
  	
  <perform	
  in-­‐memory	
  Chef	
  run>	
  
	
  	
  <...
Documentation example
289
describe	
  ‘apache::default’	
  do	
  
	
  	
  ...	
  
end
In-Memory Chef Run Form
290
require	
  ‘chefspec’	
  
!
describe	
  ‘<recipe_name>’	
  do	
  
	
  	
  chef_run	
  =	
  Che...
In-Memory Chef Run Example
291
require	
  ‘chefspec’	
  
!
describe	
  'apache::default'	
  do	
  
	
  	
  chef_run	
  =	
...
Expectation form
292
describe	
  ‘<recipe_name>’	
  do	
  
	
  	
  <perform	
  in-­‐memory	
  Chef	
  run>	
  
	
  	
  it	...
Expectation form
293
describe	
  ‘<recipe_name>’	
  do	
  
	
  	
  <perform	
  in-­‐memory	
  Chef	
  run>	
  
	
  	
  it	...
Expectation Example
294
require	
  ‘chefspec’	
  
!
describe	
  'apache::default'	
  do	
  
	
  	
  chef_run	
  =	
  ChefS...
Runnable Documentation
• expect statement does not actually perform the
httpd package installation
• It just verifies the ...
296
Let’s write some ChefSpec	

tests!
297
Default location for tests
• By default, ChefSpec will look in the spec/directory
for ChefSpec test-related files





chef-fundamentals-repo
298
.!
"## .bundle/!
"## .kitchen/!
"## .kitchen.yml!
"## CHANGELOG.md!
"## Gemfile!
"## Gemfile.lo...
$ mkdir spec
Create spec directory in cookbooks/apache
299
> mkdir spec
300
*_spec.rb files
• By convention, ChefSpec expects files with tests to
end in _spec.rb



ChefSpec Matcher Documentation
301
http://rubydoc.info/github/acrmp/chefspec/frames
ChefSpec > API
302
Each API has an example
303
Let’s use the install_package matcher
304
install_package Example
305
OPEN IN EDITOR: spec/default_spec.rb
require 'chefspec'!
!
describe 'apache::default' do!
chef_run = ChefSpec::Runner.new....
307
Rspec runs ChefSpec
• There’s no separate chefspec command.
• Just run rspec to run ChefSpec tests.

$ bundle exec rspec --color
Run ChefSpec on your cookbok
.!
!
Finished in 0.0006 seconds!
1 example, 0 failures
308
OPEN IN EDITOR: spec/default_spec.rb
require 'chefspec'!
!
describe 'apache::default' do!
chef_run = ChefSpec::Runner.new....
$ bundle exec rspec
Run ChefSpec on your cookbok
F!
!
Failures:!
!
1) apache::default installs apache2!
Failure/Error: exp...
OPEN IN EDITOR: spec/default_spec.rb
require 'chefspec'!
!
describe 'apache::default' do!
chef_run = ChefSpec::Runner.new....
$ bundle exec rspec --color
Run ChefSpec on your cookbok
.!
!
Finished in 0.0006 seconds!
1 example, 0 failures
312
Lazy evaluation with let
313
require 'chefspec'!
!
describe 'apache::default' do!
let(:chef_run) 
{ ChefSpec::Runner.new.c...
314
described_recipe
• let blocks aren’t evaluated until the first time they
are called
• Also allows ChefSpec to run the ...
OPEN IN EDITOR: spec/default_spec.rb
require 'chefspec'!
!
describe 'apache::default' do!
let(:chef_run) 
{ ChefSpec::Runn...
$ bundle exec rspec --color
Run ChefSpec on your cookbok
.!
!
Finished in 0.0006 seconds!
1 example, 0 failures
316
317
ChefSpec Resource Report
• ChefSpec Resource Report can help guide writing
your tests
OPEN IN EDITOR: spec/default_spec.rb
require 'chefspec'!
!
at_exit { ChefSpec::Coverage.report! }!
!
describe 'apache::def...
$ bundle exec rspec --color
Run ChefSpec on your cookbok
.!
!
Finished in 0.01106 seconds!
1 example, 0 failures!
!
ChefSp...
320
create_file matcher
• Let’s verify that the clowns.conf file gets created
with the create_file matcher
321
create_file matcher
OPEN IN EDITOR: spec/default_spec.rb
require 'chefspec'!
!
at_exit { ChefSpec::Coverage.report! }!
!
describe 'apache::def...
$ bundle exec rspec --color
Run ChefSpec on your cookbok
F!
!
Failures:!
!
1) apache::default creates clowns.conf!
Failure...
$ bundle exec rspec --color
Run ChefSpec on your cookbok
F!
!
Failures:!
!
1) apache::default creates clowns.conf!
Failure...
325
ChefSpec == Runnable Documentation
• Remember: ChefSpec is just runnable
documentation
• It isn’t actually performing ...
326
template matcher
OPEN IN EDITOR: spec/default_spec.rb
require 'chefspec'!
!
at_exit { ChefSpec::Coverage.report! }!
!
describe 'apache::def...
$ bundle exec rspec --color
Run ChefSpec on your cookbok
.!
!
Finished in 0.01955 seconds!
2 examples, 0 failures
328
$ bundle exec rspec --color
Run ChefSpec on your cookbok
.!
!
Finished in 0.01955 seconds!
2 examples, 0 failures
329
WIN
330
spec_helper.rb
• Similar to Serverspec, common code can be moved
to a file called spec_helper.rb with ChefSpec
OPEN IN EDITOR: spec/spec_helper.rb
require 'chefspec'!
!
at_exit { ChefSpec::Coverage.report! }
Checking clowns.conf file...
332
RSpec recurses through spec/*
• RSpec recurses through the spec/ subtree, looking
for tests, so you can create any dir...
$ mkdir spec/recipes!
$ mv spec/default_spec.rb spec/recipes
Move default_spec.rb
333
OPEN IN EDITOR: spec/recipes/default_spec.rb
require 'spec_helper'!
!
describe 'apache::default' do!
let (:chef_run) 
{ Ch...
$ bundle exec rspec --color
Run ChefSpec on your cookbok
.!
!
Finished in 0.01955 seconds!
2 examples, 0 failures
335
$ bundle exec rspec --color
Run ChefSpec on your cookbok
.!
!
Finished in 0.01955 seconds!
2 examples, 0 failures
336
WIN
337
Where to go next
• There’s a lot of ChefSpec written for the community
cookbooks. Check out the spec/ directory your
f...
v2.0.0
Continuous Validation with
Guard
338
What is Guard?
• A tool that monitors for filesystem changes and
performs actions (like launching rake tasks)
• Written by...
Guard install
• Let’s install Guard on your development
workstation so you can give it a spin
• Add guard to your Gemfile
...
OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/Gemfile
source 'https://rubygems.org'!
!
gem 'test-kitchen'!
gem 'kitchen-vagrant'!
!
gem...
$ bundle install
Install Guard
342
$ CONFIGURE_ARGS="--with-ldflags=!
'-Wno-error=unused-command-line-argument-hard-error-...
OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/Gemfile
source 'https://rubygems.org'!
!
gem 'test-kitchen'!
gem 'kitchen-vagrant'!
!
gem...
$ bundle install
Install guard-rubocop
344
$ CONFIGURE_ARGS="--with-ldflags=!
'-Wno-error=unused-command-line-argument-har...
$ bundle exec guard init
Create Guardfile
02:39:58 - INFO - Writing new Guardfile to /home/vagrant/
chef-fundamentals-repo...
cookbooks/apache/Guardfile
346
# A sample Guardfile!
# More info at https://github.com/guard/guard#readme!
!
guard :ruboco...
$ bundle exec guard
Run Guard
02:48:54 - INFO - Guard is now watching at '/home/vagrant/
chef-fundamentals-repo/cookbooks/...
CloudShare Node
348
CloudShare Node
349
$ cd $HOME/chef-fundamentals-repo/cookbooks/apache
In another session
350
And edit some .rb file - upon save, rubocop is
la...
Stopping guard
[1] guard(main)> quit!
!
19:23:42 - INFO - Bye bye...
351
352
Where to go next
Michael Goetz blog posts:
https://micgo.net/check-yo-self-before-you-wreck-yo-self-with-
foodcritic-c...
353
Where to go next
Michael Goetz blog posts:
ChefSpec and Guard:
https://micgo.net/continuous-chefspec-validation-with-g...
v2.0.0
Repeating Test Steps with
Rake
354
What is Rake?
• Rake includes a language for expressing the
command line steps needed to create an app
• Perfect for captu...
Rake Author
• Written by Jim Weirich:

http://rake.rubyforge.org/
356
Rake - Repeatable Test Commands
• Let’s install Rake on your development workstation
so you can give it a spin
• Add rake ...
OPEN IN EDITOR: chef-fundamentals-repo/Gemfile
source 'https://rubygems.org'!
!
gem 'test-kitchen'!
gem 'kitchen-vagrant'!...
$ bundle install
Install Rake
359
$ CONFIGURE_ARGS="--with-ldflags=!
'-Wno-error=unused-command-line-argument-hard-error-i...
Rake - Repeatable Tasks
• Task - expresses command line actions to perform
360
Rake Task Form
361
task :<task_name> do!
<action>!
<action>!
end
Rake - Repeatable Tasks
• Configuration file for rake is a Rakefile
362
Rake - Actions
• Actions are expressed in Ruby syntax
• sh	
  “<command>”	
  runs a shell command:

sh “bundle	
  exec	
  ...
OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/Rakefile
task :rubocop do!
sh 'bundle exec rubocop'!
end
Rubocop Task
364
$ bundle exec rake rubocop
Execute Rake Task
Inspecting 9 files!
.......!
!
9 files inspected, no offenses detected
365
Task Description
• Every task should have a description which
documents what the task does
• rake	
  -­‐-­‐tasks prints ou...
OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/Rakefile
desc 'Run Ruby style checks with Rubocop'!
task :rubocop do!
sh 'bundle exec rub...
$ bundle exec rake --tasks
Execute Rake Task
rake rubocop # Run Ruby style checks with Rubocop
368
Adding Foodcritic
• Let’s add a task for Foocritic next
369
OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/Rakefile
desc 'Run Ruby style checks with Rubocop'!
task :rubocop do!
sh 'bundle exec rub...
$ bundle exec rake foodcritic
Execute Rake Task
bundle exec foodcritic -t ~FC003 .!
FC011: Missing README in markdown form...
$ bundle exec rake foodcritic
Execute Rake Task
bundle exec foodcritic -t ~FC003 .!
FC011: Missing README in markdown form...
Foodcritic 3.0.3 issue
• Foodcritic is checking spec/ subtree when it
shouldn’t
• Does not expose command line option to e...
OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/Rakefile
desc 'Run Ruby style checks with Rubocop'!
task :rubocop do!
sh 'bundle exec rub...
Default task
• Rake supports a special task name called default
• default runs when no parameters are supplied to
rake
• d...
OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/Rakefile
task :default => [:rubocop, :foodcritic]!
!
desc 'Run Ruby style checks with Rub...
$ bundle exec rake
Execute Rake Task
bundle exec rubocop!
Inspecting 9 files!
.......!
!
7 files inspected, no offenses de...
378
Where to go next
Rake Boot Camp
http://cloud.github.com/downloads/jimweirich/RakePresentations/PowerRake.key.pdf
http:...
379
Where to go next
Rake Tasks can have tests
http://blog.jayfields.com/2006/11/ruby-testing-rake-tasks.html
v2.0.0
Jenkins
380
What is Jenkins?
• Jenkins is a commonly used, open source
continuous integration system used to build early
and often
• W...
$ sudo yum install -y libxslt-devel libxml2-devel
Install Prerequisites
382
$ sudo apt-get install -y libxslt-dev libxml2-...
$ cd $HOME
Home directory - great place for source
383
$ cd %USERPROFILE%
Jenkins cookbook
• Jenkins cookbook - https://github.com/opscode-
cookbooks/jenkins
• Jenkins cookbook is library cookbook...
Library cookbook
• Popularized by Bryan Berry’s blog post How to Write
Resuable Chef Cookbooks, Gangnam Style
385
Jenkins wrapper cookbook
• Start of our wrapper cookbook:

https://github.com/misheska/test-class-jenkins
386
$ git clone https://github.com/misheska/test-class-jenkins
Grab test-class-jenkins from Github
Cloning into 'test-class-je...
$ cd test-class-jenkins
test-class-jenkins
388
$ bundle install --path vendor/bundle
Install gems vendored
Fetching gem metadata from https://rubygems.org/.......!
Fetch...
Jenkins PSA
390
391
test-class-jenkins/recipes/default.rb
392
include_recipe 'jenkins::java'!
include_recipe 'jenkins::master'
test-class-jenkins/attributes/default.rb
393
include_attribute 'jenkins::master'
test-class-jenkins/Gemfile
394
source 'https://rubygems.org'!
!
gem 'test-kitchen'!
gem 'kitchen-docker'!
!
gem 'rake'!
ge...
test-class-jenkins/.kitchen.yml
395
---!
driver:!
name: docker!
!
provisioner:!
name: chef_solo!
!
platforms:!
- name: cen...
$ bundle exec kitchen converge
Perform Chef run of Jenkins wrapper
-----> Starting Kitchen (v1.2.1)!
-----> Creating <defa...
http://<EXTERNAL_ADDRESS>:8080
397
Check plugins
398
Just defaults
399
jenkins_plugin resource
400
OPEN IN EDITOR: test-class-jenkins/recipes/default.rb
include_recipe 'jenkins::java'!
include_recipe 'jenkins::master'!
!
...
$ bundle exec kitchen converge
Perform Chef run of Jenkins wrapper
-----> Starting Kitchen (v1.2.1)!
-----> Creating <defa...
Greenballs installed
403
jenkins_script resource
404
OPEN IN EDITOR: test-class-jenkins/recipes/default.rb
...!
!
jenkins_script	
  'configure-­‐mailer'	
  do	
  
	
  	
  comm...
406
$ bundle exec kitchen converge
Perform Chef run of Jenkins wrapper
-----> Starting Kitchen (v1.2.1)!
-----> Creating <defa...
408
jenkins_job resource
409
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Testing your-automation-code (vagrant version) v0.2

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Test Kitchen, Foodcritic, RuboCop, ChefSpec, ServerSpec

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Testing your-automation-code (vagrant version) v0.2

  1. 1. v0.0.2 Alex Testing Your Automation Code Author: Mischa Taylor (@misheska) misheska@getchef.com Presenter: Alex Trull (@AlexanderTrull) alextrull@getchef.com ! Copyright (C) 2014 Chef Software, Inc. 1
  2. 2. v2.0.0 Why Are You Here? 2
  3. 3. 3 You’ve used and want to bulletproof your so that you are with Spec
  4. 4. In this class • We’ll add tests to the apache cookbook from the Fundamentals Course • We’ll show you how to run cookbooks in a sandbox environment mirroring production with Test Kitchen • We’ll show you how to detect suspicious cookbook code with Foodcritic & RuboCop • We’ll show you how to produce runnable documentation with ChefSpec
 4
  5. 5. Using Chef is half the battle 5 “Chef is like....
 tests for your infrastructure” -Ezra Zygmuntowicz, Co-Founder EngineYard http://www.akitaonrails.com/2008/6/5/railsconf-2008-brazil-rails-podcast-special-edition#.U0HfiF7Ed-8
  6. 6. Chef makes things more testable • Chef automates infrastructure in a repeatable fashion 6
  7. 7. What’s the other half of the battle? 7 “Have a plan” -Adam Jacob, Co-Founder Chef
  8. 8. There’s no more magic to testing 8 http://www.flickr.com/photos/dkeats/4128747046/sizes/s/in/photostream/
  9. 9. You Are The Testing A-Team When... 9
  10. 10. Recommended plan • Build in quality and robustness up front
 10 https://flic.kr/p/8W67ZC
  11. 11. Otherwise you could... • Verify and validate just before going to production until time runs out. But time always runs out 11 http://mrg.bz/iEr1oj
  12. 12. Waiting to test when it’s “done” 12 Intention: Reality: Build Test Deploy Build T es De ploy We’re late no time to test!
  13. 13. 13
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. Bake testing in earlier 15 Shorter cycles, to start testing early as possible: Build Test Deploy Build Test Deploy Build Test Deploy
  16. 16. Penny saved with testing 16 Up Front Testing Saves Money https://www.flickr.com/people/68751915@N05/
  17. 17. Cost of change 17
  18. 18. Test arrangement • Arrange tests to get feedback fast - at the earliest possible time
 18 seconds minutes hours Foodcritic/Rubocop ChefSpec Serverspec
  19. 19. Reason for multiple tools • Finding a bug in something that you can’t execute is freaking hard! • While fixing bugs before writing code is cheap, finding them is expensive
 19
  20. 20. The Tools • Each tool is specialized to give feedback as early as possible during the cookbook authoring process
 20
  21. 21. What each tool does • In your text editor when you type in cookbook code: • Foodcritic analyzes your Chef style • RuboCop analyzes your Ruby coding technique • Before you deploy to a test node: • ChefSpec helps you document and organize your code • After you deploy to a test node: • Serverspec verifies a cookbook behaves as intended 21
  22. 22. v2.0.0 Legend 22
  23. 23. Legend: Do I run that command on my workstation? $ whoami! i-am-a-workstation This is an example of a command to run on your workstation user@hostname:~$ whoami! i-am-a-chef-node This is an example of a command to run on your target node via SSH. 23
  24. 24. $ ifconfig Legend: Example Terminal Command and Output lo0: flags=8049<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 16384! ! options=3<RXCSUM,TXCSUM>! ! inet6 fe80::1%lo0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x1! ! inet 127.0.0.1 netmask 0xff000000! ! inet6 ::1 prefixlen 128! gif0: flags=8010<POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST> mtu 1280! stf0: flags=0<> mtu 1280! en0: flags=8863<UP,BROADCAST,SMART,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500! ! ether 28:cf:e9:1f:79:a3! ! inet6 fe80::2acf:e9ff:fe1f:79a3%en0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x4! ! inet 10.100.0.84 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 10.100.0.255! ! media: autoselect! ! status: active! p2p0: flags=8843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 2304! ! ether 0a:cf:e9:1f:79:a3! ! media: autoselect! ! status: inactive! 24
  25. 25. OPEN IN EDITOR: SAVE FILE! ~/hello_world Hi!! ! I am a friendly file. Legend: Example of editing a file on your workstation 25
  26. 26. v2.0.0 Workstation Setup - Linux and Mac OS X (VirtualBox) Getting started 26
  27. 27. Install Chef • Install Chef (if not already installed)
 
 http://www.getchef.com/chef/install 27
  28. 28. Install Chef Client 28
  29. 29. Install on Linux 29
  30. 30. Install on Mac OSX 30
  31. 31. $ curl -L http://www.getchef.com/chef/install.sh | sudo bash Workstation Setup - Mac OS X / Linux % Total % Received % Xferd Average Speed Time Time Time Current! Dload Upload Total Spent Left Speed! 100 13347 100 13347 0 0 12147 0 0:00:01 0:00:01 --:--:-- 12155! Downloading Chef for mac_os_x...! Installing Chef ! installing with sh...! Verifying archive integrity... All good.! Uncompressing The full stack of chef...! Thank you for installing Chef!! ! Checksum compare with shasum succeeded.! Installing Chef ! installing with sh...! Verifying archive integrity... All good.! Uncompressing The full stack of chef 31
  32. 32. What just happened? • Chef and all of its dependencies installed via an operating system-specific package ("omnibus installer") • Installation includes • The Ruby language - used by Chef • knife - Command line tool for administrators • chef-client - Client application • ohai - System profiler • ...and more 32
  33. 33. OPEN IN EDITOR: $HOME/.bash_profile export PATH="/opt/chef/embedded/bin:$PATH" Add Chef Client to PATH 33
  34. 34. $ source $HOME/.bash_profile Make the profile active 34
  35. 35. $ which ruby Check the PATH setting /opt/chef/embedded/bin/ruby 35
  36. 36. $ chef-client --version Verify Install Chef: 11.12.2 36
  37. 37. Install Developer Tools • Install Developer Tools to build native extensions 37 http://patshaughnessy.net/2011/10/31/dont-be-terrified-of-building-native-extensions
  38. 38. Install Developer Tools • Use build-essential cookbook:
 
 https://github.com/opscode-cookbooks/build- essential 38
  39. 39. $ mkdir /tmp/cookbooks Temporary area for cookbook downloads 39
  40. 40. $ cd /tmp/cookbooks Easiest to go to cookbooks dir 40
  41. 41. $ knife cookbook site download build-essential! $ tar xvf build-essential-*.tar.gz Download build-essential cookbook 41
  42. 42. $ cd /tmp! $ sudo chef-client -z -o build-essential Use local mode to run cookbook 42
  43. 43. $ gcc --version Verify Install gcc (GCC) 4.4.7 20120313 (Red Hat 4.4.7-4) 43
  44. 44. Mac OS X will prompt - ignore 44
  45. 45. $ cd /tmp/cookbooks Easiest to go to cookbooks dir 45
  46. 46. $ knife cookbook site download git! $ knife cookbook site download dmg! $ knife cookbook site download windows! $ knife cookbook site download runit! $ knife cookbook site download yum! $ knife cookbook site download yum-epel! $ knife cookbook site download chef_handler Download git cookbook + dependencies 46
  47. 47. $ tar xvf git*.tar.gz! $ tar xvf dmg*.tar.gz! $ tar xvf windows*.tar.gz! $ tar xvf runit*.tar.gz! $ tar xvf yum-3*.tar.gz! $ tar xvf yum-epel*.tar.gz! $ tar xvf chef_handler*.tar.gz Extract cookbook archives 47
  48. 48. $ cd /tmp! $ sudo chef-client -z -o git Use local mode to run cookbook 48
  49. 49. $ git --version Verify Install git version 1.8.2.1 49
  50. 50. $ rm -rf /tmp/cookbooks Keep it neat 50
  51. 51. Install VirtualBox 4.x 51
  52. 52. Install Vagrant 1.5.x 52
  53. 53. v2.0.0 Workstation Setup - Windows (VirtualBox) Getting started 53
  54. 54. Install Chef • Install Chef (if not already installed)
 http://www.getchef.com/chef/install 54
  55. 55. Install Chef Client 55
  56. 56. Install on Windows 56
  57. 57. Install on Windows 57
  58. 58. > where ruby Check the PATH setting 58 PS> get-command ruby
  59. 59. Check the PATH setting > C:opscodechefembeddedbinruby.exe 59 Output:
  60. 60. > chef-client --version Verify Install Chef: 11.12.2 60
  61. 61. Developer Tools - Windows • build-essential cookbook does not currently support Windows. • All the necessary developer tools come packaged with the Omnibus Installer. 61
  62. 62. > mkdir %TEMP%cookbooks Temporary area for cookbook downloads 62 PS> mkdir $env:tempcookbooks
  63. 63. > cd %TEMP%cookbooks Easiest to go to cookbooks dir 63 PS> cd $env:tempcookbooks
  64. 64. > knife cookbook site download build-essential! > knife cookbook site download git! > knife cookbook site download dmg! > knife cookbook site download windows! > knife cookbook site download runit! > knife cookbook site download yum! > knife cookbook site download yum-epel! > knife cookbook site download chef_handler Download git cookbook + dependencies 64
  65. 65. > tar xvf build-essential*.tar.gz! > tar xvf git*.tar.gz! > tar xvf dmg*.tar.gz! > tar xvf windows*.tar.gz! > tar xvf runit*.tar.gz! > tar xvf yum-3*.tar.gz! > tar xvf yum-epel*.tar.gz! > tar xvf chef_handler*.tar.gz Extract cookbook archives 65
  66. 66. > cd %TEMP%! > chef-client -z -o git Use local mode to run cookbook 66 PS> cd $env:temp! PS> chef-client -z -o git Run As Administrator Run As Administrator
  67. 67. > git --version Verify Install git version 1.8.1.msysgit.1 67
  68. 68. > rmdir /s %TEMP%cookbooks Keep it neat 68 PS> rm $env:tempcookbooks -Recurse -Force Run As Administrator
  69. 69. Install Sublime/Notepad++ 69
  70. 70. Install VirtualBox 4.x 70
  71. 71. Install Vagrant 1.5.x 71
  72. 72. v2.0.0 Our Source 72
  73. 73. chef-fundamentals-repo • We’re going to build on the chef-fundamentals- repo created in the Chef Fundamentals training, adding tests:
 
 https://github.com/learnchef/chef-fundamentals-repo/ tree/master/cookbooks/apache 73
  74. 74. $ cd $HOME Home directory - great place for source 74 $ cd %USERPROFILE%
  75. 75. $ git clone https://github.com/learnchef/chef-fundamentals-repo.git Grab the chef-fundamentals repo from GitHub Cloning into 'chef-fundamentals-repo'...! remote: Reusing existing pack: 247, done.! remote: Total 247 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0)! Receiving objects: 100% (247/247), 149.52 KiB | 184.00 KiB/s, done.! Resolving deltas: 100% (45/45), done.! Checking connectivity... done.! 75
  76. 76. $ cd chef-fundamentals-repo chef-fundamentals-repo 76 !"" Berksfile! !"" cookbooks/! !"" data_bags/! !"" environments/! !"" .git/! !"" README.md! !"" roles/! #"" Vagrantfile!
  77. 77. v2.0.0 Reviewing Cookbooks with Test Kitchen (Vagrant Version) 77
  78. 78. Apache Clowns & Bears • We’ll be focusing on the Apache Clowns and Bears cookbook in:
 
 chef-­‐fundamentals-­‐repo/cookbooks/apache 78
  79. 79. Cookbook Review with Test Kitchen • Test Kitchen is a great environment in which to develop and review cookbooks 79
  80. 80. Back in my day... • Running a cookbook involved a lot of setup: • Configure workstation • Configure Chef Server • Bootstrap node 80
  81. 81. No longer a chore • Test Kitchen lets you set up sandbox environments in which to run cookbooks right on your Chef development workstation 81
  82. 82. Supported Environments • Test Kitchen supports:
 • Virtual Machines
 • Cloud Instances
 • Metal - Physical Servers
 • Containers (Docker, LXC, etc.)
 82
  83. 83. Sandbox Benefits • A sandbox environment: • Is a safe place to make mistakes • Easily reset to a clean config • Can simulate production 83
  84. 84. Virtual Machines vs. Containers 84 Hypervisor/Host OS Guest OS Core OS Guest OS Guest OS App App App App App App Virtual Machines Containers
  85. 85. 85 Test Kitchen is packaged as a Ruby Gem
  86. 86. Ruby Gem • A gem is a application or supporting library written in ruby, installable with:
 
 86 gem  install
  87. 87. $ sudo gem install test-kitchen --no-ri --no-rdoc Install Test Kitchen 87 $ sudo env "PATH=$PATH" ! gem install test-kitchen --no-ri --no-rdoc Run As Administrator > gem install test-kitchen --no-ri --no-rdoc
  88. 88. Install Test Kitchen 88 Fetching: net-scp-1.1.2.gem (100%)! Fetching: safe_yaml-1.0.2.gem (100%)! Fetching: thor-0.19.1.gem (100%)! Fetching: test-kitchen-1.2.1.gem (100%)! Successfully installed net-scp-1.1.2! Successfully installed safe_yaml-1.0.2! Successfully installed thor-0.19.1! Successfully installed test-kitchen-1.2.1! 4 gems installed! Text Output:
  89. 89. OPEN IN EDITOR: $HOME/.gemrc gem: --no-ri --no-rdoc Automatically add --no-ri & --no-rdoc 89 or %USERPROFILE%/.gemrc
  90. 90. $ cd chef-fundamentals-repo/cookbooks/apache Go to Apache cookbook dir 90
  91. 91. 91 We’re going to need a lot of gems
  92. 92. Gemfile • A Gemfile can be used to list all the gems you need for cookbook testing
 
 92
  93. 93. Gemfile template • Test Kitchen can generate a Gemfile template (among other things)
 
 93
  94. 94. $ kitchen init --create-gemfile create .kitchen.yml! create test/integration/default! create Gemfile! append Gemfile! append Gemfile! You must run ‘bundle install’ to fetch any new gems. Create Gemfile template 94
  95. 95. Kitchen output on Windows • The strange <-­‐[0m<-­‐33m characters in the Windows output are ANSI escape sequences. 95
  96. 96. Kitchen output on Windows • ANSICon also adds support for ANSI escape sequences to Windows as a workaround:
 https://github.com/adoxa/ansicon
 Download link:
 http://adoxa.hostmyway.net/ansicon/ 
 96
  97. 97. chef-fundamentals-repo/cookbooks/apache/Gemfile source 'https://rubygems.org'! ! gem 'test-kitchen'! gem 'kitchen-vagrant' 97
  98. 98. $ kitchen init --create-gemfile create .kitchen.yml! create test/integration/default! create Gemfile! append Gemfile! append Gemfile! You must run ‘bundle install’ to fetch any new gems. Create Gemfile template 98
  99. 99. 99
  100. 100. 100 Gemfile is read by: bundle  install to install gems
  101. 101. 101 No need to install bundler • Chef install includes the bundler gem • Outside the Chef install, bundler can be installed via: •gem  install  bundler
  102. 102. $ bundle install --path vendor/bundle Do what Test Kitchen tells you Fetching gem metadata from https://rubygems.org/..........! Fetching gem metadata from https://rubygems.org/..! Installing mixlib-shellout (1.3.0) ! Installing net-ssh (2.8.0) ! Installing net-scp (1.1.2) ! Installing safe_yaml (1.0.1) ! Installing thor (0.19.1) ! Installing test-kitchen (1.2.1) ! Installing kitchen-vagrant (0.14.0) ! Using bundler (1.1.5) ! Your bundle is complete! It was installed into ./vendor/bundle 102
  103. 103. 103 Vendor Everything • Gems change frequently and sometimes conflict • -­‐-­‐path option passed to bundle  install 
 overrides system gems by installing Gemfile gems locally • Bundler docs recommend using vendor/bundle
  104. 104. 104 If you vendor gems use: bundle  exec to read gems in
 vendor/bunde
  105. 105. 105 Test Kitchen commands • Let’s cover a few essential Test Kitchen commands
  106. 106. 106 kitchen list • kitchen  list prints out a list of sandbox instances defined in .kitchen.yml
  107. 107. $ bundle exec kitchen list kitchen list Instance Driver Provisioner Last Action! default-ubuntu-1204 Vagrant ChefSolo <Not Created>! default-centos-64 Vagrant ChefSolo <Not Created> 107
  108. 108. 108 kitchen create • kitchen  create  <instance_name> spins up a sandbox instance
  109. 109. $ bundle exec kitchen create default-centos-64 kitchen create -----> Starting Kitchen (v1.2.1)! -----> Creating <default-centos-64>...! Bringing machine 'default' up with 'virtualbox' provider...! ==> default: Importing base box 'opscode-centos-6.4'...! ==> default: Matching MAC address for NAT networking..! ...! ==> default: Machine booted and ready!! ==> default: Checking for guest additions in VM...! ==> default: Setting hostname...! Vagrant instance <default-centos-64> created.! Finished creating <default-centos-64> (0m35.40s).! -----> Kitchen is finished. (0m35.65s) 109
  110. 110. 110 kitchen login • kitchen  login  <instance_name> uses ssh to login to the sandbox instance
  111. 111. kitchen login on Windows • Test Kitchen requires ssh to login to guest VMs • Easiest way to get ssh is to use the Unix command line tools packaged with Git for Windows 111
  112. 112. kitchen login on Windows • Add the Unix tools to your path • 64-bit: C:Program  Files  (x86)Gitbin • 32-bit: C:Program  FilesGitbin 112
  113. 113. $ bundle exec kitchen login default-centos-64 kitchen login Last login: Mon Nov 25 07:00:52 2013 from 10.0.2.2! [vagrant@default-centos-64 ~]$ cat /etc/redhat-release! CentOS release 6.4 (Final)! [vagrant@default-centos-64 ~]$ exit! logout! Connection to 127.0.0.1 closed.! 113
  114. 114. 114 kitchen destroy • kitchen  destroy  <instance_name> shuts down a sandbox instance and destroys and virtual resources allocated
  115. 115. $ bundle exec kitchen destroy default-centos-64 kitchen destroy -----> Starting Kitchen (v1.2.1)! -----> Destroying <default-centos-64>...! ==> default: Forcing shutdown of VM...! ==> default: Destroying VM and associated drives...! Vagrant instance <default-centos-64> destroyed.! Finished destroying <default-centos-64> (0m3.07s).! -----> Kitchen is finished. (0m3.32s) 115
  116. 116. 116 kitchen  converge performs a Chef run in the sandbox instance
  117. 117. $ bundle exec kitchen converge default-centos-64 Perform Chef run -----> Starting Kitchen (v1.2.1)! -----> Creating <default-centos-64>...! Bringing machine 'default' up with 'virtualbox' provider...! ==> default: Box 'opscode-centos-6.4' could not be found. Attempting to find and install...! ...! [2014-03-30T09:09:59+00:00] INFO: Forking chef instance to converge...! Starting Chef Client, version 11.10.4! [2014-03-30T09:09:59+00:00] INFO: *** Chef 11.10.4 ***! [2014-03-30T09:09:59+00:00] INFO: Chef-client pid: 2542! [2014-03-30T09:09:59+00:00] INFO: Setting the run_list to ["recipe[apache::default]"] from JSON! .... 117
  118. 118. $ bundle exec kitchen converge default-centos-64 Perform Chef run -----> Starting Kitchen (v1.2.1)! -----> Creating <default-centos-64>...! Bringing machine 'default' up with 'virtualbox' provider...! ==> default: Box 'opscode-centos-6.4' could not be found. Attempting to find and install...! ...! [2014-03-30T09:09:59+00:00] INFO: Forking chef instance to converge...! Starting Chef Client, version 11.10.4! [2014-03-30T09:09:59+00:00] INFO: *** Chef 11.10.4 ***! [2014-03-30T09:09:59+00:00] INFO: Chef-client pid: 2542! [2014-03-30T09:09:59+00:00] INFO: Setting the run_list to ["recipe[apache::default]"] from JSON! ....! [2014-04-07T02:32:50-04:00] FATAL: Chef::Exceptions::ChildConvergeError: Chef run process exited unsuccessfully (exit code 1)! >>>>>> Converge failed on instance <default-centos-64>.! >>>>>> Please see .kitchen/logs/default-centos-64.log for more details! >>>>>> ------Exception-------! >>>>>> Class: Kitchen::ActionFailed! >>>>>> Message: SSH exited (1) for command: [sudo -E chef-solo --config /tmp/kitchen/solo.rb --json-attributes / tmp/kitchen/dna.json --log_level info]! >>>>>> ----------------------! 118 FAIL
  119. 119. 119 Our first bit of feedback!
  120. 120. 120
  121. 121. 121 Undefined attribute • When you see undefined  method  ‘[]’  for   nil:NilClass it oftentimes means you have an undefined attribute • Let’s see if node["motd"]["company"] is being set
  122. 122. cookbooks/apache/attributes/default.rb 122 default["apache"]["indexfile"] = "index1.html"! default["apache"]["sites"]["clowns"] = { "port" => 80 }! default["apache"]["sites"]["bears"] = { "port" => 81 } NOPE
  123. 123. 123 Undefined attribute • How is ["motd"]["company"] set in the motd cookbook?
  124. 124. cookbooks/motd/attributes/default.rb 124 default["motd"]["company"] = "Chef"
  125. 125. Good cookbooks • Good cookbooks can be used in isolation • They set reasonable defaults for all attributes used • Test Kitchen is designed to run a cookbook in isolation to give you feedback on attribute use 125
  126. 126. Test attributes • We won’t fix the motd cookbook in this class • Test Kitchen supports injection of test attributes • We’ll supply the correct attribute in the .kitchen.yml configuration file 126
  127. 127. Default .kitchen.yml 127 ---! driver:! name: vagrant! ! provisioner:! name: chef_solo! ! platforms:! - name: ubuntu-12.04! - name: centos-6.4! ! suites:! - name: default! run_list:! - recipe[apache::default]! attributes:
  128. 128. ---! driver:! name: vagrant! ! provisioner:! name: chef_solo! ! platforms:! - name: ubuntu-12.04! - name: centos-6.4! ! suites:! - name: default! run_list:! - recipe[apache::default]! attributes:! motd: {company: Chef} cookbooks/apache/.kitchen.yml Set node[“motd”][“company”] (vagrant) 128 OPEN IN EDITOR:
  129. 129. $ bundle exec kitchen converge default-centos-64 Perform Chef run -----> Starting Kitchen (v1.2.1)! -----> Creating <default-centos-64>...! Bringing machine 'default' up with 'virtualbox' provider...! ==> default: Box 'opscode-centos-6.4' could not be found. Attempting to find and install...! ...! [2014-03-30T09:09:59+00:00] INFO: Forking chef instance to converge...! Starting Chef Client, version 11.10.4! [2014-03-30T09:09:59+00:00] INFO: *** Chef 11.10.4 ***! [2014-03-30T09:09:59+00:00] INFO: Chef-client pid: 2542! [2014-03-30T09:09:59+00:00] INFO: Setting the run_list to ["recipe[apache::default]"] from JSON! .... 129
  130. 130. $ bundle exec kitchen converge default-centos-64 Perform Chef run -----> Starting Kitchen (v1.2.1)! -----> Creating <default-centos-64>...! Bringing machine 'default' up with 'virtualbox' provider...! ==> default: Box 'opscode-centos-6.4' could not be found. Attempting to find and install...! ...! [2014-03-30T09:09:59+00:00] INFO: Forking chef instance to converge...! Starting Chef Client, version 11.10.4! [2014-03-30T09:09:59+00:00] INFO: *** Chef 11.10.4 ***! [2014-03-30T09:09:59+00:00] INFO: Chef-client pid: 2542! [2014-03-30T09:09:59+00:00] INFO: Setting the run_list to ["recipe[apache::default]"] from JSON! ....! [2014-04-07T02:40:03-04:00] INFO: Report handlers complete! Chef Client finished, 5/10 resources updated in 2.52587913 seconds! Finished converging <default-centos-64> (0m4.15s).! -----> Kitchen is finished. (0m4.22s) 130 WIN
  131. 131. Where to go next • Learning Chef book excerpt was sent to you are part of the class registration. • Chapter 1 covers Test Kitchen and .kitchen.yml format in more detail. • Appendix provides sample .kitchen.yml configs 131
  132. 132. v2.0.0 Automated Verification in Test Kitchen with Serverspec (Vagrant Version) 132
  133. 133. 133 Let’s verify that the Apache cookbook actually works by configuring Test Kitchen to allow web browser access by the Chef Development workstation
  134. 134. OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/.kitchen.yml ---! driver:! name: vagrant! ! provisioner:! name: chef_solo! ! platforms:! - name: centos-6.4! driver_config:! network:! - ["private_network", {ip: "33.33.33.10"}]! ! suites:! - name: default! run_list:! - recipe[apache::default]! attributes:! motd: {company: Chef} Network configuration 134
  135. 135. $ bundle exec kitchen destroy default-centos-64 Network config requires destory -----> Starting Kitchen (v1.2.1)! -----> Destroying <default-centos-64>...! ==> default: Forcing shutdown of VM...! ==> default: Destroying VM and associated drives...! Vagrant instance <default-centos-64> destroyed.! Finished destroying <default-centos-64> (0m3.07s).! -----> Kitchen is finished. (0m3.32s) 135
  136. 136. $ bundle exec kitchen converge default-centos-64 Perform Chef run -----> Starting Kitchen (v1.2.1)! -----> Creating <default-centos-64>...! Bringing machine 'default' up with 'virtualbox' provider...! ==> default: Box 'opscode-centos-6.4' could not be found. Attempting to find and install...! ...! [2014-03-30T09:09:59+00:00] INFO: Forking chef instance to converge...! Starting Chef Client, version 11.10.4! [2014-03-30T09:09:59+00:00] INFO: *** Chef 11.10.4 ***! [2014-03-30T09:09:59+00:00] INFO: Chef-client pid: 2542! [2014-03-30T09:09:59+00:00] INFO: Setting the run_list to ["recipe[apache::default]"] from JSON! .... 136
  137. 137. Private network set up 137
  138. 138. Clowns & Bears in your web browser 138
  139. 139. 139
  140. 140. 140
  141. 141. Serverspec author • Written by Gosuke Miyashita 141
  142. 142. OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/Gemfile source 'https://rubygems.org'! ! gem 'test-kitchen'! gem 'kitchen-vagrant'! ! gem 'serverspec', '~> 1.1' Add serverspec to Gemfile 142
  143. 143. OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/Gemfile source 'https://rubygems.org'! ! gem 'test-kitchen'! gem 'kitchen-vagrant'! ! gem ‘serverspec’, ‘~> 1.1’ Add serverspec to Gemfile 143 PessimisticVersion
 Constraint
  144. 144. Version Constraint 144 • If a gem properly follows semantic versioning with its versioning scheme. You can take advantage of this to choose a version constraint to lock down the gem in your application. http://guides.rubygems.org/patterns/#declaring_dependencies
  145. 145. Semantic Versioning 145 Given a version number MAJOR.MINOR.PATCH, increment the: 1.MAJOR version when you make incompatible API changes, 2.MINOR version when you add functionality in a backwards- compatible manner, and 3.PATCH version when you make backwards-compatible bug fixes. Additional labels for pre-release and build metadata are available as extensions to the MAJOR.MINOR.PATCH format. http://guides.rubygems.org/patterns/#semantic_versioning
  146. 146. Versioning Example 146 Let’s say the following releases of a gem exist: ■Version 2.1.0 — Baseline ■Version 2.2.0 — Introduced some new (backward compatible) features. ■Version 2.2.1 — Removed some bugs ■Version 2.2.2 — Streamlined your code ■Version 2.3.0 — More new features (but still backwards compatible). ■Version 3.0.0 — Reworked the interface. Code written to version 2.x might not work. http://guides.rubygems.org/patterns/#semantic_versioning
  147. 147. Version Constraint 147 gem 'library', '= 2.2.0' Only use version 2.2.0
  148. 148. Optimistic Version Constraint 148 gem 'library', '>= 2.2.0' Assume all changes from 2.x on will work, including 3.0.0 and higher
  149. 149. Pessimistic Version Constraint 149 gem 'library', '>= 2.2.0', ‘< 3.0’ Explicitly exclude any versions that might break your code
  150. 150. Pessimistic Version Constraint 150 gem 'library', '>= 2.2.0', ‘< 3.0’ Shorthand for: Using the twiddle-wakka: gem 'library', '~> 2.2'
  151. 151. $ bundle install Install Serverspec 151 $ CONFIGURE_ARGS="--with-ldflags=! '-Wno-error=unused-command-line-argument-hard-error-in- future'" bundle install clang 5.1 Workaround
  152. 152. v2.0.0 RSpec Syntax 152
  153. 153. Documentation form 153 describe  ‘<entity>’  do      <descriptions  here>   end
  154. 154. Documentation example 154 describe  ‘clowns  site’  do      ...   end
  155. 155. Description form 155 describe  ‘<entity>’  do      it  ‘<description>’  do            ...      end   end
  156. 156. Description example 156 describe  ‘clowns  site’  do      it  ‘responds  on  port  80’  do          ...      end   end
  157. 157. Expectation form 157 describe  ‘<entity>’  do      it  ‘<description>’  do          expect(thing).to  eq  result      end   end
  158. 158. Expectation form 158 describe  ‘<entity>’  do      it  ‘<description>’  do          expect(thing).to  eq  result      end   end Matcher
  159. 159. Expectation example 159 describe  ‘clowns  site’  do      it  ‘responds  on  port  80’  do          expect(port  80).to  be_listening  ‘tcp’      end   end
  160. 160. Expectation form 160 describe  ‘<entity>’  do      it  ‘<description>’  do          expect(thing).to  eq  result      end   end This is new syntax
  161. 161. Should vs Expect 161 describe  ‘clowns  site’  do      it  ‘responds  on  port  80’  do          expect(port  80).to  be_listening  ‘tcp’      end   end Expect Form One-Liner Should Form describe  ‘clowns  site’  do      describe  port(80)  do          it  {  should  be_listening.with(‘tcp’)  }      end   end
  162. 162. Expect vs. Should 162 Debate on whether or not to use expect vs. should is epic: http://myronmars.to/n/dev-blog/2012/06/rspecs-new- expectation-syntax ...and pointless. Use whatever makes the most sense to you. There are some technical limitations to the ‘should’ form, but if you stick to the “one-liner should” syntax, they are essentially interchangeable.
  163. 163. We use Expect Form 163 Because all the ChefSpec examples are in the expect form
  164. 164. 164 Let’s write some serverspec tests!
  165. 165. 165 Default location for tests • By default, Test Kitchen will look in the test/ integration directory for test-related files • For convenience, Test Kitchen creates this directory when you run kitchen  init
 
 

  166. 166. chef-fundamentals-repo 166 .! "## attributes/! "## .bundle/! "## CHANGELOG.md! "## files/! "## Gemfile! "## Gemfile.lock! "## .kitchen/! "## .kitchen.yml! "## metadata.rb! "## README.md! "## recipes/! "## templates/! "## test/! $   %## integration/! %## vendor/
  167. 167. 167 Suite subdirectory • Test Kitchen requires a few more directories underneath test/ integration • First directory name underneath test/integration should match the suite name:
 
 └──  test/
        └──  integration/
                └──  <suite_name>/
 
 

  168. 168. OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/.kitchen.yml ---! driver:! name: vagrant! ! provisioner:! name: chef_solo! ! platforms:! - name: centos-6.4! driver_config:! network:! - ["private_network", {ip: "33.33.33.10"}]! ! suites:! - name: default! run_list:! - recipe[apache::default]! attributes:! motd: {company: Chef} Network configuration 168 Suite name
  169. 169. 169 Suite subdirectory • Our suite name is default
 
 └──  test/
        └──  integration/
                └──  default/
 
 

  170. 170. 170 Busser directory •The next directory level denotes the test plugin, as
 Test Kitchen many different kinds of test plugins. A test
 plugin is called a busser. We’ll be using the busser
 directory called serverspec.
 
 └──  test/
        └──  integration/
                └──  default/
                        └──  serverspec/
 
 
 

  171. 171. 171 Hostname directory •Serverspec supports testing via SSH, so it requires yet
 another directory level to denote the hostname. We
 won’t be using this capability, so it should be localhost
 
 └──  test/
        └──  integration/
                └──  default/
                        └──  serverspec/
                                └──  localhost/
 
 
 
 

  172. 172. 172 Hostname directory • NOTE: Use of the localhost directory is optional
 
 
 

  173. 173. $ mkdir -p test/integration/default/serverspec Create test directory structure 173 > mkdir testintegrationdefaultserverspec
  174. 174. 174 *_spec.rb files • By convention, Test Kitchen expects files with tests to end in _spec.rb
 

  175. 175. Serverspec expectation form • Every specialized RSpec-based testing library like serverspec has their own special twist on the basic RSpec expectation form 175
  176. 176. Generic Expectation Form 176 describe  ‘<entity>’  do      it  ‘<description>’  do          expect(thing).to  eq  result      end   end
  177. 177. Serverspec Command 177 describe  ‘<entity>’  do      it  ‘<description>’  do          expect(command).to  eq  result      end   end thing to expect is called a command in serverspec
  178. 178. Serverspec commands & matchers • Serverspec has provides a wide variety of matchers for each command • Serverspec commands are well-documented: http:// serverspec.org/resource_types.html 178
  179. 179. Serverspec resources 179
  180. 180. Port resource/be_listening matcher 180
  181. 181. 181 Writing your first test • Let’s create a serverspec test checking to make sure the clowns web site is active on port 80 • Let’s use the port resource and the be_listening matcher

  182. 182. Spec for clowns 182 require 'serverspec'! ! include Serverspec::Helper::Exec! ! describe 'clowns site' do! it 'responds on port 80' do! expect(port 80).to be_listening 'tcp'! end! end OPEN IN EDITOR: apache/test/integration/default/serverspec/clown_spec.rb
  183. 183. 183 kitchen setup • Before running tests you need to run kitchen   setup • kitchen  setup loads and configures the file necessary to run test plugins on the node • The component that manages Test Kitchen plugins is called Busser

  184. 184. $ bundle exec kitchen setup default-centos-64 kitchen setup -----> Starting Kitchen (v1.2.1)! -----> Setting up <default-centos-64>...! -----> Setting up Busser! Creating BUSSER_ROOT in /tmp/busser! Creating busser binstub! Plugin serverspec installed (version 0.2.6)! -----> Running postinstall for serverspec plugin! Finished setting up <default-centos-64> (0m13.03s).! -----> Kitchen is finished. (0m13.42s) 184
  185. 185. 185 kitchen verify • The kitchen  verify command will run the tests in your *_spec.rb files in the test/integration tree
  186. 186. $ bundle exec kitchen verify default-centos-64 kitchen verify -----> Starting Kitchen (v1.2.1)! -----> Verifying <default-centos-64>...! Removing /tmp/busser/suites/serverspec! Uploading /tmp/busser/suites/serverspec/localhost/clown_spec.rb (mode=0644)! -----> Running serverspec test suite! /opt/chef/embedded/bin/ruby -I/tmp/busser/suites/serverspec -S /opt/chef/ embedded/bin/rspec /tmp/busser/suites/serverspec/localhost/clown_spec.rb --color -- format documentation! ! clowns site! responds on port 80! ! Finished in 0.02071 seconds! 1 example, 0 failures! Finished verifying <default-centos-64> (0m1.17s).! -----> Kitchen is finished. (0m1.45s) 186
  187. 187. 187 Verifying that the tests work • Did the test actually do anything? Let’s verify this by changing the port to a known incorrect value.
  188. 188. Replace port 80 to 85 188 require 'serverspec'! ! include Serverspec::Helper::Exec! ! describe 'clowns site' do! it 'responds on port 85' do! expect(port 85).to be_listening 'tcp'! end! end OPEN IN EDITOR: apache/test/integration/default/serverspec/clown_spec.rb
  189. 189. $ bundle exec kitchen verify default-centos-64 This should fail -----> Running serverspec test suite! /opt/chef/embedded/bin/ruby -I/tmp/busser/suites/serverspec -S /opt/chef/embedded/bin/rspec /tmp/ busser/suites/serverspec/localhost/clown_spec.rb --color --format documentation! ! clowns site! responds on port 80 (FAILED - 1)! ! Failures:! ! 1) clowns site responds on port 80! Failure/Error: expect(port 85).to be_listening 'tcp'! netstat -tunl | grep -- :85! expected Port "85" to be listening "tcp"! # /tmp/busser/suites/serverspec/localhost/clown_spec.rb:7:in `block (2 levels) in <top (required)>'! ! Finished in 0.005 seconds! 1 example, 1 failure! ... 189
  190. 190. $ bundle exec kitchen verify default-centos-64 This should fail -----> Running serverspec test suite! /opt/chef/embedded/bin/ruby -I/tmp/busser/suites/serverspec -S /opt/chef/embedded/bin/rspec /tmp/ busser/suites/serverspec/localhost/clown_spec.rb --color --format documentation! ! clowns site! responds on port 80 (FAILED - 1)! ! Failures:! ! 1) clowns site responds on port 80! Failure/Error: expect(port 85).to be_listening 'tcp'! netstat -tunl | grep -- :85! expected Port "85" to be listening "tcp"! # /tmp/busser/suites/serverspec/localhost/clown_spec.rb:7:in `block (2 levels) in <top (required)>'! ! Finished in 0.005 seconds! 1 example, 1 failure! ... 190 WIN FAIL
  191. 191. 191 Back to success • Remember to reset the tests back to the original port value so they succeed again!
  192. 192. Reset back to port 80 192 require 'serverspec'! ! include Serverspec::Helper::Exec! ! describe 'clowns site' do! it 'responds on port 80' do! expect(port 80).to be_listening 'tcp'! end! end OPEN IN EDITOR: apache/test/integration/default/serverspec/clown_spec.rb
  193. 193. $ bundle exec kitchen verify default-centos-64 kitchen verify -----> Starting Kitchen (v1.2.1)! -----> Verifying <default-centos-64>...! Removing /tmp/busser/suites/serverspec! Uploading /tmp/busser/suites/serverspec/localhost/clown_spec.rb (mode=0644)! -----> Running serverspec test suite! /opt/chef/embedded/bin/ruby -I/tmp/busser/suites/serverspec -S /opt/chef/ embedded/bin/rspec /tmp/busser/suites/serverspec/localhost/clown_spec.rb --color -- format documentation! ! clowns site! responds on port 80! ! Finished in 0.02071 seconds! 1 example, 0 failures! Finished verifying <default-centos-64> (0m1.17s).! -----> Kitchen is finished. (0m1.45s) 193
  194. 194. 194 Testing bears • Let’s add another test to do a similar check for the bears port
  195. 195. Spec for bears 195 require 'serverspec'! ! include Serverspec::Helper::Exec! ! describe 'bears site' do! it 'responds on port 81' do! expect(port 81).to be_listening 'tcp'! end! end OPEN IN EDITOR: apache/test/integration/default/serverspec/bear_spec.rb
  196. 196. 196 No need to run kitchen setup • You only need to run kitchen  setup once per node. (Though it doesn’t hurt to run it more than once).
  197. 197. $ bundle exec kitchen verify default-centos-64 ...! ----> Running serverspec test suite! /opt/chef/embedded/bin/ruby -I/tmp/busser/suites/serverspec -S /opt/chef/ embedded/bin/rspec /tmp/busser/suites/serverspec/localhost/bear_spec.rb /tmp/busser/ suites/serverspec/localhost/clown_spec.rb --color --format documentation! ! bears site! response on port 81! ! clowns site! responds on port 80! ! Finished in 0.00889 seconds! 2 examples, 0 failures! ... 197
  198. 198. 198 Code cleanup • Common code can be moved to a file called spec_helper.rb in test/integration/default/ serverspec
  199. 199. 199 Code cleanup • Let’s move common code between clowns & bears to spec_helper.rb
  200. 200. spec_helper.rb 200 require 'serverspec'! ! include Serverspec::Helper::Exec OPEN IN EDITOR: apache/test/integration/default/serverspec/spec_helper.rb
  201. 201. require spec_helper clowns 201 require 'spec_helper'! ! describe 'clowns site' do! it 'responds on port 80' do! expect(port 80).to be_listening 'tcp'! end! end OPEN IN EDITOR: apache/test/integration/default/serverspec/clown_spec.rb
  202. 202. require spec_helper bears 202 require 'spec_helper'! ! describe 'bears site' do! it 'responds on port 81' do! expect(port 81).to be_listening 'tcp'! end! end OPEN IN EDITOR: apache/test/integration/default/serverspec/bear_spec.rb
  203. 203. $ bundle exec kitchen verify default-centos-64 Testing clowns and bears w/spec_helper.rb ...! ----> Running serverspec test suite! /opt/chef/embedded/bin/ruby -I/tmp/busser/suites/serverspec -S /opt/chef/ embedded/bin/rspec /tmp/busser/suites/serverspec/localhost/bear_spec.rb /tmp/busser/ suites/serverspec/localhost/clown_spec.rb --color --format documentation! ! bears site! response on port 81! ! clowns site! responds on port 80! ! Finished in 0.00889 seconds! 2 examples, 0 failures! ... 203
  204. 204. $ bundle exec kitchen verify default-centos-64 Testing clowns and beras ...! ----> Running serverspec test suite! /opt/chef/embedded/bin/ruby -I/tmp/busser/suites/serverspec -S /opt/chef/ embedded/bin/rspec /tmp/busser/suites/serverspec/localhost/bear_spec.rb /tmp/busser/ suites/serverspec/localhost/clown_spec.rb --color --format documentation! ! bears site! response on port 81! ! clowns site! responds on port 80! ! Finished in 0.00889 seconds! 2 examples, 0 failures! ... 204 WIN
  205. 205. 205 Are the web sites really working? • While we’ve added checks to verify that the test node is listening on ports 80 and 81, we haven’t verified that users see the right content when they visit these sites. • Let’s use the command resource with the return_stdout matcher to do a simple check with curl to verify that port 80 is clowns and port 81 is bears.
  206. 206. command resource/return_stdout matcher 206
  207. 207. Check clown content 207 require 'spec_helper'! ! describe 'clowns site' do! it 'responds on port 80' do! expect(port 80).to be_listening 'tcp'! end! ! it 'returns clowns in the HTML body' do! expect(command 'curl localhost:80').to return_stdout(/clowns/)! end! end OPEN IN EDITOR: apache/test/integration/default/serverspec/clown_spec.rb
  208. 208. 208
  209. 209. Check bear content 209 require 'spec_helper'! ! describe 'bears site' do! it 'responds on port 81' do! expect(port 81).to be_listening 'tcp'! end! ! it 'returns bears in the HTML body' do! expect(command 'curl localhost:81').to return_stdout(/bears/)! end! end OPEN IN EDITOR: apache/test/integration/default/serverspec/bear_spec.rb
  210. 210. $ bundle exec kitchen verify default-centos-64 Testing for content ...! -----> Running serverspec test suite! /opt/chef/embedded/bin/ruby -I/tmp/busser/suites/serverspec -S /opt/chef/embedded/bin/rspec /tmp/busser/ suites/serverspec/localhost/bear_spec.rb /tmp/busser/suites/serverspec/localhost/clown_spec.rb --color -- format documentation! ! bears site! responds on port 81! returns bears in the HTML body! ! clowns site! responds on port 80! returns clowns in the HTML body! ! Finished in 0.0293 seconds! 4 examples, 0 failures! Finished verifying <default-centos-64> (0m1.73s).! -----> Kitchen is finished. (0m1.79s)! ... 210 WIN
  211. 211. 211 kitchen test • The kitchen  test command will automate all the previous actions you’ve learned so far into one command. It runs the following commands in sequence: • kitchen  destroy (if necessary) •kitchen  create   •kitchen  converge   •kitchen  setup   •kitchen  verify   •kitchen  destroy
  212. 212. 212 kitchen test • The kitchen  test command is intended to be used as a final check on a fresh image before committing changes to source control and/or to be used in a Continuous Integration environment like Jenkins.
  213. 213. $ bundle exec kitchen test default-centos-64 kitchen test -----> Starting Kitchen (v1.2.1)! -----> Cleaning up any prior instances of <default-centos-64>! -----> Destroying <default-centos-64>...! 2c46b1a4609dc6a2beaf44e1134638b0a8ac47c9c5a02baee0bdb3df64e7bcdf! 2c46b1a4609dc6a2beaf44e1134638b0a8ac47c9c5a02baee0bdb3df64e7bcdf! Finished destroying <default-centos-64> (0m0.60s).! -----> Testing <default-centos-64>! -----> Creating <default-centos-64>...! ...! Finished in 0.0311 seconds! 4 examples, 0 failures! Finished verifying <default-centos-64> (0m1.71s).! -----> Destroying <default-centos-64>...! d22a8c4db8505f89f7f7e65bca26492f58d5637f9a88763d5eb919d860dade4e! d22a8c4db8505f89f7f7e65bca26492f58d5637f9a88763d5eb919d860dade4e! Finished destroying <default-centos-64> (0m0.47s).! Finished testing <default-centos-64> (0m39.78s).! -----> Kitchen is finished. (0m39.84s) 213
  214. 214. Where to go next • Jenkins cookbook is chock full of advanced Serverspec techniques:
 
 https://github.com/opscode-cookbooks/jenkins 214
  215. 215. Where to go next • jenkins/test/shared/support contains examples for implementing custom Serverspec matchers used in jenkins/test/integration: •describe  jenkins_job('my-­‐project')  do
    it  {  should  be_a_jenkins_job  }
 end
 215
  216. 216. Where to go next • test/fixtures contains mini-cookbooks to exercise resource providers • Aliased in Berksfile: •cookbook  'smoke',  path:  'test/fixtures/ cookbooks/smoke'   • Run via Rakefile 216
  217. 217. Where to go next • Uses data/path directive in .kitchen.yml to share test data between serverspec suites • Directory specified in data/path is copied to /tmp/ kitchen/data on guest • Reason for weird require_relative directive in tests that use custom Serverspec matchers:
 require_relative  '../../../kitchen/data/ spec_helper' 217
  218. 218. RECAP: Why Test? • It’s important to find bugs fast
 218
  219. 219. Better, Faster, Stronger • Test Kitchen is an invaluable tool for managing sandbox environments and truly verifying that a cookbook produces the intended results • But it does require spinning up an instance and performing a full Chef converge, which can take a long time • Use Test Kitchen judiciously. The other tools can provide more limited forms of feedback faster. 219
  220. 220. v2.0.0 Detect Suspicious Cookbook Code with Foodcritic 220
  221. 221. Feedback on Chef Coding Style • Foodcritic provides feedback on your Chef coding style • It is designed to be used as you are writing Chef code - how’s that for freaking fast! • Written by Andrew Crump
 http://acrmp.github.com/footcritic 221
  222. 222. Feedback on Chef Coding Style • Let’s install Foodcritic on your development workstation so you can give it a spin • Add Foodcritic to your Gemfile • Install the app with bundle  install 222
  223. 223. OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/Gemfile source 'https://rubygems.org'! ! gem 'test-kitchen'! gem 'kitchen-vagrant'! ! gem 'serverspec', '~> 1.1'! gem 'foodcritic', '~> 3.0' Add foodcritic to Gemfile 223
  224. 224. $ sudo yum install -y libxslt-devel libxml2-devel Install Prerequisites 224 $ sudo apt-get install -y libxslt-dev libxml2-dev
  225. 225. $ bundle install Install Foodcritic 225 $ CONFIGURE_ARGS="--with-ldflags=! '-Wno-error=unused-command-line-argument-hard-error-in- future'" bundle install clang 5.1 Workaround
  226. 226. $ bundle exec foodcritic --version Verify install foodcritic 3.0.3 226
  227. 227. $ bundle exec foodcritic . Run Foodcritic on your cookbook 227 FC003: Check whether you are running with chef server before using server-specific features: cookbooks/apache/recipes/ip-logger.rb:1! FC008: Generated cookbook metadata needs updating: cookbooks/apache/metadata.rb:2! FC008: Generated cookbook metadata needs updating: cookbooks/apache/metadata.rb:3
  228. 228. 228 More feedback!
  229. 229. 229 Fast feedback!
  230. 230. Feedback on Chef Coding Style • Foodcritic comes with a set of checks called rules • Foodcritic rules are documented at http:// acrmp.github.io/foodcritic/ • The default rules are a good start, and you can add new rules of your own easily 230
  231. 231. Default Rules 231
  232. 232. 232 What about the FC003 & FC008 issues in the apache cookbook?
  233. 233. FC008 - Generated cookbook metadata needs updating 233
  234. 234. 234 Let’s fix!
  235. 235. cookbooks/apache/metadata.rb 235 name 'apache'! maintainer 'YOUR_COMPANY_NAME'! maintainer_email 'YOUR_EMAIL'! license 'All rights reserved'! description 'Installs/Configures apache'! long_description IO.read(File.join(File.dirname(__FILE__), 'README.md'))! version '0.2.0'
  236. 236. OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/metadata.rb name 'apache'! maintainer 'Mischa Taylor'! maintainer_email 'misheska@getchef.com'! license 'All rights reserved'! description 'Installs/Configures apache'! long_description IO.read(File.join(File.dirname(__FILE__), 'README.md'))! version '0.2.0' 236 Addressing FC008
  237. 237. $ bundle exec foodcritic . Rerun foodcritic 237 FC003: Check whether you are running with chef server before using server- specific features: ./recipes/ip- logger.rb:1
  238. 238. 238 Two down, one to go!
  239. 239. FC003 - Check for chef server before using server-specific features 239
  240. 240. 240 Ignoring FC003 • Let’s say, for now, we don’t want to fix ip-­‐ logger.rb, and we’d like to squelch the FC003 check
  241. 241. 241 --tags parameter • The -­‐-­‐tags  <TAGS> parameter can be used to specify a list of rules for foodcritic to use •foodcritic  -­‐-­‐tags  FC001,FC002,FC008   • The tilde (~) modifier can be used to ignore specific rules •foodcritic  -­‐-­‐tags  ~FC003
  242. 242. $ bundle exec foodcritic --tags ~FC003 . Ignore FC003 242
  243. 243. $ bundle exec foodcritic --tags ~FC003 . Ignore FC003 243 WIN
  244. 244. 244 Custom rules • Etsy created some custom Foodcritic rules to check for issues that caused production outages/ performance degradation. • Good example for how to create your own custom rules • Documented here:
 https://github.com/etsy/foodcritic-rules
  245. 245. Etsy Foodcritic Rules • ETSY001 - Package or yum_package resource used with :upgrade action! • ETSY002 - Execute resource used to run git commands! • ETSY003 - Execute resource used to run curl or wget commands! • ETSY004 - Execute resource defined without conditional or action :nothing! • ETSY005 - Action :restart sent to a core service! • ETSY006 - Execute resource used to run chef-provided command! • ETSY007 - Package or yum_package resource used to install core package without specific version number 245
  246. 246. $ git clone https://github.com/etsy/ foodcritic-rules ../../foodcritic/etsy! $ rm -rf ../../foodcritic/etsy/.git Installing new rules 246
  247. 247. 247 --include parameter • The -­‐-­‐include  <PATH> parameter species additional paths to load rules (shortened with -I)
  248. 248. $ bundle exec foodcritic -t ~FC003 -I ../../ foodcritic . Including Custom Rules ETSY005: Action :restart sent to a core service: ./recipes/default.rb:19! ETSY005: Action :restart sent to a core service: ./recipes/default.rb:32! ETSY007: Package or yum_package resource used to install core package without specific version number: ./recipes/default.rb:10 248
  249. 249. 249 Editor support • Many popular editors can be configured to run Foodcritic inside the editor (including Vim, GNU Emacs and Sublime Text). So you can get feedback even faster.
  250. 250. v2.0.0 Detect Suspicious Ruby Code with RuboCop 250
  251. 251. RuboCop - Feedback on Ruby Style • Many people new to Ruby would like some guidance on how to write idiomatic Ruby • Get the same kind of feedback for Ruby using RuboCop that you get for Chef Code using Foodcritic (Chef code is Ruby) 251
  252. 252. RuboCop Author • Written by Bozhidar Batsov:
 https://github.com/bbatsov/rubocop 252
  253. 253. RuboCop - Feedback on Ruby Style • Follows community-driven style guide:
 https://github.com/bbatsov/ruby-style-guide ! • Looks at cookbooks for Ruby best practices, not the Chef DSL - that’s Foodcritic 253
  254. 254. RuboCop - Feedback on Ruby Style • Let’s install RuboCop on your development workstation so you can give it a spin • Add RuboCop to your Gemfile • Install the app with bundle  install 254
  255. 255. OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/Gemfile source 'https://rubygems.org'! ! gem 'test-kitchen'! gem 'kitchen-vagrant'! ! gem 'serverspec', '~> 1.1'! gem 'foodcritic', '~> 3.0'! gem 'rubocop', '~> 0.20' Add rubocop to Gemfile 255
  256. 256. $ bundle install Install RuboCop 256 $ CONFIGURE_ARGS="--with-ldflags=! '-Wno-error=unused-command-line-argument-hard-error-in- future'" bundle install clang 5.1 Workaround
  257. 257. $ bundle exec rubocop --version Verify Install 0.20.1 257
  258. 258. Running RuboCop • Just run the rubocop command - it recursively checks all the *.rb files in all subdirectories underneath the current directory (excluding vendor/) 258
  259. 259. $ bundle exec rubocop Run RuboCop on your cookbook attributes/default.rb:3:19: C: Prefer single-quoted strings when you don't need string interpolation or special symbols.! default["apache"]["sites"]["bears"] = { "port" => 81 }! ^^^^^^^! attributes/default.rb:3:28: C: Prefer single-quoted strings when you don't need string interpolation or special symbols.! default["apache"]["sites"]["bears"] = { "port" => 81 }! ^^^^^^^! attributes/default.rb:3:41: C: Prefer single-quoted strings when you don't need string interpolation or special symbols.! default["apache"]["sites"]["bears"] = { "port" => 81 }! ^^^^^^! ! 7 files inspected, 52 offenses detected 259
  260. 260. rubocop-todo.yml via --auto-gen-config • rubocop-todo.yml will help generate TODOs for each item on the offense list • It also shows you what config setting can be used to mask each offense, which we’ll need to do for some of these, because Chef code conventions vary slightly from the Rubocop community standards 260
  261. 261. $ bundle exec rubocop --auto-gen-config Generate rubocop-todo.yml attributes/default.rb:3:28: C: Prefer single-quoted strings when you don't need string interpolation or special symbols.! default["apache"]["sites"]["bears"] = { "port" => 81 }! ^^^^^^^! attributes/default.rb:3:41: C: Prefer single-quoted strings when you don't need string interpolation or special symbols.! default["apache"]["sites"]["bears"] = { "port" => 81 }! ^^^^^^! ! 7 files inspected, 52 offenses detected! Created rubocop-todo.yml.! Run `rubocop --config rubocop-todo.yml`, or! add inherit_from: rubocop-todo.yml in a .rubocop.yml file. 261
  262. 262. .rubocop.yml Configures RuboCop • .rubocop.yml can be used to configure RuboCop (similar to .kitchen.yml in Test Kitchen) • We’ll add a settings to ignore things, similar to what we did for Foodcritic, that don’t make as much sense for Chef. • Settings are documented in the RuboCop README: https://github.com/bbatsov/rubocop/blob/master/ README.md • Cop is the RuboCop equivalent of a rule 262
  263. 263. OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/.rubocop.yml inherit_from:  rubocop-­‐todo.yml Include rubocop-todo.yml 263
  264. 264. $ bundle exec rubocop Run RuboCop on your cookbook Inspecting 7 files! .......! ! 7 files inspected, no offenses detected 264
  265. 265. Easy peasy • Wow, now more offenses...not really 265
  266. 266. Match Chef community standards • First, we’ll move some of the Cops from rubocop- todo.yml to .rubocop.yml for things that match Chef community standards (as opposed to the Ruby community standards) 266
  267. 267. Missing utf-8 encoding comment 267
  268. 268. OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/.rubocop.yml inherit_from:  rubocop-­‐todo.yml   ! Encoding:      Enabled:  false Chef does not (yet) support encoding comment 268
  269. 269. Line is too long 269
  270. 270. OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/.rubocop.yml inherit_from:  rubocop-­‐todo.yml   ! Encoding:      Enabled:  false   ! LineLength:      Max:  200 Relax line limit 270
  271. 271. Use the new Ruby 1.9 hash syntax 271
  272. 272. OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/.rubocop.yml inherit_from:  rubocop-­‐todo.yml   ! Encoding:      Enabled:  false   ! LineLength:      Max:  200   ! HashSyntax:    EnforcedStyle:  hash_rockets Some cookbooks try to be Ruby 1.8 compatible 272
  273. 273. Prefer single-quoted strings 273
  274. 274. OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/.rubocop.yml inherit_from:  rubocop-­‐todo.yml   ! Encoding:      Enabled:  false   ! LineLength:      Max:  200   ! HashSyntax:      EnforcedStyle:  hash_rockets   ! StringLiterals:      Enabled:  false Conflicts w/decision to relax FC002 274
  275. 275. $ bundle exec rubocop --auto-gen-config Regenerate rubocop-todo.yml metadata.rb:2:11: C: Put one space between the method name and the first argument.! maintainer 'Mischa Taylor'! ^^^^^^^! metadata.rb:4:8: C: Put one space between the method name and the first argument.! license 'All rights reserved'! ^^^^^^^^^^! metadata.rb:5:12: C: Put one space between the method name and the first argument.! description 'Installs/Configures apache'! ^^^^^^! metadata.rb:7:8: C: Put one space between the method name and the first argument.! version '0.2.0'! ^^^^^^^^^^! ! 7 files inspected, 11 offenses detected 275
  276. 276. Rubocop Workflow • Uncomment lines in rubocop-todo.yml • Fix offenses • git commit • Repeat 276
  277. 277. Only really critical issue 277
  278. 278. Trailing whitespace & Git • Whitespace differences make diffs longer and diverts focus from more important changes • Even with Git, trailing whitespace can make merge conflicts more difficult to resolve 278
  279. 279. 279 Editor support • Many popular editors can be configured to run RuboCop inside the editor (including Vim, GNU Emacs and Sublime Text). So you can get feedback even faster. • RuboCop includes great docs on editor configuration (which work for Foodcritic as well): 
 https://github.com/bbatsov/rubocop#editor- integration
  280. 280. v2.0.0 Runnable documentation with ChefSpec 280
  281. 281. RECAP: Why Not Begin With Testing? • Finding a bug in something that you can’t execute is freaking hard! • While fixing bugs before writing code is cheap, finding them is expensive
 281
  282. 282. What is ChefSpec? • ChefSpec helps produce runnable documentation. Its primary purpose is to help document and organize your code. • As a side effect, you’ll end up with a set of tests which can also be used to uncover bugs when changes are made. • Plus, your cookbook code will be improved when it is guided by tests. 282
  283. 283. ChefSpec Authors • Written by Andrew Crump and Seth Vargo 283
  284. 284. ChefSpec - Runnable Documentation • Let’s install ChefSpec on your development workstation so you can give it a spin • Add ChefSpec to your Gemfile • Install the app with bundle  install 284
  285. 285. OPEN IN EDITOR: chef-fundamentals-repo/Gemfile source 'https://rubygems.org'! ! gem 'test-kitchen'! gem 'kitchen-vagrant'! ! gem 'serverspec', '~> 1.1'! gem 'foodcritic', '~> 3.0'! gem 'rubocop', '~> 0.20'! gem 'chefspec', '~> 3.4' Gemfile 285
  286. 286. $ bundle install Install ChefSpec 286 $ CONFIGURE_ARGS="--with-ldflags=! '-Wno-error=unused-command-line-argument-hard-error-in- future'" bundle install clang 5.1 Workaround
  287. 287. ChefSpec builds on RSpec • ChefSpec uses the RSpec description form to create runnable documentation (in a similar vein to serverspec) 287
  288. 288. Documentation form 288 describe  ‘<recipe_name>’  do      <perform  in-­‐memory  Chef  run>      <descriptions  here>   end
  289. 289. Documentation example 289 describe  ‘apache::default’  do      ...   end
  290. 290. In-Memory Chef Run Form 290 require  ‘chefspec’   ! describe  ‘<recipe_name>’  do      chef_run  =  ChefSpec::Runner.new.converge(<recipe_name>)      <descriptions  here>   end
  291. 291. In-Memory Chef Run Example 291 require  ‘chefspec’   ! describe  'apache::default'  do      chef_run  =  ChefSpec::Runner.new.converge('apache::default')   
    <descriptions  here>   end
  292. 292. Expectation form 292 describe  ‘<recipe_name>’  do      <perform  in-­‐memory  Chef  run>      it  ‘<description>’  do          expect(<chef_run>).to  eq  result      end   end
  293. 293. Expectation form 293 describe  ‘<recipe_name>’  do      <perform  in-­‐memory  Chef  run>      it  ‘<description>’  do          expect(<chef_run>).to  eq  result      end   end Matcher
  294. 294. Expectation Example 294 require  ‘chefspec’   ! describe  'apache::default'  do      chef_run  =  ChefSpec::Runner.new.converge('apache::default')   
    it  ‘installs  apache2’  do          expect(chef_run).to  install_package(‘httpd’)      end   end
  295. 295. Runnable Documentation • expect statement does not actually perform the httpd package installation • It just verifies the cookbook syntax that it instructs Chef to install the package • Good enough for well-tested primitives like the package resource 295
  296. 296. 296 Let’s write some ChefSpec tests!
  297. 297. 297 Default location for tests • By default, ChefSpec will look in the spec/directory for ChefSpec test-related files
 
 

  298. 298. chef-fundamentals-repo 298 .! "## .bundle/! "## .kitchen/! "## .kitchen.yml! "## CHANGELOG.md! "## Gemfile! "## Gemfile.lock! "## README.md! "## attributes/! "## files/! "## metadata.rb! "## recipes/! "## spec/! "## templates/! "## test/! $   %## integration/! %## vendor/! %## bundle/!
  299. 299. $ mkdir spec Create spec directory in cookbooks/apache 299 > mkdir spec
  300. 300. 300 *_spec.rb files • By convention, ChefSpec expects files with tests to end in _spec.rb
 

  301. 301. ChefSpec Matcher Documentation 301 http://rubydoc.info/github/acrmp/chefspec/frames
  302. 302. ChefSpec > API 302
  303. 303. Each API has an example 303
  304. 304. Let’s use the install_package matcher 304
  305. 305. install_package Example 305
  306. 306. OPEN IN EDITOR: spec/default_spec.rb require 'chefspec'! ! describe 'apache::default' do! chef_run = ChefSpec::Runner.new.converge('apache::default')! ! it 'installs apache2' do! expect(chef_run).to install_package('httpd')! end! end Test apache::default recipe 306
  307. 307. 307 Rspec runs ChefSpec • There’s no separate chefspec command. • Just run rspec to run ChefSpec tests.

  308. 308. $ bundle exec rspec --color Run ChefSpec on your cookbok .! ! Finished in 0.0006 seconds! 1 example, 0 failures 308
  309. 309. OPEN IN EDITOR: spec/default_spec.rb require 'chefspec'! ! describe 'apache::default' do! chef_run = ChefSpec::Runner.new.converge('apache::default')! ! it 'installs apache2' do! expect(chef_run).to install_package('badhttpd')! end! end Did it really check anything? 309
  310. 310. $ bundle exec rspec Run ChefSpec on your cookbok F! ! Failures:! ! 1) apache::default installs apache2! Failure/Error: expect(chef_run).to install_package('badhttpd')! expected "package[badhttpd]" with action :install to be in Chef run. Other package resources:! ! package[httpd]! ! # ./spec/default_spec.rb:7:in `block (2 levels) in <top (required)>'! ! Finished in 0.00044 seconds! 1 example, 1 failure 310
  311. 311. OPEN IN EDITOR: spec/default_spec.rb require 'chefspec'! ! describe 'apache::default' do! chef_run = ChefSpec::Runner.new.converge('apache::default')! ! it 'installs apache2' do! expect(chef_run).to install_package('httpd')! end! end Restore back to working 311
  312. 312. $ bundle exec rspec --color Run ChefSpec on your cookbok .! ! Finished in 0.0006 seconds! 1 example, 0 failures 312
  313. 313. Lazy evaluation with let 313 require 'chefspec'! ! describe 'apache::default' do! let(:chef_run) { ChefSpec::Runner.new.converge(described_recipe) }! ! it 'installs apache2' do! expect(chef_run).to install_package('httpd')! end! end Lazy evaluation
  314. 314. 314 described_recipe • let blocks aren’t evaluated until the first time they are called • Also allows ChefSpec to run the described_recipe macro to evaluate the recipe name

  315. 315. OPEN IN EDITOR: spec/default_spec.rb require 'chefspec'! ! describe 'apache::default' do! let(:chef_run) { ChefSpec::Runner.new.converge(described_recipe) }! ! it 'installs apache2' do! expect(chef_run).to install_package('httpd')! end! end Lazy evaluation 315
  316. 316. $ bundle exec rspec --color Run ChefSpec on your cookbok .! ! Finished in 0.0006 seconds! 1 example, 0 failures 316
  317. 317. 317 ChefSpec Resource Report • ChefSpec Resource Report can help guide writing your tests
  318. 318. OPEN IN EDITOR: spec/default_spec.rb require 'chefspec'! ! at_exit { ChefSpec::Coverage.report! }! ! describe 'apache::default' do! let (:chef_run) { ChefSpec::Runner.new.converge(described_recipe) }! ! it 'installs apache2' do! expect(chef_run).to install_package('httpd')! end! end Adding resource report 318
  319. 319. $ bundle exec rspec --color Run ChefSpec on your cookbok .! ! Finished in 0.01106 seconds! 1 example, 0 failures! ! ChefSpec Coverage report generated...! ! Total Resources: 9! Touched Resources: 1! Touch Coverage: 11.11%! ! Untouched Resources:! ! service[httpd] /recipes/default.rb:14! execute[mv /etc/httpd/conf.d/welcome.conf /etc/httpd/conf.d/welcome.conf.disabled] /recipes/default.rb:19! template[/etc/httpd/conf.d/clowns.conf] /recipes/default.rb:32! directory[/srv/apache/clowns] /recipes/default.rb:43! template[/srv/apache/clowns/index.html] /recipes/default.rb:49! template[/etc/httpd/conf.d/bears.conf] /recipes/default.rb:32! directory[/srv/apache/bears] /recipes/default.rb:43! template[/srv/apache/bears/index.html] /recipes/default.rb:49 319
  320. 320. 320 create_file matcher • Let’s verify that the clowns.conf file gets created with the create_file matcher
  321. 321. 321 create_file matcher
  322. 322. OPEN IN EDITOR: spec/default_spec.rb require 'chefspec'! ! at_exit { ChefSpec::Coverage.report! }! ! describe 'apache::default' do! let(:chef_run) { ChefSpec::Runner.new.converge(described_recipe) }! ...! ! it 'creates clowns.conf' do! expect(chef_run).to ! create_file('/etc/httpd/conf.d/clowns.conf')! end! end Checking clowns.conf files 322
  323. 323. $ bundle exec rspec --color Run ChefSpec on your cookbok F! ! Failures:! ! 1) apache::default creates clowns.conf! Failure/Error: expect(chef_run).to create_file('/srv/apache/clowns')! expected "file[/srv/apache/clowns]" with action :create to be in Chef run. Other file resources:! ! ! ! # ./spec/default_spec.rb:13:in `block (2 levels) in <top (required)>'! ! Finished in 0.01903 seconds! 2 examples, 1 failure! ! Failed examples:! ! rspec ./spec/default_spec.rb:12 # apache::default creates clowns.conf 323
  324. 324. $ bundle exec rspec --color Run ChefSpec on your cookbok F! ! Failures:! ! 1) apache::default creates clowns.conf! Failure/Error: expect(chef_run).to create_file('/srv/apache/clowns')! expected "file[/srv/apache/clowns]" with action :create to be in Chef run. Other file resources:! ! ! ! # ./spec/default_spec.rb:13:in `block (2 levels) in <top (required)>'! ! Finished in 0.01903 seconds! 2 examples, 1 failure! ! Failed examples:! ! rspec ./spec/default_spec.rb:12 # apache::default creates clowns.conf 324 FAIL
  325. 325. 325 ChefSpec == Runnable Documentation • Remember: ChefSpec is just runnable documentation • It isn’t actually performing a Chef run to verify that clowns.conf was created • Instead it is just verifying that you told Chef to create the clowns.conf via the file resource, which you never did - you used the template resource
  326. 326. 326 template matcher
  327. 327. OPEN IN EDITOR: spec/default_spec.rb require 'chefspec'! ! at_exit { ChefSpec::Coverage.report! }! ! describe 'apache::default' do! let(:chef_run) { ChefSpec::Runner.new.converge(described_recipe) }! ...! ! it 'creates clowns.conf' do! expect(chef_run).to ! create_template('/etc/httpd/conf.d/clowns.conf')! end! end Checking clowns.conf file 327
  328. 328. $ bundle exec rspec --color Run ChefSpec on your cookbok .! ! Finished in 0.01955 seconds! 2 examples, 0 failures 328
  329. 329. $ bundle exec rspec --color Run ChefSpec on your cookbok .! ! Finished in 0.01955 seconds! 2 examples, 0 failures 329 WIN
  330. 330. 330 spec_helper.rb • Similar to Serverspec, common code can be moved to a file called spec_helper.rb with ChefSpec
  331. 331. OPEN IN EDITOR: spec/spec_helper.rb require 'chefspec'! ! at_exit { ChefSpec::Coverage.report! } Checking clowns.conf file 331
  332. 332. 332 RSpec recurses through spec/* • RSpec recurses through the spec/ subtree, looking for tests, so you can create any directory structure you like underneath • We’ll move default_spec.rb to spec/recipes
  333. 333. $ mkdir spec/recipes! $ mv spec/default_spec.rb spec/recipes Move default_spec.rb 333
  334. 334. OPEN IN EDITOR: spec/recipes/default_spec.rb require 'spec_helper'! ! describe 'apache::default' do! let (:chef_run) { ChefSpec::Runner.new.converge(described_recipe) }! ! it 'installs apache2' do! expect(chef_run).to install_package('httpd')! end! ! it 'creates clowns.conf' do! expect(chef_run).to ! create_template('/etc/httpd/conf.d/clowns.conf')! end! Checking clowns.conf file 334
  335. 335. $ bundle exec rspec --color Run ChefSpec on your cookbok .! ! Finished in 0.01955 seconds! 2 examples, 0 failures 335
  336. 336. $ bundle exec rspec --color Run ChefSpec on your cookbok .! ! Finished in 0.01955 seconds! 2 examples, 0 failures 336 WIN
  337. 337. 337 Where to go next • There’s a lot of ChefSpec written for the community cookbooks. Check out the spec/ directory your favorites.
  338. 338. v2.0.0 Continuous Validation with Guard 338
  339. 339. What is Guard? • A tool that monitors for filesystem changes and performs actions (like launching rake tasks) • Written by Thibaud Guillaume-Gentil 339
  340. 340. Guard install • Let’s install Guard on your development workstation so you can give it a spin • Add guard to your Gemfile • Install the app with bundle  install 340
  341. 341. OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/Gemfile source 'https://rubygems.org'! ! gem 'test-kitchen'! gem 'kitchen-vagrant'! ! gem 'serverspec', '~> 1.1'! gem 'foodcritic', '~> 3.0'! gem 'rubocop', '~> 0.20'! gem 'chefspec', '~> 3.4'! gem 'guard', '~> 2.6' Gemfile 341
  342. 342. $ bundle install Install Guard 342 $ CONFIGURE_ARGS="--with-ldflags=! '-Wno-error=unused-command-line-argument-hard-error-in- future'" bundle install clang 5.1 Workaround
  343. 343. OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/Gemfile source 'https://rubygems.org'! ! gem 'test-kitchen'! gem 'kitchen-vagrant'! ! gem 'serverspec', '~> 1.1'! gem 'foodcritic', '~> 3.0'! gem 'rubocop', '~> 0.20'! gem 'chefspec', '~> 3.4'! gem 'guard', '~> 2.6'! gem 'guard-rubocop', '~> 1.1' Gemfile 343
  344. 344. $ bundle install Install guard-rubocop 344 $ CONFIGURE_ARGS="--with-ldflags=! '-Wno-error=unused-command-line-argument-hard-error-in- future'" bundle install clang 5.1 Workaround
  345. 345. $ bundle exec guard init Create Guardfile 02:39:58 - INFO - Writing new Guardfile to /home/vagrant/ chef-fundamentals-repo/cookbooks/apache/Guardfile! 02:45:32 - INFO - rubocop guard added to Guardfile, feel free to edit it 345
  346. 346. cookbooks/apache/Guardfile 346 # A sample Guardfile! # More info at https://github.com/guard/guard#readme! ! guard :rubocop do! watch(%r{.+.rb$})! watch(%r{(?:.+/)?.rubocop.yml$}) { |m| File.dirname(m[0]) }! end
  347. 347. $ bundle exec guard Run Guard 02:48:54 - INFO - Guard is now watching at '/home/vagrant/ chef-fundamentals-repo/cookbooks/apache'! [1] guard(main)> 347
  348. 348. CloudShare Node 348
  349. 349. CloudShare Node 349
  350. 350. $ cd $HOME/chef-fundamentals-repo/cookbooks/apache In another session 350 And edit some .rb file - upon save, rubocop is launched!
  351. 351. Stopping guard [1] guard(main)> quit! ! 19:23:42 - INFO - Bye bye... 351
  352. 352. 352 Where to go next Michael Goetz blog posts: https://micgo.net/check-yo-self-before-you-wreck-yo-self-with- foodcritic-chefspec/ Foodcritic and Guard: Serverspec and Guard: https://micgo.net/serverspec-guard-and-test-kitchen-testing- servers-like-a-boss/
  353. 353. 353 Where to go next Michael Goetz blog posts: ChefSpec and Guard: https://micgo.net/continuous-chefspec-validation-with-guard/
  354. 354. v2.0.0 Repeating Test Steps with Rake 354
  355. 355. What is Rake? • Rake includes a language for expressing the command line steps needed to create an app • Perfect for capturing all the commands you’ve learned in this class so others can run them easily, or in your continuous integration system (Jenkins, Bamboo, TeamCity, etc.) 355
  356. 356. Rake Author • Written by Jim Weirich:
 http://rake.rubyforge.org/ 356
  357. 357. Rake - Repeatable Test Commands • Let’s install Rake on your development workstation so you can give it a spin • Add rake to your Gemfile • Install the app with bundle  install 357
  358. 358. OPEN IN EDITOR: chef-fundamentals-repo/Gemfile source 'https://rubygems.org'! ! gem 'test-kitchen'! gem 'kitchen-vagrant'! ! gem 'rake'! gem 'serverspec', '~> 1.1'! gem 'foodcritic', '~> 3.0'! gem 'rubocop', '~> 0.20'! gem 'chefspec', '~> 3.4'! gem 'guard', '~> 2.6'! gem 'guard-rubocop', '~> 1.1' Gemfile 358
  359. 359. $ bundle install Install Rake 359 $ CONFIGURE_ARGS="--with-ldflags=! '-Wno-error=unused-command-line-argument-hard-error-in- future'" bundle install clang 5.1 Workaround
  360. 360. Rake - Repeatable Tasks • Task - expresses command line actions to perform 360
  361. 361. Rake Task Form 361 task :<task_name> do! <action>! <action>! end
  362. 362. Rake - Repeatable Tasks • Configuration file for rake is a Rakefile 362
  363. 363. Rake - Actions • Actions are expressed in Ruby syntax • sh  “<command>”  runs a shell command:
 sh “bundle  exec  rspec” 363
  364. 364. OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/Rakefile task :rubocop do! sh 'bundle exec rubocop'! end Rubocop Task 364
  365. 365. $ bundle exec rake rubocop Execute Rake Task Inspecting 9 files! .......! ! 9 files inspected, no offenses detected 365
  366. 366. Task Description • Every task should have a description which documents what the task does • rake  -­‐-­‐tasks prints out tasks with descriptions 366
  367. 367. OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/Rakefile desc 'Run Ruby style checks with Rubocop'! task :rubocop do! sh 'bundle exec rubocop'! end Rubocop Task 367
  368. 368. $ bundle exec rake --tasks Execute Rake Task rake rubocop # Run Ruby style checks with Rubocop 368
  369. 369. Adding Foodcritic • Let’s add a task for Foocritic next 369
  370. 370. OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/Rakefile desc 'Run Ruby style checks with Rubocop'! task :rubocop do! sh 'bundle exec rubocop'! end! ! desc 'Run Chef style checks with Foodcritic'! task :foodcritic do! sh 'bundle exec foodcritic -t ~FC003 .'! end Foodcritic Task 370
  371. 371. $ bundle exec rake foodcritic Execute Rake Task bundle exec foodcritic -t ~FC003 .! FC011: Missing README in markdown format: spec/README.md:1! FC031: Cookbook without metadata file: spec/metadata.rb:1! FC045: Consider setting cookbook name in metadata: spec/ metadata.rb:1 371
  372. 372. $ bundle exec rake foodcritic Execute Rake Task bundle exec foodcritic -t ~FC003 .! FC011: Missing README in markdown format: spec/README.md:1! FC031: Cookbook without metadata file: spec/metadata.rb:1! FC045: Consider setting cookbook name in metadata: spec/ metadata.rb:1 372 WAT?
  373. 373. Foodcritic 3.0.3 issue • Foodcritic is checking spec/ subtree when it shouldn’t • Does not expose command line option to exclude directories:
 https://github.com/acrmp/foodcritic/issues/148 • When fixed, this should work:
 bundle  exec  foodcritic  -­‐X  spec  -­‐t  ~FC003  .
 373
  374. 374. OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/Rakefile desc 'Run Ruby style checks with Rubocop'! task :rubocop do! sh 'bundle exec rubocop'! end! ! require 'foodcritic'! desc 'Run Chef style checks with Foodcritic'! FoodCritic::Rake::LintTask.new(:foodcritic) do |t|! t.options = {! tags: ['~FC003'],! excludes: ['test', 'spec', 'features']! }! end Workaround - Use Ruby 374
  375. 375. Default task • Rake supports a special task name called default • default runs when no parameters are supplied to rake • default (as well as any other task) can point to a list of other task names to execute
 task  :default  =>  [:foodcritic] 375
  376. 376. OPEN IN EDITOR: cookbooks/apache/Rakefile task :default => [:rubocop, :foodcritic]! ! desc 'Run Ruby style checks with Rubocop'! task :rubocop do! sh 'bundle exec rubocop'! end! ! require 'foodcritic'! desc 'Run Chef style checks with Foodcritic'! FoodCritic::Rake::LintTask.new(:foodcritic) do |t|! t.options = {! tags: ['~FC003'],! excludes: ['test', 'spec', 'features' ]! }! Foodcritic Task 376
  377. 377. $ bundle exec rake Execute Rake Task bundle exec rubocop! Inspecting 9 files! .......! ! 7 files inspected, no offenses detected 377
  378. 378. 378 Where to go next Rake Boot Camp http://cloud.github.com/downloads/jimweirich/RakePresentations/PowerRake.key.pdf http://www.confreaks.com/videos/899-railsconf2012-basic-rake Go to http://confreaks.com Search for “Basic Rake”
  379. 379. 379 Where to go next Rake Tasks can have tests http://blog.jayfields.com/2006/11/ruby-testing-rake-tasks.html
  380. 380. v2.0.0 Jenkins 380
  381. 381. What is Jenkins? • Jenkins is a commonly used, open source continuous integration system used to build early and often • Written by Kohsuke Kawaguchi 381
  382. 382. $ sudo yum install -y libxslt-devel libxml2-devel Install Prerequisites 382 $ sudo apt-get install -y libxslt-dev libxml2-dev
  383. 383. $ cd $HOME Home directory - great place for source 383 $ cd %USERPROFILE%
  384. 384. Jenkins cookbook • Jenkins cookbook - https://github.com/opscode- cookbooks/jenkins • Jenkins cookbook is library cookbook 384
  385. 385. Library cookbook • Popularized by Bryan Berry’s blog post How to Write Resuable Chef Cookbooks, Gangnam Style 385
  386. 386. Jenkins wrapper cookbook • Start of our wrapper cookbook:
 https://github.com/misheska/test-class-jenkins 386
  387. 387. $ git clone https://github.com/misheska/test-class-jenkins Grab test-class-jenkins from Github Cloning into 'test-class-jenkins'...! remote: Counting objects: 19, done.! remote: Compressing objects: 100% (16/16), done.! remote: Total 19 (delta 0), reused 19 (delta 0)! Unpacking objects: 100% (19/19), done. 387
  388. 388. $ cd test-class-jenkins test-class-jenkins 388
  389. 389. $ bundle install --path vendor/bundle Install gems vendored Fetching gem metadata from https://rubygems.org/.......! Fetching additional metadata from https://rubygems.org/..! Resolving dependencies...! Installing rake (10.2.2)! Installing addressable (2.3.6)! Installing ast (1.1.0)! ...! Installing powerpack (0.0.9)! Installing rainbow (2.0.0)! Installing ruby-progressbar (1.4.2)! Installing rubocop (0.20.1)! Using bundler (1.5.3)! Your bundle is complete!! It was installed into ./vendor/bundle 389
  390. 390. Jenkins PSA 390
  391. 391. 391
  392. 392. test-class-jenkins/recipes/default.rb 392 include_recipe 'jenkins::java'! include_recipe 'jenkins::master'
  393. 393. test-class-jenkins/attributes/default.rb 393 include_attribute 'jenkins::master'
  394. 394. test-class-jenkins/Gemfile 394 source 'https://rubygems.org'! ! gem 'test-kitchen'! gem 'kitchen-docker'! ! gem 'rake'! gem 'berkshelf', '~> 3.0.0.rc'! gem 'rubocop', '~> 0.20'! gem 'foodcritic', '~> 3.0'
  395. 395. test-class-jenkins/.kitchen.yml 395 ---! driver:! name: docker! ! provisioner:! name: chef_solo! ! platforms:! - name: centos-6.4! driver_config:! forward:! - 8080:8080! ! suites:! - name: default! run_list:! - recipe[test-class-jenkins::default]
  396. 396. $ bundle exec kitchen converge Perform Chef run of Jenkins wrapper -----> Starting Kitchen (v1.2.1)! -----> Creating <default-centos-64>...! Step 0 : FROM centos:6.4! ...! ----> Converging <default-centos-64>...! Preparing files for transfer! Resolving cookbook dependencies with Berkshelf 3.0.0.rc1...! ... 396
  397. 397. http://<EXTERNAL_ADDRESS>:8080 397
  398. 398. Check plugins 398
  399. 399. Just defaults 399
  400. 400. jenkins_plugin resource 400
  401. 401. OPEN IN EDITOR: test-class-jenkins/recipes/default.rb include_recipe 'jenkins::java'! include_recipe 'jenkins::master'! ! # Install version 1.13 of the greenballs plugin! jenkins_plugin 'greenballs' do! version '1.13'! end Install greenballs plugin 401
  402. 402. $ bundle exec kitchen converge Perform Chef run of Jenkins wrapper -----> Starting Kitchen (v1.2.1)! -----> Creating <default-centos-64>...! Step 0 : FROM centos:6.4! ...! ----> Converging <default-centos-64>...! Preparing files for transfer! Resolving cookbook dependencies with Berkshelf 3.0.0.rc1...! ... 402
  403. 403. Greenballs installed 403
  404. 404. jenkins_script resource 404
  405. 405. OPEN IN EDITOR: test-class-jenkins/recipes/default.rb ...! ! jenkins_script  'configure-­‐mailer'  do      command  <<-­‐GROOVY.gsub(/^  {4}/,  '')          jenkins  =  jenkins.model.Jenkins.getInstance()          mailer  =  jenkins.getDescriptorByType(hudson.tasks.Mailer.DescriptorImpl)          mailer.setSmtpHost("smtp.gmail.com")          mailer.setUseSsl(true)          mailer.setSmtpAuth("smtp",  "password")          mailer.setReplyToAddress("jenkins@my.com")          mailer.save()      GROOVY   end   Configure E-mail Notification 405
  406. 406. 406
  407. 407. $ bundle exec kitchen converge Perform Chef run of Jenkins wrapper -----> Starting Kitchen (v1.2.1)! -----> Creating <default-centos-64>...! Step 0 : FROM centos:6.4! ...! ----> Converging <default-centos-64>...! Preparing files for transfer! Resolving cookbook dependencies with Berkshelf 3.0.0.rc1...! ... 407
  408. 408. 408
  409. 409. jenkins_job resource 409
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