M R OFHIG RA SPE LE T OFUZBE A INIST Y HE ND CIA DUCAION KIST N NAIONA UNIV R YOFUZBE A T L E SIT KIST N NA EM ZOUL BE M IR UG K F CUL YOFCHE IST Y A T M RGREAT BRITAINPERFORMED: NURITDINOVA RA’NO Tashkent 2012
State symbols of Great BritainState flag of Great Britain State emblem of Great Britain
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and NorthernIreland uses as its national flag the royal bannerknown as the Union Flag or, popularly, Union Jack.Although, strictly speaking, the Union flag is onlyknown as a Jack when flown from a boat. Thecurrent design of the Union Flag dates from the unionof Ireland and Great Britain in 1801. It consists of thered cross of Saint George (patron saint of England),edged in white, superimposed on the Cross of StPatrick (patron saint of Ireland), which aresuperimposed on the Saltire of Saint Andrew (patronsaint of Scotland). Wales, however, is not representedin the Union Flag by Wales patron saint, SaintDavid, as at the time the flag was designed Wales waspart of the Kingdom of England.Its correct proportions are 1:2. However, the versionofficially used by the British Army modifies theproportions to 3:5, and additionally two of the reddiagonals are cropped.
The Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom is the officialcoat of arms of the British monarch, currentlyQueen Elizabeth II. These arms are used by the Queen in herofficial capacity as monarch of the United Kingdom, and areofficially known as her Arms of Dominion. Variants of the RoyalArms are used by other members of the Royal Family; and by theBritish government in connection with the administration andgovernment of the country. In Scotland, the Queen has a separateversion of the Royal Arms, a variant of which is used by theScotland Office.The shield is quartered, depicting in the first and fourth quartersthe three passant guardant lions of England; in the second, therampant lion and double tressure flory-counterflory of Scotland;and in the third, a harp for Northern Ireland. The crest is astatant guardant lion wearing the imperial crown, himself onanother representation of that crown. The dexter supporter is alikewise crowned English lion; the sinister, a Scottish unicorn.According to legend a free unicorn was considered a verydangerous beast; therefore the heraldic unicorn is chained, aswere both supporting unicorns in theRoyal coat of arms of Scotland. The coat features both the mottoof English monarchs, Dieu et mon droit (God and my right), andthe motto of the Order of the Garter, Honi soit qui mal y pense(Shamed be he who thinks ill of it) on a representation of theGarter behind the shield.The official blazon of the Royal Arms is:
The Island of Great Britain The Island of GreatBritain is divided into threeparts — England, Wales andScotland. England andWales form the southernpart of the island andScotland occupies itsnorthern part. From the West BritishIsles are washed by theAtlantic Ocean, from theeast by the North Sea andthe southern coast is washedby the English Channel. TheIrish Sea lies betweenEngland and Ireland.
The surface of Eastern England isflat. Scotland and Wales are hilly andmountainous. The mountains are notvery high as compared with those ofthe world, the loftiest one — BenNevis (Scotland) being only 4400 feet(1343 m) in height. There are many rivers in Britainwhich connected with each other bymeans of canals. The principal riversare the Severn, the Thames and theTrent.
GovernmentThe United Kingdom is a parliamentary monarchy—that is, thehead of state is a monarch with limited powers. Britain’sdemocratic government is based on a constitution composed ofvarious historical documents, laws, and formal customs adoptedover the years. Parliament, the legislature, consists of the Houseof Lords, the House of Commons, and the monarch, also calledthe Crown. The House of Commons is far more influential thanthe House of Lords, which in effect makes the British systemunicameral, meaning the legislature has one chamber. The chiefexecutive is the prime minister, who is a member of the House ofCommons. The executive branch also includes Her Majesty’sGovernment, commonly referred to simply as “the government.”The government is composed of ministers in the Cabinet, most ofwhom are members of the House of Commons; governmentdepartments, each of which is responsible to a minister; localauthorities; and public corporations. Because the House ofCommons is involved in both the legislative and executivebranches of the British government, there is no separation ofpowers between executive and legislature as there is in the UnitedStates.
The ConstitutionThe British constitution comprises multiple documents. The written partconsists of the Magna Carta, written in 1215; the Petition of Right,passed by Parliament in 1628; and the Bill of Rights of 1689. It alsoincludes the entire body of laws enacted by Parliament, precedentsestablished by decisions made in British courts of law, and varioustraditions and customs. The democratically elected House of Commonscan alter these laws with a majority vote. The constitution continuallyevolves as new laws are passed and judicial decisions are handed down.All laws passed by Parliament are regarded as constitutional, andchanges or amendments to the constitution occur whenever newlegislation overrides existing law. Although the Crown gives its royalassent to legislation, this is a mere formality.