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Constraints

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  • 1. Notes: Constraints (pg 14)
  • 2. Notes: Constraints (pg 14) • Why aren’t airplanes made entirely of “black box” material?
  • 3. Cost constraints • In Biology, “cost” means energy cost • Example: cardiac muscle can contract forever without getting tired. Why aren’t all our muscles made of cardiac muscle?
  • 4. Cost constraints • In Biology, cost means energy cost • Example: cardiac muscle can contract forever without getting tired. Why aren’t all our muscles made of cardiac muscle? Regular muscle doesn’t NEED to contract all the time, the heart does Cardiac muscle contains lots of mitochondria and uses a huge amount of glucose.
  • 5. Evolutionary constraints • Evolution works by modifying existing forms, not designing new organisms (like remodeling a house instead of building a new one)
  • 6. Evolutionary constraints • Evolution works by modifying existing forms, not designing new organisms (like remodeling a house instead of building a new one) • Example: Ancestors: 4 legs Humans: 2 legs. Spine and pelvis were modified. As a result, humans have back problems and difficult childbirth