1. Ayn Rand (1905-1982) http://www.aynrand.org/site/PageServer?pagename=about_ayn_rand_aynrand_biographyBorn in Russia – immigrated to US in1926Fountainhead (1943) is best knownnovel; Atlas Shrugged also well-knownAnthem (1938)founder of philosophical movementknown as objectivism ( ) http://www.aynrand.org/site/PageServer?pagename=objectivism_intro
2. Ayn Rand (1905 – 1982)Controversial figure in literature andphilosophyUpheld individualism over collectivismand egoism over altruismReason is the tool that nourishes theindividual against forces that canweaken it
3. Anthemword “anthem” means hymn of praiseknown as “anti-utopian” or “dystopian”fictioncollectivist society is primitive becauseeconomic progress depends on freedom(the un-coerced mind)
4. Romantic Realismnovel serves as Rand’s intro to“Romantic Realism”Romantic – deals with universalproblems of human existenceRealism – problems of normal (real)people
5. ObjectivismReality exists regardless of consciousness(awareness, thoughts, emotions)Proper moral purpose of life is individualpursuit of happinessThe only social system consistent with thismorality is full respect for individual rightsObjectivism rejects belief in any thingalleged to transcend existence
6. CollectivismThinking exists only as part of the group – man’s worth is determined by his service to the group.
7. IndividualismEvery man is an individual and hasthe same rights
8. Selflessness (Altruism) Unselfish concern for or devotionto the welfare of others. Completemindlessness; abstention fromthinking; obedience to masters. Noindividual identity or thought. Leadsto no motivation, no ambition, nohope.
9. Egoism Valuing everything only inreference to ones personalinterest. The individual as opposedto others is the beneficiary of his orher actions.
10. Free Will (as opposed to determinism) People can make choices, canmake up their mind, can makedecisions, and can direct their ownlives by the ideas and values theyhold
11. Flat/RoundTerms used to describe charactersFlat – surface description of characternot insight into personalityRound – insight into character’sthoughts, feelings, and beliefs.
12. Static / Dynamicstatic – character remains the samethroughout the literary work.dynamic – character goes throughtransformations (changes) as a result ofevents in the story.