Regulation of respiration

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Regulation of respiration

  1. 1. Notes: Regulation of Respiration (pg 10)
  2. 2. Respiratory Center• Group of neurons in the pons and medulla oblongata that control the rate and depth of breathing
  3. 3. Respiratory Center• Group of neurons in the pons and medulla oblongata that control the rate and depth of breathing• Inspiratory area sends impulses to the diaphragm and, for deeper breathing, to the external intercostal muscles. Muscles contract and inspiration occurs
  4. 4. Respiratory Center• Group of neurons in the pons and medulla oblongata that control the rate and depth of breathing• Inspiratory area sends impulses to the diaphragm and, for deeper breathing, to the external intercostal muscles. Muscles contract and inspiration occurs• Nerves fatigue quickly and stop sending impulses. Muscles then relax and expiration occurs. When forceful expiration is necessary, expiratory area sends impulses to the internal intercostal muscles
  5. 5. Output (pg 11)• Paste in oval diagram• Color code: Red for inspiration, blue for expiration
  6. 6. Chemoreceptors• Receptors in the medulla oblongata that are sensitive to changes in CO2 and H+ (acidity) levels
  7. 7. Chemoreceptors• Receptors in the medulla oblongata that are sensitive to changes in CO2 and H+ (acidity) levels• If CO2 and H+ levels increase, the chemoreceptors stimulate the respiratory center to increase the rate and depth of breathing
  8. 8. Chemoreceptors• Receptors in the medulla oblongata that are sensitive to changes in CO2 and H+ (acidity) levels• If CO2 and H+ levels increase, the chemoreceptors stimulate the respiratory center to increase the rate and depth of breathing• Receptors sensitive to oxygen levels are located in the aorta. However, low oxygen level is not as strong a stimulus for breathing as high CO2 level.
  9. 9. Stretch Receptors• As alveoli in the lungs expand, stretch receptors are stimulated
  10. 10. Stretch Receptors• As alveoli in the lungs expand, stretch receptors are stimulated• Stretch receptors initiate the Hering-Breuer reflex, which prevents overinflation of the lungs. Impulses travel to medulla oblongata where they inhibit the inspiratory neurons.
  11. 11. Stimulus from higher brain centers• Impulses from higher brain can temporarily override the respiratory center.
  12. 12. Stimulus from higher brain centers• Impulses from higher brain can temporarily override the respiratory center.• Impulses may be voluntary (singing, holding your breath) or involuntary (emotions, sudden pain or cold)
  13. 13. Stimulus from higher brain centers• Impulses from higher brain can temporarily override the respiratory center.• Impulses may be voluntary (singing, holding your breath) or involuntary (emotions, sudden pain or cold)• When CO2 levels reach a critical point, impulses from the higher brain centers are ignored and the respiratory center resumes control
  14. 14. Temperature• Increase in body temperature causes increase in breathing rate.
  15. 15. Temperature• Increase in body temperature causes increase in breathing rate.• Higher temperature leads to higher metabolism and more CO2 production
  16. 16. Respiratory Volumes• Tidal Volume (TV): ≈ 500 ml. Amount of air inhaled and exhaled during normal quiet breathing
  17. 17. Respiratory Volumes• Tidal Volume (TV): ≈ 500 ml. Amount of air inhaled and exhaled during normal quiet breathing• Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV): ≈ 3100 ml. Maximum amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal exhale
  18. 18. Respiratory Volumes• Tidal Volume (TV): ≈ 500 ml. Amount of air inhaled and exhaled during normal quiet breathing• Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV): ≈ 3100 ml. Maximum amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal exhale• Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV): ≈ 1200 ml. Maximum amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal inhale
  19. 19. Respiratory Volumes• Tidal Volume (TV): ≈ 500 ml. Amount of air inhaled and exhaled during normal quiet breathing• Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV): ≈ 3100 ml. Maximum amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal exhale• Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV): ≈ 1200 ml. Maximum amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal inhale• Residual Volume (RV): ≈ 1200 ml. Amount of air that remains in the lungs after maximum expiration
  20. 20. Respiratory Capacities• Vital capacity = TV + IRV + ERV. Maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after a maximum inspiration
  21. 21. Respiratory Capacities• Vital capacity = TV + IRV + ERV. Maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after a maximum inspiration• Total lung capacity = TV + IRV + ERV + RV. Amount of air in the lungs after a maximum inspiration
  22. 22. Output (pg 11)• Label diagram

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