Fountainhead (1943) is best known novel; Atlas Shrugged also well-known
founder of philosophical movement known as objectivism ( http://www.aynrand.org/site/PageServer?pagename=objectivism_intro )
Ayn Rand (1905 – 1982)
Controversial figure in literature and philosophy
Upheld individualism over collectivism and egoism over altruism
Reason is the tool that nourishes the individual against forces that can weaken it
word “anthem” means hymn of praise
known as “anti-utopian” or “dystopian” fiction
collectivist society is primitive because economic progress depends on freedom (the un-coerced mind)
novel serves as Rand’s intro to “Romantic Realism”
Romantic – deals with universal problems of human existence
Realism – problems of normal (real) people
Reality exists regardless of consciousness (awareness, thoughts, emotions)
Proper moral purpose of life is individual pursuit of happiness
The only social system consistent with this morality is full respect for individual rights
Objectivism rejects belief in any thing alleged to transcend existence
Thinking exists only as part of the group – man’s worth is determined by his service to the group.
Every man is an individual and has the same rights
Unselfish concern for or devotion to the welfare of others. Complete mindlessness; abstention from thinking; obedience to masters. No individual identity or thought. Leads to no motivation, no ambition, no hope.
Valuing everything only in reference to one's personal interest. The individual as opposed to others is the beneficiary of his or her actions.
Free Will (as opposed to determinism)
People can make choices, can make up their mind, can make decisions, and can direct their own lives by the ideas and values they hold
Terms used to describe characters
Flat – surface description of character not insight into personality
Round – insight into character’s thoughts, feelings, and beliefs.
Static / Dynamic
static – character remains the same throughout the literary work.
dynamic – character goes through transformations (changes) as a result of events in the story.