Caricom_ppt

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Caricom_ppt

  1. 1. Furthering Non-Proliferation through Capacity-building: Linking National UNSCR 1540 Objectives to Contemporary Security Challenges Changing the Non-proliferation vernacular:• While there is an academic appreciation of asymmetric threats such as terrorism, biggest challenge is how to make the issue of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) less arcane and more relevant to contemporary security realities.• Security planners openly ask, how are asymmetric threats relevant to Caribbean?• Almost eight years after the adoption of UNSCR 1540, and with constant reminders such the London bombings and other thwarted incidents in Europe and the United States, the understanding of the scope of the challenge is still largely an intellectual exercise• In the past six years, two major regional assessments were conducted looking at terrorism generally and the possibility of a major catastrophic WMD-related event in the Caribbean region; Notwithstanding the findings, very little has been done on the operational and policy fronts to address this challenge
  2. 2. Furthering Non-Proliferation through Capacity-building: Linking National UNSCR 1540 Objectives to Contemporary Security Challenges Changing the Non-proliferation vernacular:• Perception in the Caribbean of terrorism as a clear and present danger is a narrowly held view and has limited resonance• The challenge is how to balance the discussion of non- proliferation and arrive at parity in focusing traditional security concerns of the illicit trade in small arms and light weapons (SALW), illegal drugs /other contraband, trafficking in persons while at the same time giving prominence to the need to prevent the trade in strategic goods and the control of dual issue materials• For the CARICOM 1540 Programme governments and security planners in the Caribbean the conundrum remains how get non-proliferation front and center but not have the issue derogate from equally pressing security and national development concerns• In region where gun-related violence is among highest globally any focus on proliferation is still often seen as an unnecessary distraction from this key priority
  3. 3. Furthering Non-Proliferation through Capacity-building: Linking National UNSCR 1540 Objectives to Contemporary Security Challenges Changing the Non-proliferation vernacular: • The key is to adopt a non-proliferation vernacular that can help change current threat perception; states will not only take their responsibilities under UNSCR 1540 more seriously but will also have a clear impetus to foster their own national culture of compliance • Non-Proliferation is not a particularly appealing issue for small states with minimal resources and even more minimal bureaucracies • The United Nations, member states and the international community have a central role to play in changing the non-proliferation vernacular, a process which has been significantly advanced by the NGO community with entities such as the Stimson Center and the Stanley Foundation • These challenges are not just in the hard security domain, but also in having resources to comply with the reporting process in general, given very small bureaucracies
  4. 4. Furthering Non-Proliferation through Capacity-building:Addressing capacity deficits along the non-proliferation spectrum Achieving reporting and other requirements : • Universalization in the non-proliferation domain is largely dependent on UN member states’ ability to engage both the implementation process (legal, regulatory, operational) as well as shoulder administrative requirements that are at the core of these mandates • Non-Proliferation is not a particularly appealing issue for small states with minimal resources and even more minimal bureaucracies • The United Nations, member states and the international community have a central role to play in changing the non-proliferation vernacular, a process which has been significantly advanced by the NGO community with entities such as the Stimson Center and the Stanley Foundation • These challenges are not just in the hard security domain, but also obtain in having resources to comply with the reporting process in general, given the very small size of these bureaucracies
  5. 5. Furthering Non-Proliferation through Capacity-building:Addressing capacity deficits along the non-proliferation spectrum Achieving reporting and other requirements : • General principle obtains with respect to reporting in relation to non-proliferation mandates: Member states that have a reporting deficit for one resolution (e.g. USNCR 1540) tend to be non-compliant for all • For small states in the Caribbean, any delivery of capacity assistance/support in the strategic domain is never localized to one issue such as 1540 as is the case with states with greater capacity and resources • While scope and focus of CARICOM’s non-proliferation effort is 1540-focused addressing capacity deficits invariably means assisting member states in meeting obligations under other SCRs similarly focused on terrorism and/or non-proliferation such as SCRs 1267 and 1373 • In the instance of 1373, this also means working with member states to meet corollary reporting requirements under SCRs 1624 and 1718 respectively which demand that member states consistently update existing national lists
  6. 6. Furthering Non-Proliferation through Capacity-building:Addressing capacity deficits along the non-proliferation spectrum Achieving reporting and other requirements: • General principle obtains with respect to reporting in relation to non-proliferation mandates: Member states that have a reporting deficit for one resolution (e.g. USNCR 1540) tend to be non-compliant for all • For small states in the Caribbean, any delivery of capacity assistance/support in the strategic domain is never localized to one issue such as 1540 • While scope and focus of CARICOM’s non-proliferation effort is 1540-focused addressing capacity deficits invariably means assisting member states in meeting obligations under other SCRs similarly focused on terrorism and/or non-proliferation such as SCRs 1267 and 1373 • In the instance of 1373, this also means working with member states to meet corollary reporting requirements under SCRs 1624 and 1718 respectively which demand that member states consistently update existing national lists. Republic of Guyana is the only CARICOM state to have provided any submission relating to 1540 and this was accomplished in the context of the 1540 programme
  7. 7. Facilitating the implementation of UNSCR 1540 Confronting administrative and structural challenges Fashioning Innovative approaches to facilitate implementation that simultaneously target other traditional threats• Reality is that 15 individual states are implementing UNSCR 1540, with all the attendant political, resource and structural challenges• In awareness-building stage, utilization of regional security institutions is fundamental: CONSLE, COFCOR, MSRMCS• Instituting a ‘Virtuous Cycle’ to encourage compliance• Engagement on non-proliferation must be predicated on existing security realities (trade in illegal narcotics and small arms in the case of the Caribbean) to ensure that the issue is viewed as important and will resonate with policymakers as well as enforcement personnel• Integrate small developing states into adopting non- proliferation aims through the institution of capacity- building programs (July 2010 Commodity Identification Training (CIT) workshop, OPCW legislative initiative in May 2011, and the Special Workshop on Legal and Regulatory Aspects of UNSCR 1540 in January 2012)
  8. 8. Facilitating the implementation of UNSCR 1540 Confronting administrative and structural challengesFashioning Innovative approaches to facilitate implementation:• Key approach is to use existing security concerns that dove-tail with non-proliferation goals and can be addressed through the 1540 implementation process (CARICOM Programme initiative with the world Health Organization (WHO) to build capacity in natural disaster mitigation and to respond to public health/mass casualty emergencies. Security protocols involved in these processes are also components of any standard response system to an attack involving chemical or biological agents• CARICOM 154O programme is also working with several member states, including Jamaica, where there has been close cooperation, not only with policy entities but with enforcement branches such as the Jamaica Constabulary Force and also its military, the Jamaica Defence Force to institute modules that focus specifically on existing non- proliferation treaty obligations• A similar initiative is underway, with the Caribbean Customs Law Enforcement Council (CCLEC) which more broadly focuses on strategic trade
  9. 9. Realizing non-proliferation through cooperationInstituting legislative, regulatory and administrative controls• Like other small developing countries, a key challenge confronting CARICOM member states relates to the lack of existing capacity – on the legal, regulatory and administrative fronts – in adopting and enforcing necessary measures aimed at preventing the proliferation of WMD and instituting necessary controls related to strategic trade commodities.• In addressing this challenge, CARICOM has forged a cooperative approach, facilitated by the United Nations 1540 Committee which seeks to develop a Reference Legal Framework (RLF) that will assist states in the region to institute controls that will target potential illicit transfers and enable the eventual interdiction, investigation and prosecution of these activities.• A regional ‘gap analysis,’ which will inform the development of the RLF, is underway and is being coordinated with the United Nations Office for Drugs and Crime (UNODC), the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), and International Atomic Energy Agency, VERTIC and the BWC-ISU among others.
  10. 10. Realizing non-proliferation through cooperationInstituting legislative, regulatory and administrative controls• Given the region’s primary maritime environment and geography, CARICOM members, as required by the Resolution, are mandated to enact enabling legislation that, while focusing on the harmonization of regional export control arrangements, will also serve to: (a) Control items that are transiting or being trans- shipped through the Caribbean’s waters, airspace, or territory, including free ports, and will center on the transfers of dual-use items, technology in both tangible as well as intangible forms, and other related services (b) Control foreign-origin items re-exported from CARICOM member states (c) Control items temporarily transferred to another state – including commercial material and equipment transfers to foreign-owned holdings• Focus is also being placed on adopting licensing procedures and practices that promote non-proliferation and an emphasis will be placed on also ensuring that applications processes for licenses covering strategic goods entail rigorous end-user/end-use analysis.
  11. 11. Building Effective Non-proliferation capacity Aiding detection, interdiction and prevention• The use of databases and watch-lists for evaluating parties involved in transfers will be a main focus. In addition, a key area of emphasis will be to ensure that technical experts, intelligence personnel, and policy officials from all legally entitled government agencies have the knowledge and opportunity to evaluate license applications for proliferation concerns.• A central component of the CARICOM-UNSCR 1540 Implementation Programme will also involve providing training and resources necessary to detect, identify, and prevent transfers that violate export control laws and regulations, and will include: (a) Training in effective risk analysis and in targeting strategies to prevent the export, re-export, import, transit or transshipment of strategic goods (b) Training in the utilization of trade information and intelligence to detect suspect transfers and to minimize impediments to legitimate trade; and the implementation of measures to account for, as well as to secure and maintain, the appropriate physical protection of strategic goods
  12. 12. Building Effective Non-proliferation capacity Adopting multi-dimensional approaches to facilitate compliance• At both the Hemispheric Workshop on UNSCR 1540 Implementation in Buenos Aires in May 2008 and the OAS-CARICOM Workshop on Maritime Security and Exports Controls Workshop in Support of UNSCR 1540 Implementation in Kingston, Jamaica in June 2009, CARICOM members stressed the need for the development of a non-proliferation model that addresses the root causes of proliferation rather than simply treating its symptoms• States also called for initiatives that would also bring to bear the significant technical support availed by the non-governmental community, as is represented by the Henry L. Stimson Center, the Stanley Foundation and other similar entities• In this vein, the CARICOM implementation programme seeks to build on traditional security assistance approaches, by dually focusing on developmental challenges which fundamentally impact both traditional national security priorities as well as the ability of states to address the phenomenon of the proliferation of WMD
  13. 13. O’Neil Hamilton Regional CoordinatorCARICOM-UNSCR 1540 Implementation Programme Caribbean Community Secretariat 246-241-4531 (Barbados) 202-329-4110 (US)

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