Basics of e-learningIntroduction to Instructional DesignDAY IStijn Van LaerMariet Vriens
The program of this training                    • During these 3 day                      training we want to share       ...
To be precise (I) !(Lee & Owens, 2004)
The program of today                  • Today we will focus on:                       – the use of Instructional          ...
To be precise (II) !(Lee & Owens, 2004)
By the end of this day you are able to:• … describe the importance of the Instructional Design  approach in Education.• … ...
Practical issues• We will work with a very specific case.• Groups for the next 3 days:  – Group 1: Katrina, Melaku, Paola,...
THE IMPORTANCE OFINSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN ANDSOME BASIC MODELS
Instructional Design The process by which instruction is improved through the analysis of learning needs and a systematic ...
Learning Situations & Learning Environments • Learning Situation vs Learning Environment                          What can...
Instructional Design
Different ID-models•   4C-ID Model (Jeroen van Merriënboer)•   Algo-Heuristic Theory (Lev Landa)•    ARCS (John Keller)•  ...
http://www.elearninglearning.com/instructional-design/http://www.instructionaldesign.org/
ADDIE: a general ID model            Analysis                    Design            conceptualization  Theory     specifica...
Brief description• The ADDIE model is the generic process traditionally  used by instructional designers and training deve...
Phases in Instructional Design(Lee & Owens, 2004)
Our example of good educationGLOBAL SCHEME
Exercise• Sit in groups.• Describe the critical factors when  designing a learning environment.  (15 minutes)• Present ple...
Instructional design @ KU Leuven   Instructional design @ KU Leuven                                      Context          ...
student characteristicsContext                         Objectives                                                       Wh...
objectivesContext                         Objectives                                                     Which knowledge  ...
learning activitiesContext                         Objectives                                                       Which ...
contextContext                         Objectives                                                    In which context     ...
learning environmentContext                         Objectives                                                            ...
student supportContext                         Objectives      Evaluation          Support                              Le...
evaluationContext                         Objectives                                                          How will be ...
alignmentContext                         Objectives                                                    Coherence and      ...
Context                        Objectives      Evaluation          Support                             Learning Activities...
ADDIE & GLOBAL SCHEME
Context                                   Objectives                 Evaluation                     Support               ...
THE CASE…
Case Fabrics Inc. (I)      • Fabrics Inc., a state of the art weaving factory, once a small        organization, recently ...
Case Fabrics Inc. (II)• However, they seem to get into arguments easily, and I  hear a lot of yelling going on in the plan...
The Basics of Instructional DesignANALYSIS
Phases in Instructional Design(Lee & Owens, 2004)
Analysis(Lee & Owens, 2004)
The Basics of Instructional DesignFRONT-END ANALYSIS (LEE & OWENS, 2004)
Audience (Student Characteristics)   AnalysisIdentify the background, learning characteristics, andprerequisite skills of ...
Exercise• Sit in groups.• Describe    your   audience   (target  group) in detail. (30 minutes) Try to  come up with a pos...
(Learning) Objective AnalysisWhat are the objectives for the course?An objective must be:1. Specific (This means the goal ...
Verbs according to Domain
Examples of Learning Objectives
Task AnalysisDescribe the job-related tasks performed as a result ofthe training or performance support.1. Define the posi...
Example of a Task Analysis
Exercise• Sit in groups.• Describe the learning objectives in  detail. (30 minutes) Try to come up  with 5 possible learni...
CONTEXT - Technology AnalysisIdentify existing technology capabilities.1. Analyze available communication technology.2. An...
CONTEXT - Situational AnalysisIdentify environmental or organizational constraints thatmay have an impact on goals and mul...
CONTEXT - Pedagogical Analysis1. Analyze the methodology.2. Analyze the degree of autonomy versus control (role of   the c...
CONTEXT - Extant-data AnalysisIdentify existing training materials, manuals, references,and syllabi.1. Identify likely sou...
Exercise• Sit in groups.• Describe the context in detail. (30  minutes) Try to come up with a  possible description of the...
Analysis  Design•   Extant - Data Analysis  CONTEXT•   Pedagogical Analysis  CONTEXT•   Situational Analysis - CONTEXT...
DESIGN-TIME!!
Basics of e-Learning DAY I
Basics of e-Learning DAY I
Basics of e-Learning DAY I
Basics of e-Learning DAY I
Basics of e-Learning DAY I
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Basics of e-Learning DAY I

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  • Voorstelling van het volledige AVLM programma. Hier wordt nog naar teruggegrepen op vrijdag en dan wordt het gekoppeld aan het kader dat werd geïntroduceerd (instructional design)
  • Voorstelling van het volledige AVLM programma. Hier wordt nog naar teruggegrepen op vrijdag en dan wordt het gekoppeld aan het kader dat werd geïntroduceerd (instructional design)
  • Toelichting: we gaan het hebben over onderwijskundig ontwerpen als uitgangspunt voor “goed onderwijs” – ook bij het implementeren van technologie in het onderwijs.
  • Manytheories
  • Toelichting: we gaan het hebben over onderwijskundig ontwerpen als uitgangspunt voor “goed onderwijs” – ook bij het implementeren van technologie in het onderwijs.
  • The basic idea is that decisions regarding the creation of a learning environment must be taken in a coherent and consistent manner and must lead to an educational practice with clear connections between the various components. This scheme gives an overview of the different basic components of an educational practice and the way they relate to each other. - Schema al kort toelichten
  • Students with different characteristics require different learning environments. Research indicates that three different type of characteristics are essential here: prior knowledge in the fieldmetacognitive skills motivationMore about this: “a number of educational findings”: chapter 8 in the GIL brochure
  • Central question when designing a course: what are the objectives students need to attain? Only after this question is answered we can start to think about the rest: how will these objectives be reached and who will be involved in this?
  • In order to reach these objectives students have to perform certain learning activities (e.g. looking for connections, selecting information, following the reasoning of a teacher during a lecture, memorizing information…). Students are not empty vessels in which you can pour learning results.
  • The context can limit possibilities or create opportunities when designing a learning environment (organisational preconditions, rules and regulations on institutional, regional, national…level).
  • To help students select the right learning activities, the teacher offers them a learning environment. A learning environment consist of two elements: the student support and the student evaluation.
  • Support: WHAT: specific learning contents HOW: materials / media (text book, powerpoint, video, podcast) and teaching methods (assignments, group work, lectures,…) WHO: education is interaction between various persons (teacher - students, peer to peer …)
  • Evaluation verifies to what extent students have reached the objectives. Evaluation and the communication about evaluation is very important! “The tail wags the dogs”: students gear their learning activities to the method of evaluation!
  • These components are not separate and their coherence and consistency is essential! objectives determine learning activities learning activities determine support objectives determine evaluation evaluation is closely connected to learning activities and therefore support support also depends on student characteristics
  • Link with e-learning: learning environment can be partially (blended) or completely online
  • At the K.U.Leuven we answer this question by using this scheme. It visualizes the different basic components of an educational practice and the connections between these components.Analysis & Design is everywhere.
  • De aanpak hier bestaat uit een mix van het aanbrengen van theorie en het toepassen van deze theorie op een case aan de hand van groepswerk. Bij elke groep is één begeleider aanwezig (het zal erg belangrijk zijn dat de begeleiders samen op voorhand de case grondig analyseren en enkele belangrijke aanknopingspunten voor het ontwerp van de leeromgeving formuleren). Eén van de doelstellingen hier is om alle deelnemers min of meer op hetzelfde niveau te krijgen wat ID betreft. Indeling van de groepen: Groep 1: Katrina, Melaku, Paola, Innocent - Groep 2: Sheleena, Ahmed, Osmel, Le - Groep 3: Luisa, Kidus, Shabbir, ShallonDe “content” voor de leeromgeving die in de case moet worden ontworpen (conflict resolution model), wordt hier al aangereikt.
  • Basics of e-Learning DAY I

    1. 1. Basics of e-learningIntroduction to Instructional DesignDAY IStijn Van LaerMariet Vriens
    2. 2. The program of this training • During these 3 day training we want to share our vision on the analysis of Learning Situations and the design of a new Learning Environment. To do this we will introduce example methods and models. • Important to know: they are not the only truth!
    3. 3. To be precise (I) !(Lee & Owens, 2004)
    4. 4. The program of today • Today we will focus on: – the use of Instructional Design. – the differences between the Learning Situation and the Learning Environment. – the ADDIE-model as a systematic approach of Instructional Design. – the Global scheme used at the KU Leuven. – The analysis of the Learning Situations. • Important to know (again): It is not the only truth!
    5. 5. To be precise (II) !(Lee & Owens, 2004)
    6. 6. By the end of this day you are able to:• … describe the importance of the Instructional Design approach in Education.• … describe the difference between a Learning Situation and a Learning Environment.• … describe the systematic approach of developing a Learning Environment using the ADDIE-model.• … describe the systematic approach of developing a Learning Environment using the Global Scheme.• … perform (apply), in group and guided by the instructor, an analysis of the presented case.• … describe the steps needed to work out your personal project proposal.
    7. 7. Practical issues• We will work with a very specific case.• Groups for the next 3 days: – Group 1: Katrina, Melaku, Paola, Innocent – Group 2: Sheleena, Ahmed, Osmel, Le – Group 3: Luisa, Kidus, Shabbir, Shallon• Use all the resources available.• Consult each other, work together, collaborate, etc.• We will have 2 times a short break (morning and afternoon), remind me of that (in case I forget. Cfr. last year).
    8. 8. THE IMPORTANCE OFINSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN ANDSOME BASIC MODELS
    9. 9. Instructional Design The process by which instruction is improved through the analysis of learning needs and a systematic design and development of learning environments and materials. (Morrison, Ross, & Kemp, 2004). Instructional designers often use technology and multimedia as tools to enhance instruction.
    10. 10. Learning Situations & Learning Environments • Learning Situation vs Learning Environment What can / must be created …What is at the moment …
    11. 11. Instructional Design
    12. 12. Different ID-models• 4C-ID Model (Jeroen van Merriënboer)• Algo-Heuristic Theory (Lev Landa)• ARCS (John Keller)• ASSURE (Heinich, Molenda, Russel, and Smaldino)• Backward Design (Wiggins & McTighe)• Conditions of Learning (Robert Gagne)• Component Display Theory (David Merrill)• Criterion Referenced Instruction (Robert Mager)• Integrative Learning Design Framework for Online Learning (Debbaugh)• Spiral Model (Boehm)• Rapid Prototyping (Tripp & Bichelmeyer)• Kemp Design Model (Morrison, Ross, and Kemp)• Organizational Elements Model (OEM) (Roger Kaufman)• Transactional Distance (Michael Moore)• …
    13. 13. http://www.elearninglearning.com/instructional-design/http://www.instructionaldesign.org/
    14. 14. ADDIE: a general ID model Analysis Design conceptualization Theory specification prototyping Technology Development Implementation Evaluation
    15. 15. Brief description• The ADDIE model is the generic process traditionally used by instructional designers and training developers.• The five phases—Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation—represent a dynamic, flexible guideline for building effective training and performance support tools.• Most of the current instructional design models are spin-offs or variations of the ADDIE model.
    16. 16. Phases in Instructional Design(Lee & Owens, 2004)
    17. 17. Our example of good educationGLOBAL SCHEME
    18. 18. Exercise• Sit in groups.• Describe the critical factors when designing a learning environment. (15 minutes)• Present plenary per group (max. 5 minutes)
    19. 19. Instructional design @ KU Leuven Instructional design @ KU Leuven Context Objectives Evaluation Support Learning Activities Contents Teaching Methods Materials By whom Learning Environment Student Characteristics
    20. 20. student characteristicsContext Objectives What are the characteristics of Evaluation my students? Support Learning Activities Contents Teaching Methods Materials By whom Learning Environment Student Characteristics
    21. 21. objectivesContext Objectives Which knowledge and skills students Evaluation have to acquire? Support Learning Activities Contents Teaching Methods Materials By whom Learning Environment Student Characteristics
    22. 22. learning activitiesContext Objectives Which learning activities students Evaluation have to perform to Support reach the Learning Activities Contents Teaching Methods Materials objectives? By whom Learning Environment Student Characteristics
    23. 23. contextContext Objectives In which context does the Evaluation educational Support practice take Learning Activities Contents Teaching Methods Materials place? By whom Learning Environment Student Characteristics
    24. 24. learning environmentContext Objectives a learning environment Evaluation consists of support Support and evaluation Learning Activities Contents Teaching Methods Materials By whom Learning Environment Student Characteristics
    25. 25. student supportContext Objectives Evaluation Support Learning Activities Contents Teaching Methods Materials By whom Learning Environment WHAT Student Characteristics HOW WHO
    26. 26. evaluationContext Objectives How will be evaluated if Evaluation students reached Support the objectives? Learning Activities Contents Teaching Methods Materials By whom Learning Environment Student Characteristics
    27. 27. alignmentContext Objectives Coherence and consistency Evaluation Support Learning Activities Contents Teaching Methods Materials By whom Learning Environment Student Characteristics
    28. 28. Context Objectives Evaluation Support Learning Activities Contents Teaching Methods Materials By whom Learning Environment Student Characteristics
    29. 29. ADDIE & GLOBAL SCHEME
    30. 30. Context Objectives Evaluation Support Learning Activities Contents Teaching Methods Materials By whom Learning EnvironmentAnalysis Student CharacteristicsDesign
    31. 31. THE CASE…
    32. 32. Case Fabrics Inc. (I) • Fabrics Inc., a state of the art weaving factory, once a small organization, recently experienced an incredible growth. Only two years ago, the owner was also the supervisor of 40 employees. • Now it is a firm that employs more than 200. The fast growth proved good for some, with the opportunity for advancement. • The owner called a consultant to help him with a few problems that emerged with the fast growth. "I seem to have trouble keeping my mold-makers and some other key employees," he said. They are in demand, and although I am competitive regarding money, I think the new supervisors are not treating them well. Also, I received some complaints from customers about the way supervisors talk to them. • The supervisors were all promoted from within, without any formal training in supervising employees. They know their stuff regarding the work the employees are doing, so they are able to help employees who are having problems.CASE: Blanchard, P. N. and J. W. Thacker (2007). Effective Training: Systems, Strategies, and Practices, Pearson Prentice Hall.
    33. 33. Case Fabrics Inc. (II)• However, they seem to get into arguments easily, and I hear a lot of yelling going on in the plant.• When we were smaller, I looked after the supervisory responsibilities myself and never found a reason to yell at the employees, so I think the supervisors need some training in effective ways to deal with employees. I only have nine supervisors. Could you give them some sort of training to be better?
    34. 34. The Basics of Instructional DesignANALYSIS
    35. 35. Phases in Instructional Design(Lee & Owens, 2004)
    36. 36. Analysis(Lee & Owens, 2004)
    37. 37. The Basics of Instructional DesignFRONT-END ANALYSIS (LEE & OWENS, 2004)
    38. 38. Audience (Student Characteristics) AnalysisIdentify the background, learning characteristics, andprerequisite skills of the audience.1. Analyze audience demographics and special requirements.2. Determine attitudes toward content and education.3. Analyze the critical skills of the audience (language, IT, …).4. Document the results.
    39. 39. Exercise• Sit in groups.• Describe your audience (target group) in detail. (30 minutes) Try to come up with a possible profile.• Present plenary per group (max. 5 minutes)
    40. 40. (Learning) Objective AnalysisWhat are the objectives for the course?An objective must be:1. Specific (This means the goal is clear and unambiguous; without vagaries and platitudes.)2. Measurable (Need for concrete criteria for measuring progress toward the attainment of the goal.)3. Attainable (The goals are neither out of reach nor below standard performance.)4. Relevant (choose goals that matter.)5. Timely (A commitment to a deadline helps focus their efforts on completion of the goal.)Document the results!
    41. 41. Verbs according to Domain
    42. 42. Examples of Learning Objectives
    43. 43. Task AnalysisDescribe the job-related tasks performed as a result ofthe training or performance support.1. Define the position title.2. Identify all job-related duties.3. Identify all tasks.4. Order the tasks.5. Document the results.
    44. 44. Example of a Task Analysis
    45. 45. Exercise• Sit in groups.• Describe the learning objectives in detail. (30 minutes) Try to come up with 5 possible learning objectives.• Present plenary per group (max. 5 minutes)
    46. 46. CONTEXT - Technology AnalysisIdentify existing technology capabilities.1. Analyze available communication technology.2. Analyze the technology available for reference or performance support.3. Analyze the technology available for testing and assessment.4. Analyze the technology for distribution.5. Analyze the technology for delivery.6. Analyze the expertise.7. Document the results.
    47. 47. CONTEXT - Situational AnalysisIdentify environmental or organizational constraints thatmay have an impact on goals and multimedia design.1. Analyze the learning environment.2. Analyze delivery environment.3. Document the results.
    48. 48. CONTEXT - Pedagogical Analysis1. Analyze the methodology.2. Analyze the degree of autonomy versus control (role of the coach) Individual / collaborative.3. Analyze the teaching and learning method, tasks and assignments include: structuring and phases.4. Analyze the evaluation forms.5. Document the results.
    49. 49. CONTEXT - Extant-data AnalysisIdentify existing training materials, manuals, references,and syllabi.1. Identify likely sources of information.2. Collect information and existing course materials.3. Document the results.
    50. 50. Exercise• Sit in groups.• Describe the context in detail. (30 minutes) Try to come up with a possible description of the context.• Present plenary per group (max. 5 minutes)
    51. 51. Analysis  Design• Extant - Data Analysis  CONTEXT• Pedagogical Analysis  CONTEXT• Situational Analysis - CONTEXT• Technological Analysis  CONTEXT• Task Analysis  OBJECTIVES• Learning Objective Analysis  OBJECTIVES• Audience Analysis  STUDENT CHARACTERISTICSMakes a long list of REQUIREMENTS
    52. 52. DESIGN-TIME!!

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