What is a RAFT?
How can using the
RAFT Strategy enhance
assignments to be
specific, well focused
Role Audience Format Topic (R.A.F.T.) is a
writing strategy that helps students
understand a topic from different
The R.A.F.T. strategy provides a focused
writing assignment and encourages students
to analyze the content while assuming
different roles and addressing different
The strategy motivates students by allowing
for choice and involving them in the topic in
a personal way.
RAFT assignments encourage students to
uncover their own voices and formats for
presenting their ideas about content
information they are studying.
developed in 1982 by Dorothy Vandevanter
Student will be able to read a prompt or
writing assignment and determine:
his/her role as the writer
who the audience is
what the format of the assignment should be
the specific topic on which he/she must
Written Visual Oral Kinesthetic
Role of the Writer: Who are you as the
writer? A movie star? The President? A plant?
Audience: To whom are you writing? A
senator? Yourself? A company?
Format: In what format are you writing? A
diary entry? A newspaper? A love letter?
Topic: What are you writing about?
1) students are asked to think and write from
a real world person's perspective, and they
are asked to shape their ideas to appeal to
an audience outside the classroom;
2) because they are considering perspective
as they go through the writing process,
students are being asked to think at a much
deeper level of Bloom's Taxonomy.
Choose a book or topic (T) and identify the
essential purpose of the reading or lesson.
How will writing help meet that goal?
• Example: After reading Song of the Trees by
Mildred Taylor the students will understand
the racial relationships between whites and
African Americans in Mississippi during the
2. Identify a number of role(s) (R) the
students can assume as they write about the
• Example: Students can choose to write
about the story as viewed by Cassie, Big Ma,
Mr. Andersen or Papa.
3. Decide who the audience (A) will be and
what format (F) the writing will follow.
• Example: The audience may be a child in
the future, a judge, an ex-slave, a new
The format may be a diary, a news release,
an affidavit, etc.
4. After the students have read the
assignment, have them choose from the
R.A.F.T. options. Writing can be done
individually or you may group like roles