6 Basic Elements• Characters• Setting• Plot• Conflict• Point of View• Theme
Characterization A writer reveals what a character is like and how the character changes throughout the story.Two primary methods of characterization: Direct- writer tells what the character is like. Indirect- writer shows what a character is like by describing what the character looks like, by telling what the character says and does, and by what other characters say about and do in response to the character.
CHARACTERS• Actors in the story’s plot• May be human, animal, object, etc.• Major/Minor ▫ Major- character who plays a large role in the story ▫ Minor- character who provides support to the main character of the story
• Protagonist/Antagonist ▫ Protagonist- main character ▫ Antagonist- person in conflict with the main character *Not all stories have an antagonist
Character Types• Round or Flat • Round – more description, fully developed • Flat – two-dimensional; uncomplicated• Dynamic or Static • Dynamic – undergoes change through complication • Static – stays basically the same throughout• *Stereotypes=Stock Characters*
SETTING - Time and location where thestory take place• Place - geographical location• Time - historical period, time of day, year, etc.• Weather conditions• Social conditions - customs, status• Mood or atmosphere - the feeling created in the reader
Plot – what happens and how it happens in the story Stages of Plot: • Exposition – introduce characters, setting, conflict • Rising Action – events that intensify conflict • Climax – emotional highpoint • Falling Action – subsequent events caused by climax • Resolution (or Denouement)– ending, outcome
Special Techniques of PlotSuspense - excitement or tensionForeshadowing - hint or clue about what will happen in storyFlashback - interrupts the normal sequence of events to tell about something that happened in the pastSurprise Ending - conclusion that reader does not expect
CONFLICT - Internal or ExternalConflict is a struggle between opposing forcesEvery plot must contain some kind of conflictStories can have more than one conflictConflicts can be external or internal External conflict- outside force may be person, group, animal, nature, or a nonhuman obstacle Internal conflict- takes place in a character’s mind
POINT OF VIEW - Who is telling the story? • First Person – narrator is a character IN the story (“I” is used) • Third Person - narrator is NOT a character in the story (“he or she”) • Third Person Limited – narrator reveals thoughts of only one character • Third Person Omniscient – narrator reveals thoughts of all characters
ThemeA central message, concern, or insight into life expressed through a literary workCan be expressed by one or two sentence statement about human beings or about lifeMay be stated directly in the story (“and the moral of this story is . . .”) OR implied (reader needs to infer the theme).
Do you remember these literaryelements?Metaphor, personification, simile,alliteration, oxymoron• self-contradictory phrase, i.e., “same difference”• giving human qualities to something nonhuman• repetition of the same consonant sound at the beginning of words in the same sentence• comparison of two unlike things using “like” or “as”• same as above NOT using “like” or “as”