Mechanics of ventilation

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  • 1. Notes: Mechanics of Ventilation (pg 8)
  • 2. Notes: Mechanics of Ventilation (pg 8)• Pulmonary ventilation = Breathing. Inspiration (Inhale) and Expiration (Exhale)
  • 3. Notes: Mechanics of Ventilation (pg 8)• Pulmonary ventilation = Breathing. Inspiration (Inhale) and Expiration (Exhale)• You do not suck air into your lungs. Instead, you increase the volume of your chest cavity, which decreases the pressure, and air flows in on its own
  • 4. Boyle’s Law• When the volume of a gas increases, the pressure decreases. When volume decreases, pressure increases.
  • 5. Boyle’s Law• When the volume of a gas increases, the pressure decreases. When volume decreases, pressure increases.• P1V1 = P2V2
  • 6. Boyle’s Law• When the volume of a gas increases, the pressure decreases. When volume decreases, pressure increases.• P1V1 = P2V2• Air naturally flows from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure
  • 7. Output (pg 9)Practice Problem (write out the problem)• A gas has a volume of 3.0 liters and a pressure of 2.0 atm. The volume is increased to 4.0 liters. What is the new pressure?• Show your work, including writing out the formula!
  • 8. Muscles involved in Ventilation (pg 8)• Diaphragm = Dome-shaped muscular “shelf” separating the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. Lungs rest on it.
  • 9. Muscles involved in Ventilation (pg 8)• Diaphragm = Dome-shaped muscular “shelf” separating the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. Lungs rest on it.• Intercostal muscles = Located between the ribs
  • 10. Inspiration• Diaphragm contracts, causing it to drop and flatten. This increases the volume of the thoracic cavity.
  • 11. Inspiration• Diaphragm contracts, causing it to drop and flatten. This increases the volume of the thoracic cavity.• During labored breathing, the external intercostal muscles also contract, elevating the ribs and further increasing the thoracic volume.
  • 12. Inspiration• Diaphragm contracts, causing it to drop and flatten. This increases the volume of the thoracic cavity.• During labored breathing, the external intercostal muscles also contract, elevating the ribs and further increasing the thoracic volume.• As the volume increases, the pressure inside the lungs decreases and air flows in.
  • 13. Expiration• Diaphragm relaxes and rises, decreasing thoracic volume
  • 14. Expiration• Diaphragm relaxes and rises, decreasing thoracic volume• In forceful expiration, internal intercostal muscles contract, pulling the ribs down
  • 15. Expiration• Diaphragm relaxes and rises, decreasing thoracic volume• In forceful expiration, internal intercostal muscles contract, pulling the ribs down• As volume decreases, pressure increases and air flows out of the lungs
  • 16. Output (pg 9)• Sketch two upper bodies and label one “inspiration” and the other “expiration”• Draw in the relative positions of the diaphragm,intercostal muscles, and ribs
  • 17. Activity (record results on page 9)• Work in your lab table groups• Sculpt a diaphragm and place in on your skeleton. Put it in the expiration position.• Measure the volume of the thoracic cavity in cubic centimeters• Move the diaphragm into the inspiration position. Measure the new volume.• Assuming that the pressure inside the lungs during expiration is 1 atm, calculate the pressure during inspiration