Cosmic evolution 04162009short

525
-1

Published on

Cosmic Evolution was first presented to Tallahassee FF.

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
525
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
22
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Cosmic evolution 04162009short

  1. 1. Dr Gary A Stilwell Cosmic Evolution
  2. 2. A Six Week Course <ul><li>My Cosmology course originally consisted of </li></ul><ul><li>two parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mythological cosmology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific cosmology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The outline (timeline) of only the scientific part </li></ul><ul><li>is shown on the next few pages </li></ul><ul><li>We will cover a small portion of that outline tonight, </li></ul><ul><li>as far as we get </li></ul>
  3. 3. Outline <ul><li>Reality vs. Models </li></ul><ul><li>How we got the Big Bang Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Timelines </li></ul><ul><li>Big Bang Overview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantum Flux/Vacuum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure of Matter and Force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planck Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matter Evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matter Creation (Atoms) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cosmic Background Radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A View from the Center </li></ul>
  4. 4. Ultimate Reality <ul><li>Science theory/ models and religious mythology both seek to understand reality </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Of which science models and religious myths may both be Platonic cave shadows </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>They both use models to describe this reality </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster occurs when our models of realit y are mistaken for reality itself </li></ul>
  5. 5. How We Got the Big Bang Theory <ul><li>1920s discovered our galaxy not alone </li></ul><ul><li>1929 discovered other galaxies all moving away </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>making theories to explain expansion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1960s discovered microwave background, </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>proving the BB </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1980s fixed problems with BB by Inflation </li></ul><ul><li>On-going proof </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Time from Beginning </li></ul><ul><li>Quantum fluctuation 0 sec ? </li></ul><ul><li>Planck time 10 -43 sec </li></ul><ul><li>Gravity force splits 10 -43 </li></ul><ul><li>Strong force splits (GUT) 10 -36 </li></ul><ul><li>Inflation starts 10 -36 </li></ul><ul><li>Sea of quarks 10 -34 </li></ul><ul><li>Weak force splits 10 -10 </li></ul><ul><li>Quarks combine to Hadrons 10 -5 </li></ul><ul><li>Leptons dominate energy dens. 10 -4 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both annihilate immediately </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nucleosynthesis 1 min </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H and He formed by ~3 min </li></ul></ul></ul>Timeline of the Big Bang
  7. 7. <ul><li>Matter Era After Big Bang </li></ul><ul><li>Matter Radiation equality 60K years </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms form 400K years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation and matter decouple 400K years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(universe becomes transparent) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dark Ages begin 5 M years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First Stars 1 B years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Galaxies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stars and chemistry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planets 10 B years </li></ul></ul>Timeline cont.
  8. 8. Timeline cont. <ul><li>Our Era </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Milky Way 10 B years before present </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sun 5 B year BP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earth 4.6 B year BP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life 4.2 B years BP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hominids 7 M years BP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Culture 12K years BP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Future Eras </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Death of solar system 5 B years from now </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degenerate era 10 14 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black hole era 10 46 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dark era 10 100 years </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Timelines - The Really Big Picture The following graphics will be used to illustrate the various time periods under discussion
  10. 10. Time Frame - Age of Cosmos 15 B* 10B 5B Now * actually 13.7 B The ~15 Billion Year History of the Universe: The 1st Billion years The last 5 billion years Galaxies Formed 4.6 Billion Years Earth Formed
  11. 11. 5B 4B 3B 2B 1B Now 500M 400M 300M 200M 100M Now 1M 0.8M 0.6M 0.4M 0.2M Now Time Frame - Age of Cosmos - cont. Human Civilization 12,000 Years 15 B 10B 5B Now Earth Formed Life Vertebrates Plants Land Animals Dinosaurs Mammals Primates Hominids Homo Sapiens 500 Million Galaxies Formed 4.6 Billion Years Earth Formed
  12. 12. 15 B 10B 5B Now 0 400 K 1 M 0 3 minutes Time Frame - Age of Cosmos The 1st Few Seconds Galaxies Form Earth Forms Electron Capture Forces separate, inflation occurs, and matter is created
  13. 13. A 2-D Look at Cosmic Evolution Here be Dragons
  14. 14. The Birth of the Universe - Limits of Our Knowledge time = 0 Temperature = infinite increasing time incr. expansion Particle theories uncertain Quantum gravity needed Singularity!? We can have knowledge of the universe's origin only after the Planck time of 10 -43 sec time = ~14 B years Temp = ~ 3K }
  15. 15. The Progress of the New Physics This is why we are limited to AFTER the Planck time.
  16. 16. Big Bang is Not an Explosion
  17. 17. Big Bang - a more correct view A More Correct View of the Big Bang Theory
  18. 18. Quantum Fluctuations and Particle Physics A Review of Particle Physics is Necessary to Understand Early Cosmology Quantum fluctuations are allowed by the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
  19. 19. Quantum Vacuum Energy
  20. 20. The Standard Model of the Structure of Matter <ul><li>Macroscopic object </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atom </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proton and Neutron </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quarks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Strings??) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Structure of Ordinary Matter
  22. 22. Standard Model of Sub-Atomic Particles all known matter and force Ordinary matter Forces Exotic matter Fermions
  23. 23. Planck Time, Forces Split 10 -43 sec is the smallest time that our physics works NEED: quantum gravity theory
  24. 24. Planck Era At time = 10 - 43 sec 10 21 times smaller 10 -12 cm
  25. 25. Gravity
  26. 26. Electromagnetic
  27. 27. Strong
  28. 28. Weak
  29. 29. The Four Forces - Unification
  30. 30. Forces - breaking symmetry at cosmic origin - temperature and time Cosmic Time (sec) 10 -43 10 -36 10 -11
  31. 31. Inflation Starts ~10 -36 sec.
  32. 32. Horizon Problem
  33. 33. Normal Expansion versus Inflation
  34. 34. Inflation
  35. 35. Our Observable Universe
  36. 36. Matter Matter created in steps starting after the Planck time 10 -43 sec At ~ 60K years: Radiation (photons, neutrinos) Energy Density becomes equal to Dark and Atomic Matter Density.
  37. 37. Space-time Foam
  38. 38. Matter Creation and Destruction
  39. 39. Particles Created and Annihilated
  40. 40. Making Quarks 10 -34 sec.
  41. 41. Quarks to Nuclei at 3 min
  42. 42. Making Elements at Universe = 1 Minute Old
  43. 43. Cosmic Background Radiation Free Electrons and Nuclei pair up to form Atoms at ~400 K years Called Recombination Makes Universe Transparent
  44. 44. Matter Evolution
  45. 45. The Helium Atom Model ~ 400K years after Big Bang 4 2 He
  46. 46. The Atomic Nucleus
  47. 47. The Structure of the Atom Atom = 100,000 times Nucleus 10 -10 / 10 -15 = 10 5 The atom is almost EMPTY void!!
  48. 48. Click here to type page title
  49. 49. END A few discussion slides follow
  50. 51. The Milky Way Galaxy
  51. 52. Universe Magnitudes
  52. 54. Life Cycle of Stars
  53. 55. Anthropic
  54. 56. Expanding Universe - Red Shift
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×