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My power point

  1. 1. Energy Budget 6.3 a&b
  2. 2. Which is cooler on a hot, sunny day? <ul><li>A lawn </li></ul><ul><li>A parking lot </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Lawn <ul><li>Grass absorbs less light than pavement even when both surfaces receive the same amount of sun. As a result, the grass does not get as hot. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Energy in the Atmosphere Solar energy is mostly visible light and infrared radiation, with a small amount of ultraviolet radiation. Gases and particles in the atmosphere absorb solar energy. Clouds, dust, and gases in the atmosphere reflect and scatter light. Some energy that reaches the surface is reflected back into the atmosphere. The Earth’s surface absorbs solar energy. This energy heats the land and water.
  5. 5. <ul><li>Some of the sun’s energy reaches Earth’s surface and is reflected back into the atmosphere. Some of the energy, however, is absorbed by the land and water and changed into heat. </li></ul><ul><li>If the Earth absorbs more solar energy than it radiates back to space, we expect the Earth’s temperature to increase. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The Earth’s radiation (light energy) budget is balanced when the amount of solar radiation absorbed by the Earth is equal to the amount of radiation emitted (reflected) by the Earth. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Energy in the Atmosphere strikes enters is is Earth’s atmosphere Reflected or scattered Absorbed Earth’s surface Sun’s energy
  8. 8. <ul><li>The Earth receives only a very small portion of the sun’s energy, yet this energy is responsible for powering the motion of the atmosphere, the oceans, and many processes of the Earth’s surface like photosynthesis. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Solar radiation is made up of different types of radiation including infrared, visible light and ultraviolet. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Infrared radiation - a form of energy with wavelengths that are longer than visible light. </li></ul><ul><li>Ultraviolet radiation- a form of energy with wavelengths that are shorter than visible light. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Visible Light <ul><li>Is a mixture of all of the colors that you see in a rainbow: R O Y G B I V </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indigo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violet </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Incoming solar radiation (insulation) is in close balance with the energy that leaves the atmosphere; otherwise the Earth would heat up or cool down. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Excess carbon dioxide and other gasses may disrupt this balance, creating a Greenhouse Effect. </li></ul><ul><li>The greenhouse effect is a natural process that keeps Earth’s atmosphere at a temperature that is comfortable for most living things. </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>About one third of the sun’s incoming energy is reflected back out to space. About one half of the energy striking the Earth is absorbed by the Earth’s surface. </li></ul>
  15. 17. How Heat is Transferred <ul><li>The energy transferred from a hotter object to a cooler one is referred to as heat. </li></ul><ul><li>Heat is transferred in three ways: radiation, conduction, and convection. </li></ul>
  16. 18. Radiation <ul><li>The heat you feel from the sun or a campfire travels directly to you as infrared radiation . </li></ul><ul><li>You cannot see infrared radiation, but you can feel it as heat. </li></ul>
  17. 19. Conduction <ul><li>The direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that it is touching is called conduction . </li></ul><ul><li>The closer together the molecules in a substance are, the more effectively they can conduct heat. </li></ul><ul><li>Conduction works well in some solids (land and metals), but not as well in liquids and gases. Air and water do not conduct heat very well. </li></ul>
  18. 20. Convection <ul><li>The transfer of heat by the movement of a fluid (molecules of liquids and gases) is called convection . </li></ul><ul><li>The upward movement of warm air and downward movement of cool air form convection currents. </li></ul><ul><li>Convection currents move heat throughout the troposphere. </li></ul>
  19. 21. Energy in the Atmosphere Heat transfer by radiation Heat transfer by conduction Heat transfer by convection Heat transfer by convection
  20. 22. <ul><li>Some of this information came from the Prentice Hall, Science Explorer , 6th grade edition, 2004 book. </li></ul>