Portugal Living habitually?From the First Republic to the Cold War
António de Oliveira SalazarSalazar was appointed Minister of Finance in April 1928. His immediatetask was to rescue the Portuguese economy in order to allow thedictatorship to restore order and the rule of law.
“People change little, and thePortuguese not at all. I wantthem to act habitually”Salazar in an interview with António Ferro, Salazar: Portugal and herleader, London: Faber & Faber
Implantation of the RepublicIn early October 1910, units of the armed forces and armed civilians inLisbon and a few other urban centres rose and overthrew the Portuguesemonarchy. The Republic was proclaimed on 5 October.
The problem with the FirstRepublic, 1910-1926...1. Urban2. Intellectual3. Foreign4. Anti-clerical5. Legitimacy
Monarchist incursions, 1910-12During the first two years in the life of the Republic, monarchist forcesregrouped in Spain under the leadership of Commander Paiva Couceiroand staged a number of failed incursions into northern Portugal.
Movimento das Espadas, January 1915On the pretext of a corporate grievance by army officers against thegovernment, President Arriaga dismissed the government and askedGeneral Pimenta de Castro (pictured) to form a new ministry.
Portugal at war, 1916-1918General Douglas Haig (Britain, left) with General Fernando Tamagnini,commander of the Portuguese Expeditionary Force, on the WesternFront, France, June 1917.
The Fátima visions, May-October 1917The three shepherd children, Lúcia dos Santos and Jacinta and FranciscoMarto, who are said to have seen the Virgin Mary on the 13th of eachmonth between May and October 1917.
Sidonismo, December 1917-December 1918Major Sidónio Pais, who had been a member of the first republicangovernment in 1910 and Portugal’s minister in Berlin in 1912, led a coupagainst the Democratic government on 5 December 1917.
Monarchy of the North, January 1919Following the assassination of Sidónio Pais, the military juntas that hadbeen established in the north of the country, proclaimed the monarchy.Forces loyal to the Republic moved swiftly to quell the uprising.
The rise and fall of the GNR, 1920-21The Democratic Party began strengthening the GNR as a military forcecapable of standing toe-to-toe with the army. Its leader, Col LiberatoPinto, was Prime Minister in 1920 and 1921. After Pinto was removedfrom office the GNR was placed under military command.
Noite Sangrenta (Bloody Night), 19 October 1921There is very little definitive knowledge about the events of the NoiteSangrenta in which the prime minister, António Granjo (above) andseveral other leading politicians were murdered.
18 April 1925: Golpe dos generaisSinel de Cordes (above) led a failed coup attempt against thegovernment.
28 May 1926: the March on LisbonIn a piece of theatre inspired by events in Rome four years earlier, thevictorious rebel generals and their troops marched into Lisbon to seizepower from the fleeing democratic politicians.
The end of the First Republic?• Turbulent beginnings• Conflict between urban and rural• Conflict between Catholicism and laicism• Conflict between urban middle class andorganised working class
Salazar’s lessonBasically, to stop spending money the country didn’t have; to follow theexample of the good housewife and to stop “living in hope” and begin a“policy of truth”.
“I know quite well what I want and where I am going, but let it not be insisted that I shall reach the goal in a few months. For the rest, let the country study, let it object and let it discuss, but when the time comes for me to give orders I shall expect it to obey.” Salazar, 27 April 1927
Salazar’s lessonGod, country, family. Living habitually.
The need for a new vision1. Restore the nation’s finances2. End the infatuation with materialism3. Democracy = disorder
The new vision• Rejected materialist fascist ideals• Based on teachings of social Catholicism• Papal encyclicals (Catholic corporatism): • Rerum Novarum (Leo XIII, 1891) • Quadragesimo Ano (Pius XI, 1931)•
“During the long years which comprised the opening decades of thepresent century, materialism — either in theory or in practice — had pre-eminently made politics, science, inventions, education, individual andcollective life, subservient to the acquisition of wealth or to theenjoyment of pleasures. If materialism has not been able to eradicateentirely every influence that tends to develop the highest spiritual aimsin the individual, in the family, and in society, it is not because it has notattempted to destroy those influences or to emphasise our physicalneeds to the exclusion of all others. Experience has sadly shown us thatthis has been the best way of inducing people to make demands withwhich no ordinary government could comply; of promoting internal andexternal strife; and of provoking upheavals of violence that have neverbeen surpassed, threatening to engulf mankind in a new barbarism.”Salazar, 26 May 1934
“There will be no definite progress unless it isaccompanied by a revolution in the mentaland moral outlook of the Portuguese peopleof the present day, and by a careful educationof our future generations”Salazar
The Spanish Civil War, 1936-39While not officially supporting Franco’s Nationalists in the Spanishconflict, Salazar allowed a “volunteer” force, Os Viriatos to fight on theside of the Nationalists.
Staying out of the Second World WarPortugal remained neutral, kept Spain neutral, while all the timefavouring the Allies during the Second World War... Even to the extent ofallowing the UK to invoke the 1386 Treaty of Windsor to secure Allied useof the Azores archipelago.
False democracyThe Allied victory meant Salazar could no longer dismiss democracy. Sohe created a false democratic process for electing candidates to apowerless parliament.
Delgado and the 1958 Presidential ElectionGeneral Humberto Delgado stood against the regime’s candidate in the1958 Presidential Election, and is widely believed to have won were itnot for fraud on the part of the regime.
Obviamente demiti-lo-eiWhen asked what he would do about Salazar should he becomePresident, Delgado responded: “Obviously I will dismiss him”.
Death of the general ‘sem medo’Delgado , the ‘General without fear’, the first to openly stand againstSalazar, was assassinated near Badajoz, Spain, on 13 February 1965 bythe regime’s secret police, the PIDE.
“I don’t believe in equality: I believe in hierarchy.In my opinion all men must be equal before thelaw, but I think it is dangerous to give all men thesame political rights.”Salazar, Figaro, 3 September 1958.