Grade 9 - Nutrition


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Grade 9 - Nutrition

  2. 2. What will you learn?     The importance of daily food choices for health promotion throughout various stages of life. Determine the nutritional value of a variety of foods using Canada’s Food Guide. The importance of portion sizes. The six essential nutrients.
  3. 3. Nutrition is like a Teeter-Totter  If you eat more calories than you burn you will gain weight • If you eat less calories than you burn you will lose weight • If you eat the same amount of calories that
  4. 4. The Energy Balance Equation  Neutral Energy Balance: When energy intake is equal to energy expenditure  Body weight does not change   Negative Energy Balance: Fewer calories taken in than is burned off through activity  Results in weight loss   Positive Energy Balance: More food taken in than is balanced out with physical activity  Results in weight gain 
  5. 5. Daily Servings  The amount of food you need each day depends on:  Age  Body size  Activity level  Gender  Pregnant or Breastfeeding  This is why the Canada Food Guide has different serving recommendations.
  6. 6. Canada’s Food Guide
  7. 7. Canada’s Food Guide  Recommendations for your age:  Vegetables and Fruit-Recommended serving: 7-8  Grain Products-Recommended serving: 6-7  Milk and Alternatives-Recommended serving: 3-4  Meat and Alternatives-Recommended serving: 23
  8. 8. What is a portion size??       Your thumb=1 ounce of food Your palm=3 ounces of food Your fist=1 cup or 8 ounces of food Your fist should be your portion of carbohydrates Your palm should be your portion of meat and alternatives Two hands open together are the portion size of fruit and vegetables.
  9. 9. Examples...........             GRAINS -1 serving of rice = computer mouse or deck of cards (AFTER IT IS COOKED) -1 ounce of nuts = thumb -½ a bagel = hockey puck -1 serving (1 cup) of dry cereal = baseball -1 serving of bread = one slice VEGETABLES/FRUIT -1 serving (1 cup) of lettuce = baseball -1 serving of fruit = a tennis ball or baseball -½ cup cooked broccoli = scoop of ice cream -1 serving of vegetables = 1 handful -1 serving of baked potato = fist
  10. 10. Examples continued......         MILK -8 oz. Glass of milk/8 oz. Yogurt = baseball -1½ ounce of cheese = 3 dominoes -1 ounce of cheese = 4 dice MEAT -1 serving of meat (3 ounces) = deck of cards or your palm -1 ounce of meat = golf ball -canned tuna or salmon and 2 tbsp. of peanut butter = roll of film, ping pong ball or size of two thumbs.
  11. 11. Proteins  Proteins are the building blocks that are responsible for every cell and bodily function. They are made up of 22 amino acids. Complete proteins like meats, milk cheeses, and eggs contain 9 of the amino acids essential for living. Incomplete proteins like soybeans, beans, peas, peanuts , and most grains contain some of the remaining 13 as well as a couple of the 9 essentials
  12. 12. Proteins  Goal       Try to centre each meal around a complete protein. Vegetarians can make a complete protein by just adding two complimentary foods like rice and beans together. Grains with Legumes - sample meal: lentils and rice with yellow peppers. Nuts with Legumes - sample meal: black bean and peanut salad. Grains with Dairy - sample meal: white cheddar and whole wheat pasta. Dairy with Seeds - sample meal: yogurt mixed with sesame and flax seeds. Legumes with Seeds - sample meal: spinach salad with sesame seed and almond salad dressing.
  13. 13. Carbohydrates  Carbohydrates are your body’s preferred energy source.  For most people they make up the bulk of their diet. This group includes foods such as breads, pastas, cookies, pastries, crackers, cerea ls, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, and sugars.
  14. 14. Carbohydrates  Goal  Carbs are not the enemy, but try to limit your refined carbohydrates and choose high fiber, whole grain choices, as well as fruits and vegetables when developing your meals.
  15. 15. Fats  Fats are the most concentrated form of energy that our bodies can consume. Fat often gets a bad rap, but it is really only the saturated form that we have to be weary of. Saturated fats are easy to pick out, since they are solid at room temperature, whereas unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature. Saturated fats are commonly found in dairy, eggs, and meat while unsaturated fats mainly come in the form of oils.
  16. 16. Fats  Goal  Aim to use healthy fats like olive and grapeseed oil instead of butters or margarines when cooking. These oils also make excellent dressings and marinades. Just make sure not to overdo it though, since fats contain more than twice as many calories per gram than proteins or carbohydrates.  Carbs - 4 calories per gram  Protein – 4 calories per gram  Fat – 9 calories per gram
  17. 17. Good Fats vs Bad Fats  Saturated = BAD Animal origin  Solid at room temperature  Unsaturated=GOO D  Plant origin  Liquid at room temperature
  18. 18. Tips to Reducing Fat in Your Diet  Choose lower fat products   Be aware of portion sizes    Just because it is low fat, don`t eat twice as much Trim visible fat   Read the label Careful non-visible fat cannot be removed like chips and donuts Remove skin from poultry Avoid add-on fats  Less spreads like butter, sauces, creamy dressings
  19. 19. Vitamins (water and fat soluble)  Vitamins are living compounds that we need to ensure a healthy mind and body. They allow us to actually use energy given to us through the consumption of proteins, carbs, and fats. A healthy diet will provide all of the 13 essential vitamins through a variety of foods, but often times a multivitamin/mineral will be needed to cover your bases.
  20. 20. Vitamins  Goal  If every meal consists of a lean protein, vegetable, and a choice of fruits, whole grains, and healthy fats, then you can feel confident that you have met your quota for the day.
  21. 21. Minerals  Minerals are non-living compound that assist in many bodily functions such as tissue repair, growth, and regulating your body’s fluids.  Examples of minerals are calcium, potassium, iron and zinc. Goal: Minerals are found in an array of foods and just like vitamins, they are best absorbed through whole, well-rounded diets.
  22. 22. Fiber  Fiber is a type of complex carbohydrate that your body cannot digest.  Fiber supplies no energy.  Fiber sources include the leaves, stems, roots, and seed coverings of fruits, vegetables and grains.  Examples are whole grain breads and cereals, the skin of fresh fruits, raw vegetables, nuts and seeds.  Fiber helps you avoid intestinal problems and might reduce your chances of developing some forms of cancer.  Adds bulk to feces to facilitate elimination.
  23. 23. 2 Types of Fibre  Soluble fibre * lowers blood cholesterol * slows absorption of glucose  Insoluble fibre * facilitates feces elimination * can prevent constipation, lower intestinal track cancer
  24. 24. Cholesterol     Is a waxy, fatlike substance found in the saturated fats of animal cells, including those of humans. You consume cholesterol in foods high in saturated fat such as meat. Because you are an animal, you produce your own cholesterol. You don’t need to get that from other animals. What would be good sources of protein that are lower in cholesterol?
  25. 25. What are Calories?   The measurement of how much energy we get from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats (energy nutrients) Calorie counting:  A measure of the amount of energy that food will produce as it passes through the body Source Energy Carbohydrates 4 cal/g Proteins 4 cal/g Fats 9 cal/g Alcohol 7 cal/g
  26. 26. Macronutrients: Nutrients that we need in relatively large amounts everyday  Carbohydrates:(trace back food to plant)  Simple carbohydrates.  Complex carbohydrates.  Fibre  Proteins:(trace back to an animal)  High-quality protein sources  Low-quality protein sources  Fats  Provide energy or calories  Carries fat-soluble vitamins
  27. 27. Micronutrients  Vitamins:  Water-soluble vitamins  Fat-soluble vitamins  Minerals:  Electrolytes  Sodium  Chloride  Potassium
  28. 28. THE IMPORTANCE OF BREAKFAST     You need to BREAK THE FAST!!!! The last time you ate was 8-12 hours ago. It provides the body with energy for the day. This allows your body to not be as hungry later on in the day. It will prevent you from binge eating.
  29. 29. How to Read a Food Label               1. Check the Serving Size if you eat the serving size on the package you will get the amount of calories and nutrients that are listed. 2. Calories calories tell you how much energy you get from one serving 3. Percent (%) Daily Value puts nutrients on a scale from 0%-100%. this will tell you if there is a little or a lot of nutrients. 4. Get less of these nutrients fat, saturated fat, trans fat cholesterol sodium **you want to choose foods with a low % daily value 5. Get more of these nutrients carbs, fibres, vitamin A & C, calcium, iron **you want to choose foods with a high % daily value
  30. 30. Why Should I Read Food labels?   Labels are standardized presentations of the nutrient content of food Consists of (based on serving size):  Heading  Serving size  Values of energy  Protein  Fat  Carbohydrate
  31. 31. Why Should I Read Food labels?  May also include:  Breakdown of fats (saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated)  Breakdown of carbohydrates (sugar, starch, fibre)  Sodium and potassium  Vitamins and minerals
  32. 32. First, Read the Labels   Canadian government regulations make nutrition labelling mandatory on most food packaging Nutrition Facts table: Standard format on every product  Lists all main (core) nutrients in the same order   Label may also contain a list of the ingredients and/or health-related claims
  33. 33. What Is on the Label  The Nutrition Facts Table: Lists the total calories along with 13 core nutrients  Most nutrients are shown in grams or milligrams  Vitamins and minerals are expressed only as a percentage of the Daily Value  Energy value is provided in calories   % Daily Value:  Tells you how much, or how little, of a nutrient is contained in a particular food item in relation to what should be taken in on a daily basis, based on a 2000-Calorie diet
  34. 34. Nutrient Content Claims      Free: contains a nutritionally insignificant amount Low: contains a very small amount Reduced: contains at least 25 percent less of a specified nutrient when compared with a similar product Source: contains a significant amount Light: products are reduced in fat or reduced in calories
  35. 35. Substitute with a Healthier Choice
  36. 36. What Are Dietary Supplements?  Products you take by mouth that contain a “dietary ingredient” intended to supplement the foods you eat: Vitamins  Minerals  Herbs or other botanicals  Amino acids  Enzymes, organ tissues, glandulars, and metabolites   Regulated as foods, not drugs
  37. 37. Age-Adusted Body Fat Percentage Recommendations
  38. 38. Age-Adusted Body Fat Percentage Recommendations Women Age Underfat Healthy Range Overweight Obese 20-40 yrs Under 21% 21-33% 33-39% Over 39% 41-60 yrs Under 23% 23-35% 35-40% Over 40% 61-79 yrs Under 24% 24-36% 36-42% Over 42% Age Underfat Healthy Range Overweight Obese 20-40 yrs Under 8% 8-19% 19-25% Over 25% 41-60 yrs Under 11% 11-22% 22-27% Over 27% 61-79 yrs Under 13% 13-25% 25-30% Over 30% Men
  39. 39. Nutrition and Aging  Aging leads to a lower total energy requirement as a result of less activity and a lower metabolic rate  Leads to lower intake among seniors  May not have adequate vitamin and mineral intakes  Constipation may further add to declining interest in food  Other diseases may also affect nutrition, including dental problems, swallowing disorders, mood disorders, and gastrointestinal disorders  Psychological issue may also negatively affect nutrition
  40. 40. Nutrition for Athletes    Canadian diet seems to be adequate to meet protein needs of athletes Athletes should focus on maintaining a balanced diet with adequate calories rather than supplementing Carbohydrate loading can increase muscle glycogen stores for endurance-type competition, but should be supervised by a qualified coach or doctor
  41. 41. Pre Event Meals    Meals before an event should be high in carbohydrates and low in fat Only familiar foods should be eaten before an event to avoid any strange or surprising reactions or feelings Before vigorous activity, meals should be eaten more than 2.5 hours prior to activity or competition
  42. 42. Hydration        The need for water is increased during exercise because of increased losses through the lungs and sweat Needs also increased in warm and humid environments Drink early (prior to exercise) Drink often (during exercise) Drink after exercise Cool drinks increase performance by cooling the body effectively Energy drinks and Gatorade/Powerade??????
  43. 43. Energy Drinks   Meant to provide mental and physical stimulation for a short period of time Chemical mix includes: Caffeine  Taurine  Glucuronolactone   Dangerous when mixed with alcohol or when used during intense activity
  44. 44. Energy Drinks: Buyer Beware!  Health Canada advises caution, and to be aware of the following:  Do not drink excessive amounts  Do not mix with alcohol  Drink enough water to rehydrate your system  The safety of such drinks may not have been evaluated by Health Canada  Report any adverse reactions
  45. 45. Fast Food Its FAST, it’s CHEAP, it TASTES SOOOOO GOOD!!!  BUT IT IS SOOOO BAD FOR 
  46. 46. What do you think???? How many Calories do you think are in these items??? Burger King Calories Cheeseburger Double Cheeseburger Whopper with cheese Cola (27 oz.) McDonald’s Calories Cheeseburger Quarter Pounder with cheese Big Mac Cola (32 oz.) Wendy’s Cheeseburger Big Classic with cheese Big Classic, double with cheese Cola (28 oz.) Calories
  47. 47. Here’s the truth............ Burger King Cheeseburger Double Cheeseburger Whopper with cheese Cola (27 oz.) McDonald’s Cheeseburger Quarter Pounder with cheese Big Mac Cola (32 oz.) Wendy’s Cheeseburger Big Classic with cheese Big Classic, double with cheese Cola (28 oz.) Calories 318 483 935 324 Calories 305 510 500 380 Calories 410 640 820 350
  48. 48. Fast Food Nutrition     McDonald's Nutrition Information Subway Nutrition Information Starbucks Nutrition Information Tim Horton's Nutrition Information
  49. 49. What did you eat today??    Write down what you ate over the last 24 hours. Did you eat all 4 food groups?? What can you do to create a more balanced menu for yourself?
  50. 50. 48 Hour Menu     Work in a group of 2 and come up with a menu for a field trip Plan a menu for one field trip They depart at 10 am on day 1 and day 2 and return home at noon on day 3. Prepare a breakfast, snack (am and pm), lunch, supper
  51. 51. Compare and Choose      Get in a group of 4 and discuss what product you would rather choose. What brand are they?? What is the serving size?? How many calories?? Fat?? Carbohydrates?? Fibre?? How much sugar?? Protein??
  52. 52. Jeopardy Miscellaneo us A Miscellaneo us B Canada’s Food Guide Drugs and Alcohol 100 100 100 100 200 200 200 200 300 300 300 300 400 400 400 400
  53. 53. Review