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Joints and fractures

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  • 1. Joints and Fractures (pg 10)
  • 2. Types of Joints 1. Synarthroses: Immovable joints. Example: sutures of the skull
  • 3. Types of Joints 1. Synarthroses: Immovable joints. Example: sutures of the skull 2. Amphiarthroses: Slightly movable joints. Bones are connected by cartilage. Examples: Ribs and sternum, symphysis pubis, vertebrae
  • 4. Types of Joints 1. Synarthroses: Immovable joints. Example: sutures of the skull 2. Amphiarthroses: Slightly movable joints. Bones are connected by cartilage. Examples: Ribs and sternum, symphysis pubis, vertebrae 3. Diarthroses: Freely movable joints. Most common type
  • 5. Diarthroses (Synovial) Joints • Ends of bones are covered with articular cartilage
  • 6. Diarthroses (Synovial) Joints • Ends of bones are covered with articular cartilage • Bones are separated by a space called the synovial cavity, which is filled with synovial fluid for lubrication
  • 7. Diarthroses (Synovial) Joints • Ends of bones are covered with articular cartilage • Bones are separated by a space called the synovial cavity, which is filled with synovial fluid for lubrication • Some diarthroses have a cartilage pad called a meniscus and/or fluid-filled sacs between the skin and the bone called bursae
  • 8. Ligaments of the knee Knee is the largest and most complex joint in the body
  • 9. Ligaments of the knee Knee is the largest and most complex joint in the body 1. Patellar ligament: extends from patella to tibia. Strengthens anterior surface
  • 10. Ligaments of the knee Knee is the largest and most complex joint in the body 1. Patellar ligament: extends from patella to tibia. Strengthens anterior surface 2. Popliteal ligaments: strengthen posterior surface
  • 11. Ligaments of the knee Knee is the largest and most complex joint in the body 1. Patellar ligament: extends from patella to tibia. Strengthens anterior surface 2. Popliteal ligaments: strengthen posterior surface 3. Medial and lateral collateral ligaments (MCL and LCL): Strengthen the sides of the joint
  • 12. Ligaments of the knee Knee is the largest and most complex joint in the body 1. Patellar ligament: extends from patella to tibia. Strengthens anterior surface 2. Popliteal ligaments: strengthen posterior surface 3. Medial and lateral collateral ligaments (MCL and LCL): Strengthen the sides of the joint 4. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL): Extends from tibia to femur. Prevents anterior sliding of the tibia. 70% of serious knee injuries involve the ACL
  • 13. Ligaments of the knee Knee is the largest and most complex joint in the body 1. Patellar ligament: extends from patella to tibia. Strengthens anterior surface 2. Popliteal ligaments: strengthen posterior surface 3. Medial and lateral collateral ligaments (MCL and LCL): Strengthen the sides of the joint 4. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL): Extends from tibia to femur. Prevents anterior sliding of the tibia. 70% of serious knee injuries involve the ACL 5. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL): Prevents posterior sliding of tibia
  • 14. Fractures Bone fracture = any break in the continuity of a bone
  • 15. Fractures Bone fracture = any break in the continuity of a bone 1. Partial: Incomplete break, such as a crack
  • 16. Fractures Bone fracture = any break in the continuity of a bone 1. Partial: Incomplete break, such as a crack 2. Complete: The bone is broken into two or more pieces
  • 17. Fractures Bone fracture = any break in the continuity of a bone 1. Partial: Incomplete break, such as a crack 2. Complete: The bone is broken into two or more pieces 3. Closed (simple): Fractured bone does not break through the skin
  • 18. Fractures Bone fracture = any break in the continuity of a bone 1. Partial: Incomplete break, such as a crack 2. Complete: The bone is broken into two or more pieces 3. Closed (simple): Fractured bone does not break through the skin 4. Open (compound): Broken ends of bone protrude through the skin. Increased chance of infection