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Jesus' good news freethinkers 02-19-09

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Was the good news the atoning sacrifice or was it more humanist?

Was the good news the atoning sacrifice or was it more humanist?

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Jesus' good news   freethinkers 02-19-09 Jesus' good news freethinkers 02-19-09 Presentation Transcript

  • What was Jesus' Good News? Dr. Gary A. Stilwell
      • The World
      • Jesus
    Rome x Christianity
  • What was the good news of Jesus? eu'agge/lion An Easy Question?
  • Actually, it was not an easy question! Scholars of all stripes debate what it was. However, the question allows me to explain the etymology: Greek = eu'agge/lion which translated into Latin = evangelium both of which mean good news or good telling When the Bible was translated into English, the word was god spell (good story) in Anglo-Saxon, from which we get gospel . . . . Good News
  • Outline of What was Jesus' Good News (short version)
    • We'll start at the end and work our way back:
      • 1 - What is Christianity Today?
          • Traditional Fundamental Christian Doctrines
      • 2 - Quick Overview of Development of Orthodoxy
          • Greek Philosophy
          • Church Fathers
          • Heresies and Church Councils
          • Complex Doctrines
      • 3 - Paul vs. Jewish Christians
      • 4 - Making of the New Testament
      • 5 - The Historical Jesus:
          • John the Baptizer, Start of Christianity, Earliest Documents,
          • First Followers, Jesus' Message
  • The Fundamentals (1909 - 1912)
    • A 12-volume publication
    • Dedicated to doctrines that were fundamental
    • to Christianity
      • Virgin birth
      • Physical resurrection of Christ
      • Infallibility of the Scriptures
      • Substitutional atonement
      • Physical second coming of Christ
    • A contemporary conservative view on next slides
  • Traditional Conservative Christian Doctrines - More Details
  • Click here to type page title
  • Zealots Sadducees Pharisees Essenes Jesus Movement others Pauline Christians Gnostics 4 30 33 Birth of John the Crucifixion 50's 100's 200 Jesus Baptist Paul's Gnosis Missions "catholic" The Development of Christianity From Jesus Thru the 2nd Century Ebionites Fathers Heresies Councils Doctrines Jewish-Christians Greek
  • Those Greeks Again and Again A revised form of Platonism was founded by Plotinus (204-270 CE) This philosophy became known as Neo-Platonism . Plotinus showed how the "one becomes many" by postulating a hierarchy of divinity in three hypostases : 1. The One Ultimate Being emanates a lower being without any loss of it's own essence; 2. This divine Being is Nous or Mind , which in turn emanates the third Being in this trinity; 3. The lowest divine Being is Psykhe or Soul . All the many corporeal things are part of Soul and seek to return to the One.
  • The world in thus an instantiation of God. All "souls" were once in communion with the One, but estrangement by the fall into materiality has separated them. This philosophy was used by both the Gnostics and the Christian Fathers in order to put a philosophical basis to the developing complex Christian doctrines. The most notable Christians were the Cappadocian Fathers, St. Augustine, Boethius, Eriugena and St. Thomas Aquinas One = Supreme Good; Mind = Logos of the One; Soul = Animating principle Those Greeks Again - cont.
  • The Church Fathers
    • After the Apostolic Age, the proto-orthodox Church was led by
    • the "Fathers" of the Patristic Age.
      • The Apostolic Fathers
        • Clement of Rome d. 97 (wrote 1 Clement; honor the
        • elders, no monarchical episcopate; interim existence in heaven for the
        • godly to await resurrection)
        • Ignatius of Antioch 50 - 107 (1st to use terms "Christianity" and
        • "heretic"; anti-Docetic; unity requires us to obey the bishops)
        • Polycarp of Smyrna 69 - 155 (was a disciple of the Apostle John)
        • Barnabus of Alexandria 1st - 2nd (OT belongs to Christians, Jews lost it)
        • Hermas 2nd (get only ONE repentance after
        • baptism)
      • The Apologetic (Defenders) Fathers
        • Justin Martyr (100-165) 150 in Rome
          • (Christianity is old; Jewish and Greek are true via Divine Reason;
          • by Satanic conspiricy the Mysteries copied us; introduced term
          • "second coming"; there is a place to await the general judgment).
        • Irenaeus of Lyon (150-195) Gaul
          • (Against the Heretics; follow Apostolic succession ; 1st to claim an
          • intermediate state in Hades to await resurrection, except for
          • martyrs;
          • both Irenaeus and Justin were millenarians ;
          • Logos coexisted with Father).
    The Church Fathers - cont.
        • Clement of Alexandria (150-215)
          • (Uses Greek philosophy extensively, claims sin of Adam was by
          • example, not generation as Augustine would later claim)
        • Tertullian (160-225) North Africa
          • ("What has Athens to do with Jerusalem?"; believed in millenium ;
          • is an immediate judgment at death but all remain in Hades until
          • resurrection; mentions Trinity, but Son is created)
        • Origen (185-254) Alexandria
          • (Merged Greek philosophy with proto-orthodoxy; Bible should be interpreted
          • allegorically; rejected millenarianism ; rejected eternal punishment and
          • physical resurrection; Judgment of the soul is at the End, however
          • the pre-existent soul was kept in an intermediate place of
          • purging until then; Son is subordinate to the Father)
    The Church Fathers - cont.
        • Eusebius of Caesarea (260-340)
          • (Church Historian and confidant to Constantine* ;
          • Praeparatio Evangelica ).
        • Athanasius (296-373) Alexandria
          • (Fought for Nicean-style orthodoxy against Arius. Most
          • responsible for the concept that Jesus is equal to the
          • Father).
    • * Constantine's conversion:
    • in this sign - the labarum is from Xr istoj
    • ran 1st Council, was baptized on deathbed
    The Church Fathers - cont.
  • Heresies and Church Councils
    • Since there was such diversity of doctrine in the early Church,
    • an attempt was made by the proto-orthodox Fathers to stamp
    • out what they believed to be false teachings.
    • The other Christian sects, of course, were doing the same thing.
    • For some reason one group won out over the others and
    • became the mainline Christian Church with primary bishoprics in:
      • Alexandria Center of Hellenistic Christianity
      • Antioch Peter was head of this church after split with Paul
      • Rome Pius I (142-155) was 1st Bishop of Rome
      • Constantinople Late comer after Constantine ca. 350
      • Jerusalem Re-established late
  • Heresies arose in the evolving orthodox church through the centuries and each one was eventually declared, by the winning side, to be non-orthodox. Most disappeared completely, but several continued underground or re-emerged later. The most important ones were: We will briefly list the major heresies on the next slides, and explain them further in conjunction with Councils . Christian Heresies
      • Council Date Heresy/Subject Issue or Resolution
      • Nicea I 325 Arianism Jesus ( homoousios ) with Father
      • Rimini-Seleucia 359 Arianism Accepted Arianism ( homo i ousios )
      • Laodicea 364 Judaize Sunday vs. Saturday
      • Constantinople I 381 Macedonius / Holy Spirit is Divine/ Christ is
      • Appollinarius fully Human Carthage 394 proto-purgatory Prayers for the dead doctrine
      • Ephesus 432 Nestorius / Mary is ( Theotokos ) God Bearer/
      • Pelagius All have original sin
      • Ephesus 449 Eutyches "Robber Synod", approved Monophysite
      • Chalcedon 451 Eutyches / Jesus has two natures in one
      • Monophysite person, Tome of Leo approved
      • a canon addresses women deacons
    1st Seven Ecumenical Church Councils ( 1 - 4 ) - Purple ones are not called ecumenical
  • Arianism: What is the relationship between Christ and the Father? Arius (250-336) argued that the Father alone was without beginning. The Son, although preexistent, was created or made . Jesus was a lesser, created being. He was condemned at Nicea (325) , but rehabilitated at Nicomedia (327), Tyre (35), Jerusalem (335) and Constantinople (336). Died the evening of his re-communion. A subordinationist Christology. Arianism would, for a while, become the main Christianity . It would be rejected by the proto-orthodox in 381, but survived for centuries more. Arianism
  • Jesus' Relationship to Humanity Nicea and Constantinople I solved the problem of how Jesus relates to God ( Father and Holy Ghost ) . How does he relate to Man ? Is he two people, God and Man? Is he just a spirit? Is he a man adopted by God? The solutions came at Ephesus and finally Calcedon. Mary was the mother of one person who contains both a divine and a human nature ( the hypostatic union ).
  • The Nicene Creed of 325 CE We believe in one God, the Father , the Almighty, maker of all things both visible and invisible; and in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the Son of God, Only begotten of the Father, that is to say, of the substance* of the Father, God of God, Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten, not made, being of one substance** with the Father; by whom all things were made, both things in heaven and things on earth; * Ousia ** Homoousian
  • who for us men and for our salvation, came down and was made flesh , was made man, suffered, and rose again on the third day, went up into the heavens, and is to come again to judge both the quick and the dead; and in the Holy Ghost . End of 1st Nicene Creed Explained how Jesus related to the Father; the difficulty was to avoid both: - denying his humanity (Sabellian, Modalism heresy) - questioning his divinity (Arian heresy) The Nicene Creed - cont.
  • This Nicene Creed left a confusion : How could God be One and yet consist of two or three entities? The Cappadocian Fathers resolved the dilemma by redefining some key words : The Creed condemned those who denied the Father and Son were one in essence ( ousia ) and being ( hypostasis ). Those words are NOT interchangeable, therefore they claimed: The Father, Son and Holy Ghost are three individuals ( hypostases ) sharing one essence ( ousia )! (The Latins preferred: Three Persons sharing one Substance) Three Persons in One Essence (Substance)
  • We believe in the Holy Spirit , the Lord, the giver of life, who proceeds from the Father and the Son* , who with the Father and the Son is worshiped and glorified, who has spoken through the prophets. We believe in one holy catholic and apostolic Church. We acknowledge one baptism for the forgiveness of sins. We look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. * Filioque - added much later, double procession caused split in west/east church The Nicene - Constantinopolitan Creed of 381 - Addition (1st part was reworded also)
      • Council Date Heresy Issue or Resolution
      • Nicea 325 Arianism Jesus equal to Father
      • Constantinople 381 Macedonius Holy Spirit is divine
      • Ephesus 432 Nestorius / Mary is God Bearer
      • Pelagius
      • Calcedon 451 Monophysite Jesus has two natures in one
      • person, Tome of Leo approved
      • . . .
      • 2 Constantinople 553 3 Chapters Origen condemned, reaffirmed
      • Trinity and Jesus divine
      • 3 Constantinople 681 Monothelitism Jesus has two wills, human
      • and divine
      • 2 Nicea 787 Iconolast Veneration of Icons OK
    Church Councils (all 7)
  • Early Christianity
    • We've looked at:
      • The Greeks
      • The Church Fathers
      • The Herisies
      • The Church Councils
      • Complex Theology
    • Now:
      • Paul
      • Jewish Christians
      • Making of the New Testament
    • There are three main branches of early Christianity:
      • Jewish Christian sect created by Jesus' disciples.
      • Pauline churches that were to develop into mainline
      • Christianity by the end of the Third Century.
      • Gnostic Christian sects who stressed the wisdom
      • of Jesus as against the redeeming
      • resurrection of Paul.
      • First Paul . . .
    Three Early Christianities
  • Paul was born Saul of Tarsus in present day Turkey. A Jew of the Diaspora , therefore from a Hellenized Culture. A Pharisee who studied under the famous Gamaliel. Persecuted Jewish Christians. Was converted and started teaching his version of Christ to Hellenized Jews and Greeks. Went about it without consulting Jerusalem (Gal 1:8ff). Attempted eventually to reconcile with Jerusalem (Gal 1:18-2:10). Paul in Brief
  • Incident at Antioch (Gal 1and 2) also see - 2 Cor 10-13, Acts 15 and 21
    • Some resolution at Jerusalem council (ca. 49)
        • James is head of the Jewish Christians
        • Paul is the messenger to the Hellenistic World
          • - Jews outside Judea and, later, just
          • - Gentiles
        • "False Brethren" from Jerusalem interfere at Antioch
    • Paul condemns Peter and Barnabus
    • Spilt becomes irreconcilable (as indicated
    • by the epistle of James, esp. 2:14-26)
  • Paul's Letters Galatians: Opposes Christian missionaries from James who believe that Gentiles need to follow the Law. (Judaizers) 1 Corinthians: Opposes Christian leaders who taught that they had already experienced a spiritual resurrection . (proto-Gnostics) Other divisive factions. Spiritual gifts ( charismata ) Romans: Explains his theology : the Death and Resurrection of Jesus.
  • The Making of the New Testament
    • The Church was expecting the immediate end of the world, so
    • there was no urgency to document for the future.
    • Oral traditions kept the stories alive.
    • Paul wrote letters to his wayward churches - first New Test. books .
    • The New Testament canon contains writings from 50 to 150 CE.
    • Irenaeus of Lyon (ca. 180) argued that Matt and John were written
    • by disciples of Jesus and Mark and Luke by disciples of Apostles.
      • "There are four winds, pillars, corners; therefore, right for 4 gospels."
    • Marcion's canon encouraged the development of a standard.
    • The Muritorian canon (ca. 200)
      • Has most of our 27 books except:
      • Omits: Philemon; Hebrews; James; 1,2 Peter; 3 John
      • But Adds: Wisdom of Solomon; Apocalypse of Peter
    • Athanatius' Festal letter ( ca. 367) is the first to contain all of
    • the current 27 books.
      • Political accomodation- Hebrews contested by west; Revelation by east.
    • The canon was determined in 382 at Rome under
    • Pope Damasas and finally ratified at the Council
    • of Carthage (ca. 419)
    The Making of the New Testament - cont.
  • The Canon of the New Testament - The Gospels and Acts
    • Book Author Date
    • Matthew Anonymous ca. 85 CE
    • Mark " 70
    • Luke " 85
    • John * " 95
    • Acts same as Luke 85
        • * Some in Rome said 'we ought not have it',
        • because it compromised Jesus'
        • humanity and was a main gospel of the Gnostics.
  • Bible Inerrancy ----------The Synoptic Gospels-------------
  • ca. 50 CE ca. 70 ca. 85 Luke and Matthew contain common verses from Mark and an 'unknown' source Bible - Two Source Theory
  • But they also have verses unique to each , from separate sources The Four Source Theory of Gospel Origns L M Bible - 4 Source Theory ry
  • The Q Source Protestant and Catholic scholars have isolated the Q sayings by examining the common verses in Matthew and Luke. They have further isolated layers of writings that show a theological development over a short period of time. These layers are called: Q1 Q2 Q3
    • "Q1" - Describing Jesus as a Philosopher - Teacher
    • Prior to the writing of Q1, the Gospel message was passed verbally among
    • individuals and groups. About 50 CE, this oral tradition was written down
    • as Q1. Q1 covers the following topics:
      • who will belong to the "Kingdom of God"
      • treating others (the Golden Rule)
      • do not judge others
      • working for the Kingdom
      • asking for God's help
      • do not fear speaking out
      • don't worry about food, clothing, possessions
      • the Kingdom will soon arrive
      • the cost of being a follower
      • the cost of rejecting the message
    • Jesus is described as a believer in God, but there are no indications that he
    • was considered more than a gifted human being. His role was not as a Messiah
    • or Lord but philosopher-teacher.
    Q1 (ca. 50 CE)
  • What is remarkable about Q1 is that the original Christians appeared to be centered totally on concerns about their relationships with God and with other people , and their preparation for the Kingdom of God on earth . Totally absent from their spiritual life are almost all of the factors that we associate with Christianity today . Q1 - notes
  • "Q2" - Describes Jesus as an Apocalyptic Prophet Many prophetic and apocalyptic pronouncements were added a couple of decades later, after Q1 had been firmly entrenched as the standard teaching text of the community. The new sayings were written in response to the serious civil unrest and upheavals in Palestine associated with the Roman-Jewish war. Another motivation was the rejection that they had experienced by their families and by the Jewish people generally. Q2 includes statements of judgment and doom which were directed against those who refused to listen to Jesus' message. Q2 (ca. 60's CE)
  • The new sayings were written circa 60 to 70 CE, and introduced John the Baptist and his disciples into the Q material. Jesus tells of his miracles ( the quote we've seen in Essenes Scroll 4Q521 and Isaiah 61:1, in Luke 7:22 & Matt 11:4 ) The sayings were inter-woven within the Q1 material in order to generate the impression that the judgmental texts were part of his original message. Q2 - notes
  • "Q3" - Retreat from the World Additional sayings appear to have been added during the mid 70's CE. This was at a time that the Roman-Jewish war had concluded, after the Jews had been driven from Palestine , and around the time the book of Mark was written. They describe the followers of Jesus as retreating from the violence and civic unrest of society and patiently waiting for "their moment of glory in some future time at the end of human history ". Jesus was upgraded beyond his original Q1 status as teacher and his later Q2 status as prophet-teacher. Q3 describes him as a deity, who converses directly with God and Satan . It was at this time that the Gospel of Q started to be noticed by other Christian writers. Matthew and Luke built their Gospels in part around Q and Mark. Q3 (ca. 75)
  • The Quest for the Historical Jesus and His Good News Sources Compare Paul and Jesus Movement Q and Matthew
  • Historical Jesus
    • This developing theology in Q was all integrated into the
    • later Gospels making them very ambiguous.
    • One can read almost anything into the Gospels
    • because of this.
    • Then we also have the further development of:
      • Pauline theology
      • Petrine theology
      • 1st Century and later additions
  • The Quest for the Historical Jesus Non- Christian Sources: Pliny the Younger (governor of Bythinia 111-131) writing to Trajan (112 CE), "Christians were singing hymns to Christ as God." Tacitus (in 115 CE), Annuals of Rome. Mentions Christians as the hatred of the human race, followers of Christ who was crucified when Tiberius was emperor. Josephus (ca. 95 CE), Antiquities. Says Jesus was called a messiah, had a brother James, was a wise man who did spectacular deeds. That's it outside of the New Testament. How about inside? Suetonius, Life of Claudius . "Jews were driven out of Rome for rioting at the instigation of one, Crestus"
    • Paul was concerned with the death and resurrection of
    • the Christ, not with the person of Jesus. That leaves the Gospels .
    • But they were written very late, contain layers of later
    • theology and were not designed to be historical, so how do we get at the historical person of Jesus by using them?
    • By 150 years of scholarship using criteria :
      • - independent attestation (multiple witnesses)
      • - dissimilarity (against witnesses' vested interest)
      • - contextual credibility (coincides with other known facts)
    The Quest for the Historical Jesus - cont. Christian Sources
  • Paul and the Jewish Christians - a Comparison
    • We've looked at early Church conflict . What were the
    • problems? Opinions had hardened into factions.
    • Conflicts are still apparent in the canonical books of Acts
    • and the Pauline epistles:
      • Who was Jesus?
      • Who were his spokesmen (apostles)?
      • What was his message?
      • How could one become a member of
      • the Movement?
  • Who was Jesus?
    • The monotheistic Jewish-Christians would not
    • have more than one God. He was a son of man.
    • -vs-
    • Paul claimed that Jesus was also somehow divine .
    • He was the Son of God.
        • He was sent here to suffer and die for us.
          • This would lead to the great Christological Debates of the
        • 4th century.
        • -----
    • Probably not a Pharisee nor Qumran Essene but did agreed on some issues.
  • Who Were Jesus' Spokesmen? At first Peter then James , the brother of Jesus, led the Jerusalem church. We don't hear of most of the Twelve in Paul's letters or Acts. Paul laid claim to Apostleship, but the Jerusalem church never recognized him as such. The 7 of Acts 6 started Hellenist churches throughout the Diaspora. By the time of the Apostolic Council (ca. 49), there were other "pillars" speaking for the church. After the Antioch incident, the church split.
  • What was the Message? The Jerusalem church continued to be a sect of Judaism and had only the intention to reform. The Kingdom had arrived (Matt and Luke). -vs- Paul made the good news that of Jesus' death and resurrection and claimed that works (law) were of no value and that we are saved by grace and faith alone. The Kingdom was still to come (John, Mark and epistles).
  • How Could One Join? The Jewish Christians insisted that one follow the Law before being accepted. -vs- Paul insisted that the Law was of no need for Gentiles to join. The Council, in the interest of unity, compromised. They allowed that Gentiles follow only the Noachide minimal law (no: meat sacrificed to idols; fornication; meat of strangled animals; blood). This compromise did not last long. Splinter Jewish-Christian sects would evolve and eventually be declared heretical. A main one is the Ebionites.
  • The Ebionites (sect of Jewish Christians)
    • A generation after the fall of Jerusalem the Ebionites were making these claims about Jesus:
      • Not divine.
      • A religious Jew.
      • Taught within framework of Yahwism.
      • Had a social agenda.
      • Was liberal on Torah Laws.
      • Was a reformer for return to purity of Yahwism.
      • Called for acceptance of the reign of God and to live as
      • though it were already here.
      • Attempted to bring this Kingdom about by
      • righteousness and loving kindness.
  • The Ebionites - cont. The proto-orthodox condemned them as heretics. They continued as small enclaves in Galilee and the Trans Jordan (Peraea, Decapolis) They ceased to exist after 450 CE.
  • Early Christianity - (Jesus Movement) "Do to others as you would have them do to you." Luke 6: 31 (Q 9) Jesus Movement - rejected the hypocrisy of many of the Pharisees and Sadducees. Preached the immanent Kingdom of God . Jesus Consider the lillies, how they they grow: they neither toil nor spin; yet I tell you, even Solomon in all his glory was not clothed like one of these. Luke 12: 27 (Q 39)
  • Some readings of Jesus' Good News
    • Lord's Prayer
    • Sermon on the Mount
      • As a Jew, Jesus accepted "God's reign" as trust in yourself and others
      • Live free of care about tommorow
      • Band together in small of selfless people to support each other
      • Matthew continued the Q community before integrating into the
        • wider Gentile community of Mark
      • Jesus Good News was almost lost to Paul's message
        • of Christ's atoning death and rsurrection
  • END END
  • to India -- Hinduism to Iran -- Zoroastrianism and to Greece -- Homeric religion ISRAEL 1000 622 586- 170 63 4 49 Monarchy Joshia 538 Abomination Birth of Jerusalem Exile of Desolation Jesus Council The Development of Christianity - John, Jesus and Paul Zealots Sadducees John Pharisees Jesus Movement Essenes Paul others Alexander 333 722 Assyria Mesopotamian Persian Indo- European Egyptian Greece Persian rule Greek rule Roman rule
  • The First Christians The Movement was not called Christian until the 40s where it got that name at Antioch Earlier it was called the Way or Nazarenes The original focus was on the Jewish homeland in Galilee , then in Jerusalem Peter was the original head of the Jerusalem church later replaced by James , the brother of Jesus Scholars designate them as Jewish-Christians (later called Ebionites and branded as heretics) And then came Paul...
  • Zealots Sadducees Pharisees Essenes Jesus Movement others Pauline Christians Gnostics 30 33 John the Crucifixion 50's 100's Baptist Paul's Gnosis Missions Catholic Schism The Development of Christianity Thru the 2nd Century Ebionites Jewish-Christians Greek
  • Zealots Sadducees Pharisees Essenes Jesus Movement others Pauline Christians Gnostics 30 33 John the Crucifixion 50's 100's Baptist Paul's Gnosis Missions 300's 1000's Catholic Schism The Development of Orthodoxy Jewish-Christians Orthodoxy Other Ongoing Heresies Greek
  • World Religions Today - Graphic 2 Billion 1.3 Billion 900 Million 360 Million
  • Branch Number of Adherents Catholic 1,050,000,000 Protestant 455,000,000 Other Christians* 180,000,000 Orthodox 240,000,000 Anglicans 73,000,000 Major Traditional Branches of Christianity - Worldwide Today Outline Cont. * Christians outside the mainstream labels (e.g., Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormons, AICs, New Thought, Friends, etc)
  • This list of shows major branches between which there are real differences with regard to culture, practice, doctrine, and history . The boundaries between some of these groups are somewhat blurry (such as between some Pentecostal and Conservative Protestant groups). Branch Number of Adherents Catholic 1,050,000,000 Orthodox/Eastern Christian 240,000,000 Conservative Protestant ** 200,000,000 Liberal Protestant 150,000,000 African indigenous sects (AICs) 110,000,000 Pentecostal 105,000,000 Anglican 73,000,000 Jehovah's Witnesses 14,800,000 Latter Day Saints 11,200,000 New Thought (Unity, Christian Sc., etc.) 1,500,000 Friends (Quakers) 300,000 ** Born-again, Evangelical, Fundamentalists, Pentecostals, Charismatics Significant Sociologically Distinct Branches of Christianity - Worldwide Outline Cont.
  • Why So Many Variations? Limited or No Central Control Moral Isues Priesthood of All Believers Ambiguous Interpretations of Scripture ( Sola Scriptura ) Let's Look at Doctrines . . . Class Discussion - You Tell Me - what are the key Christian Doctrines? Outline Cont.
  • Zealots Sadducees Pharisees Essenes Jesus Movement others Pauline Christians 30 33 John the Crucifixion 50's Breakup Paul/James Baptist Paul's ca. 60 Missions The Development of Christianity Jewish-Christians
  • Pharisees and Sadducees
    • Under John Hyrcanus* (ca. 134 - 104 BCE) I these opposing
    • factions came into being.
    • Pharisees were more "middle class" rejected Hellenism and
    • accepted last judgment, resurrection, angels, heaven, hell.
      • Oral Law - a fence around the Torah.
    • Sadducees were rich and high born wanted to accept
    • Hellenism and rejected the above concepts as un-Biblical.
    • * Descendent of Maccabees (Hasmonean family)
  • to India -- Hinduism to Iran -- Zoroastrianism and to Greece -- Homeric religion ISRAEL Judah Jewish Sects 1000 622 587 333 170 4 Monarchy Josiah Alexander Abomination Birth of Exile of Desolation Jesus The History Leading to Christianity - Ancient Israel Zealots Sadducees Pharisees Essenes others Mesopotamian Persian Indo- European Egyptian Greece
  • Monarchianism: God is one person. Monarchians argued that Jesus was an ordinary human, to whom came the power of God--usually understood at his baptism or at the resurrection. He was not God, but God worked in and through him. Modalism also know as Sabellianism: God is one person in three modes. Godhead is a succession of modes where Father appears as Son and Holy Spirit. Modalism is the argument that God acts in three different modes, but one at a time--hence, for a time God is Father, then Son, then Holy Spirit. Montanism: Montanus (ca. AD 156) asserted a direct relationship with the Holy Spirit, which came upon him apart from the structure of the Church and brought on speaking in tongues and other charismatic behaviors. With this came a strong emphasis on the immanence of Christ's second coming. Arianism: Arius argued that the Father alone was without beginning. The Son, therefore, was created or made. Jesus was a lesser, created being. Christian Heresies
      • Council Date Heresy Issue or Resolution
      • 4 Constantinople 869 Photius Condemned 'Robber Council'
      • 1 Lateran 1123 Lay Investiture Stopped Lay Investiture
      • 2 Lateran 1139 Arnold Brescia Ended his errors
      • 3 Lateran 1179 Albigenses Cond. Alb. and Waldenses
      • 4 Lateran 1215 Abbot Joachim Cond. his Trinitarian errors,
      • Transubstantiation
      • 1 Lyons 1245 Emp. Frederick II Crusade of St. Louis
      • 2 Lyons 1274 Schism Temp. reunion, Papal elections
      • Vienne 1311 Templars Cond. them, new crusade
      • Constance 1418 Wyclif/Huss Ended schism
      • Florence 1443 Schism Greek Orthodox reunion
      • 5 Lateran 1517 Discipline, new Crusade
      • Trent 1563 Reformation Countered Luther, etc.
      • 1 Vatican 1870 Papal infallibility
      • 2 Vatican 1965 Modern adaptations
    Church Councils - cont. (recognized by Roman Catholic Church Only)
  • Making of the New Testament Crterion for inclusion: Apostolic writer Ancient - Contained proper doctrine Rationale for selected books: Gospels Acts Letters Relevation
  • The Canon of the New Testament Book Author Date Matthew Anonymous 85 CE Mark " 65 Luke " 85 John " 95 Acts same as Luke 85 Romans Paul 58 1 Corinthians Paul 55 2 Corinthians Paul 56 Galatians Paul 54 Ephesians ? ? Philippians Paul 62? Colossians Paul?? 62?? 1 Thessalonians Paul 52 2 Thessalonians Pseudonymous ??? 1 Timothy " ??? 2 Timothy " ??? Titus " ??? Philemon Paul ?? Hebrews Anonymous before 70 James Pseudonymous ??? 1 Peter " ??? 2 Peter " 100? 1 John Anon 140?? 2 John " 90? Jude Pseudonymous 140?? Revelation John of Patmos? 90?
  • Epistles of Paul
  • The General/Catholic Epistles
  • Comparison of Synoptic and John's Gospel
  • Comparison of Synoptic and John's Gospel
  • The Athanasian Creed Whoever wills to be in a state of salvation, before all things it is necessary that he hold the catholic faith, which except everyone shall have kept whole and undefiled without doubt he will perish eternally. Now the catholic faith is that we worship One God in Trinity and Trinity in Unity, neither confounding the Persons nor dividing the substance. For there is one Person of the Father, another of the Son, another of the Holy Spirit. But the Godhead of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, is One, the Glory equal, the Majesty coeternal. The Father is made of none, neither created nor begotten. The Son is of the Father alone, not made nor created but begotten. The Holy Spirit is of the Father and the Son, not made nor created nor begotten but proceeding. So there is one Father not three Fathers, one Son not three Sons, and Holy Spirit not three Holy Spirits. And in this Trinity there is nothing before or after, nothing greater or less, but the whole three Persons are coeternal together and coequal. But it is necessary to eternal salvation that he also believe faithfully the Incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ. The right faith therefore is that we believe and confess that our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, is God and Man. He is God of the substance of the Father begotten before the worlds, and He is man of the substance of His mother born in the world; perfect God, perfect man subsisting of a reasoning soul and human flesh; equal to the Father as touching His Godhead, inferior to the Father as touching His Manhood. This is the catholic faith, which except a man shall have believed faithfully and firmly he cannot be in a state of salvation. Complex Doctrine
  • Paul and the Jewish Christians - a Comparison
    • We've looked at early Church conflict . What were the
    • problems? Opinions had hardened into factions.
    • Conflicts are still apparent in the canonical books of Acts
    • and the Pauline epistles:
    • Paul vs. Jewish-Christians
      • Who was Jesus?
      • Who were his spokesmen (apostles)?
      • What was his message?
      • How could one become a member
      • of the Movement?
      • We'll see after New Testament and Historical Jesus slides
  • Yeshu
  • Return to the One Single Faith?
    • "Now I beseech you . . . that ye all speak the same thing,
    • and that there be no divisions among you; but that ye be
    • perfectly joined together in the same mind and in the
    • same judgment" St. Paul, 1 Corinthians 1:10.
    • Can we ever get to a single Christianity?
      • Now?
      • In the Past?
      • In the Beginning?
    Outline Cont.
  • This list of shows major branches between which there are real differences with regard to culture, practice, doctrine, and history . The boundaries between some of these groups are somewhat blurry (such as between some Pentecostal and Conservative Protestant groups). Branch Number of Adherents Catholic 1,050,000,000 Orthodox/Eastern Christian 240,000,000 Conservative Protestant ** 200,000,000 Liberal Protestant 150,000,000 African indigenous sects (AICs) 110,000,000 Pentecostal 105,000,000 Anglican 73,000,000 Jehovah's Witnesses 14,800,000 Latter Day Saints 11,200,000 New Thought (Unity, Christian Sc., etc.) 1,500,000 Friends (Quakers) 300,000 ** Born-again, Evangelical, Fundamentalists, Pentecostals, Charismatics Significant Sociologically Distinct Branches of Christianity - Worldwide Outline Cont.
  • Why So Many Variations? Limited or No Central Control Moral Isues Priesthood of All Believers Ambiguous Interpretations of Scripture ( Sola Scriptura ) Let's Look at Doctrines . . . Class Discussion - You Tell Me - what are the key Christian Doctrines? Outline Cont.
  • The Essenes (the pious)
    • One of four sects named by Josephus in Jewish War and
    • Antiquities of the Jews (written ca. 75 and 94 CE)
    • Not mentioned in the Bible
    • Emerged during the 2nd century BCE (ca. before 110 BCE)
    • Thought to be the sect of the Dead Sea Scrolls of Qumran
    • Had much in common with early Christianity:
      • expectation of the Kingdom, baptism, sacred meals, a
      • Messiah figure, apocalyptic, poverty, denied divorce.
    • Dualistic, Pessimistic, Day of Reckoning Coming, Judgment Imminent
  • The Essenes (the pious) - cont.
    • The Eschatological War:
      • will be fought between the Sons of Light and the
      • Sons of Darkness (dualism)
      • readings: War Scroll 1:5-15
            • Community Rule 3:15-30 (practically quotes Gathas)
  • The Essenes (the pious) - cont.
    • The raising of the dead was a doctrine that was developing
    • among some Jewish sects in the 2nd century.
    • A Dead Sea Scroll has an amazing correlation with the
    • teachings of Jesus:
      • "And he will glorify the pious on the throne of the eternal Kingdom .
      • . . .
      • And the Lord will accomplish glorious things which have never
      • been as . . .
      • For he will heal the wounded, and revive the dead and
      • bring good news to the poor ."
            • Scroll 4Q521 dated to ca. 90 BCE
    • Compare to Isa 61:1 and Matt 11:4-5 and Luke 7:22-23
  • The Essenes (the pious) - cont.
    • There are also major differences:
      • exclusive and secretive
      • believed in the Platonic immortal soul and
      • its preexistence
  • to India -- Hinduism to Iran -- Zoroastrianism and to Greece -- Homeric religion ISRAEL Jewish Sects 1000 622 586 170 4 49 Monarchy Joshia Abomination Birth of Jerusalem Exile of Desolation Jesus Council The Development of Christianity - John, Jesus and Paul Zealots Sadducees John Pharisees Jesus Movement Essenes Paul others Alexander 333 Mesopotamian Persian Indo- European Egyptian Greece
  • Early Christianity "The Kingdom of God is not coming with signs to be observed . . . for behold, the Kingdom of God is in the midst of you." Luke 17:20-21 Jesus This generation will not pass away until all these things have taken place. Matt 24: 34
  • Zealots Sadducees Pharisees Essenes Jesus Movement others Pauline Christians Gnostics 30 33 John the Crucifixion 50's 100's Baptist Paul's Gnosis Missions 300's 1000's Catholic Schism The Development of Orthodoxy Jewish-Christians Orthodoxy Other Ongoing Heresies Greek
  • The First Christians The Movement was not called Christian until the 40s where it got that name at Antioch Earlier it was called the Way or Nazarenes The original focus was on the Jewish homeland in Galilee, then Jerusalem Peter was the original head of the Jerusalem church then replaced by James, the brother of Jesus Scholars designate them as Jewish-Christians (later called Ebionites and branded as heretics) And then came Paul...
  • Zealots Sadducees Pharisees Essenes Jesus Movement others Pauline Christians Gnostics 30 33 John the Crucifixion 50's 100's Baptist Paul's Gnosis Missions 300's 1000's Catholic Schism The Development of Orthodoxy Jewish-Christians Orthodoxy Other Ongoing Heresies
  • 50's 100's Paul's Gnosis Missions "Catholic" Dark Ages Schism End of Middle Ages 300's 476-1000 1054 476-1450 Gnostics Pauline Christians Crusades 1095 - 1291 Development of Christianity to the End of the Middle Ages Cathars 1050 Waldensians 1173 Wycliffe 1380 Huss 1415 Francis Assisi 1206 Aquinas 1273 Jewish-Christians Orthodoxy Other Ongoing Heresies Greek Philosophy Eastern Orthodox Roman Catholic