By Leah Angott, Christina Bitens,
   Sean Haywood, Jeff Hutchison,
                   Paula Stewart
This can be hard to achieve

    ◦ Usually it’s like a game of telephone, where the
      message gets completely turned ...
Video on Effective Communication (it’s a little

    long, watch the first 3 minutes and you’ll
    catch the drift of wh...
Ask person to repeat what they said.

    Check to see if the listener understands what

    you are saying.
    Summari...
Make eye contact

    ◦ Helpful to the person if they have a hearing
      problem (they know you are talking to them and...
Can be verbal or non-verbal

    The listener shows/tells this to the person

    talking to them.
    ◦ This lets the s...
Words that have different meanings to

    different people.
    ◦ Examples:
      Phat and Fat- sound the same, but Pha...
Listening is more than just hearing what
 someone is saying. You must focus on the
speaker and give them full attention, s...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yzvG9Dl3fuE&feature=rela
ted
Pay attention to the speaker.

    Be attentive to both words and body

    language.
    Hear the person out

    Make...
Hearing

    Understanding

    Remembering

    Interpreting

    Evaluating

    Responding

Listening makes everyone in the workplace
understand what exactly is going on and how
     they are supposed to get things...
The Hospitality Industry is worldwide, therefore
communication between different cultures is always
present, whether betwe...
YouTube
Understanding the appropriate conversational distance is
important to know when doing business internationally, bu...
In most of Southern Europe, Latin America, Africa, and the Middle East, time

    is more laidback idea. In these countri...
YouTube
    YouTube
As seen above, giving flowers to a woman can mean something entirely different than
   you meant it to...
Shaking Hands —
         In the United States, a firm grip has long been an indicator of strength of character, but
  styl...
China : Even casual wear is somewhat conservative. Revealing clothing in a business environment may be offensive.

    En...
Verbal Communication
 Spoken words
     -conversations, meetings, lectures
    Written words

   -
memos, handbooks, new...
Having vocal variety makes it easier for listeners to
 pay attention and to distinguish main points from
 supporting detai...
Pronunciation is often interpreted as

    clues to a person’s educational
    background or where a person originated
  ...
Fluency refers to a person’s ability to speak
   
       articulately without excessive use of fillers such
       as “um...
Silence can be an effective communication tool.





What can silence be use for?
 To enhance messages
 To draw listene...
An organization can be perceived as a

    complex message- processing system in
    which messages are constantly flowin...
The formal communication network is a firmly structured chain of command, with messages

    traveling in three direction...
The term grapevine is derived from the days of the Civil War. In those

    days the army communicated using telegraph wi...
eHow Careers and Work Editor. quot;How to

    Reduce Communication Errors.”
    Berger, F., & Brownell, J. (2009).

   ...
Communication in Organizations
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Communication in Organizations

  1. 1. By Leah Angott, Christina Bitens, Sean Haywood, Jeff Hutchison, Paula Stewart
  2. 2. This can be hard to achieve  ◦ Usually it’s like a game of telephone, where the message gets completely turned around by the time it gets to the correct person. Usually the listener hears what they want to  hear and not what the person is trying to tell them. ◦ The listener goes in to the situation with their mind made up on what they will hear and how they will react to it.
  3. 3. Video on Effective Communication (it’s a little  long, watch the first 3 minutes and you’ll catch the drift of what he’s saying- it’s pretty amusing too). ◦ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wBquuR1AbwI  This relates to how a person hears what they want and not what is being told to them because of their frame of mind going into the situation. The best way to communicate effectively and  have no confusion is to: ◦ Avoid slang, be brief, be precise, and know when to repeat yourself.
  4. 4. Ask person to repeat what they said.  Check to see if the listener understands what  you are saying. Summarize the main points.  ◦ Do this instead of going on a long winded explanation. Talk in a language the listener would  understand. ◦ Don’t use medical terminology when talking to someone who isn’t a doctor.
  5. 5. Make eye contact  ◦ Helpful to the person if they have a hearing problem (they know you are talking to them and not someone else). Determine if the person can speak freely  ◦ This is especially important if you are talking about a private matter and don’t want to be overheard. Use culturally sensitive language  ◦ You could unintentionally offend someone who has an accent by asking them about it.
  6. 6. Can be verbal or non-verbal  The listener shows/tells this to the person  talking to them. ◦ This lets the speaker know if the listener understands what was said and heard.  From this, if the listener didn’t understand everything correctly, the speaker can try to explain what they are saying in a better, more understandable way. When giving feedback, try to make it positive  instead of saying something like: ◦ “Your paper was horrible.”  Instead you could say: “Your paper was good, but you might want to work on this, this, and this.”  This way you aren’t hurting their feelings, but are still helping them to correct it.
  7. 7. Words that have different meanings to  different people. ◦ Examples:  Phat and Fat- sound the same, but Phat is another word for awesome, while Fat means overweight.  Check out this link to find some better definitions of the word Phat (to see how it doesn’t relate at all to Fat).  http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=phaT  Cool- has two different definitions  It can mean cold: “This drink is nice and cool.”  It can also mean awesome: “Man, that guy is so cool.”
  8. 8. Listening is more than just hearing what someone is saying. You must focus on the speaker and give them full attention, so that you have an easier time remembering it.
  9. 9. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yzvG9Dl3fuE&feature=rela ted
  10. 10. Pay attention to the speaker.  Be attentive to both words and body  language. Hear the person out  Make eye contact and make sure the speaker  knows your speaking.
  11. 11. Hearing  Understanding  Remembering  Interpreting  Evaluating  Responding 
  12. 12. Listening makes everyone in the workplace understand what exactly is going on and how they are supposed to get things done. It allows the leader or manager to get points across a lot easier when everyone is just listening to them and not just “hearing” them.
  13. 13. The Hospitality Industry is worldwide, therefore communication between different cultures is always present, whether between staff and guests, or staff and staff. Communication embodies many techniques, and each should be used differently depending on the culture.
  14. 14. YouTube Understanding the appropriate conversational distance is important to know when doing business internationally, but can also prevent awkwardness and discomfort with international guests.  In North America and Northern Europe, businesspeople usually stand close enough to shake hands, about 2.5-3 feet apart. In parts of Southern Europe and most of Latin America, the distance tends to be closer. In the Middle East, it is closer yet, sometimes under one foot.  In other parts of the world, conversational space is larger than is customary in the U.S. Some Asians prefer a larger distance than North Americans, because people who bow need at least three feet between them to avoid knocking heads. In Asia, North Americans can be perceived as getting too close.  North Americans, Northern Europeans, Asians favor little, if any, physical contact. Mediterranean, Arab, and Latin cultures prefer much contact between people.
  15. 15. In most of Southern Europe, Latin America, Africa, and the Middle East, time  is more laidback idea. In these countries, it's fine if a person is on time, but it's also fine if a person is late. To them, life is complex, and many things happen. In contrast, time is money in the United States and most of Northern Europe.  When someone is late, they have wasted your time, which is a serious insult. In Germany, the Netherlands, Finland, and Japan, you'd better be there  early, because every minute counts. Norway, Austria, Belgium, France, and much of Asia consider you to be on  time if you arrive less than a half-hour late. Spain, Portugal, Italy, and most of Latin America practice moderate  punctuality and allow someone to arrive an hour late. In the Middle East and Africa, punctuality is not traditionally valued. In such  places, people could show up hours late (or not at all) without conveying an insult. Keep In Mind!! Calendars around the world are not the same  Weeks and months do not always mean the same as they do in Western  culture Western culture writes the date different than other cultures.  Holy Days and Holidays are different in many parts of the world! 
  16. 16. YouTube YouTube As seen above, giving flowers to a woman can mean something entirely different than you meant it to, and finishing your plate, as is custom in the United States, is not customary in Asian culture. Eye Contact— In the United States, direct eye contact is considered a sign of honesty and reliability. Shifting one’s gaze away, or to the floor indicates a lack of attention, or worse, deceit. However, in Latin America, intense eye contact between men can be considered challenging and aggressive. Depending upon the situation, subordinates may not always look superiors in the eye for a protracted period of time. If a Hispanic looks away when being questioned, he or she is probably being respectful, rather than hiding something. Extended eye contact between the sexes—in a purely business setting—is common in the United States, but can be interpreted as an overture for more intimate communications in many Latin and Mediterranean countries. Smiles— “You’re never fully dressed without a smile.” While a smile is generally part of an introduction, smiles aren’t always the universal signal for friendship. Although smiles invite communication in much of the Western Hemisphere, in the Far East, a smile can be used to cover up embarrassment, dismay or fury. If you’re negotiating with Japanese, Chinese or Indonesian prospects, a smile is used to communicate far more than pleasure. It’s a form of polite behavior, which masks anything from sincere enjoyment to menace. In the French frame of reference, a person who grins too much can be regarded as simple. And in Germany, smiles are often reserved for family, friends and social situations, but not displayed freely in business settings.
  17. 17. Shaking Hands — In the United States, a firm grip has long been an indicator of strength of character, but styles of handclasps can definitely vary around the world. In Asia, a weak, extended grip is normal and doesn’t say anything about negotiating strength. If you’re in a Muslim or Orthodox Jewish environment, you must be highly sensitive to touching the opposite gender. Devout orthodox Muslims and Jews must not touch women, so follow your hosts’ lead. Bowing — The tradition of bowing is so complex that Asians attend classes in the proper protocol of the bow. It’s unlikely that any international visitor would be able to appropriately execute a formal bow (to the right depth, with the correct duration, etc). However, a polite attempt to bow in greeting will be appreciated by your Asian hosts. If you’re the subordinate in the relationship, bow lower. Be sure to learn an appropriate verbal greeting to express with the bow. Kissing — Most initial business meetings around the world don’t involve a kiss. But after establishing a relationship with clients in the Middle East, Latin America, many parts of the Mediterranean and parts of Africa, there may be times when your clients/friends initiate a brief kiss on either cheek, accompanied by a handshake, hug or pat on the back. If you’re in Brazil, this custom may occur between the sexes after only one or two meetings. In the Middle East, the same custom is likely to happen between males, followed by an extended period in close proximity. Whatever you do, never back away from a kiss. You don’t want to undermine your new business relationship by being coy about your personal space.
  18. 18. China : Even casual wear is somewhat conservative. Revealing clothing in a business environment may be offensive.  England : Men’s shirts should not have pockets, but if they do, they should remain empty. Do not cram them full of  pens, calculators, etc. Argentina : Your entire wardrobe will be scrutinized. Argentines are very aware of European styles. Provocative  clothing is rarely seen at work. Argentines tend toward the modest and subdued. Also, no matter how attractive native costumes appear to you, do not adopt them. Indian clothing is for Indians. The same goes for gaucho outfits. Egypt, Saudi Arabia and much of the Middle East : Despite the heat, most of the body must remain covered in  Muslim countries. While western businessmen and women do not have to adopt Islamic wardrobes, they are expected to wear very modest clothing in public. Necklines should be high and the sleeves should come at least to the elbows. For women, hemlines should be well below the knee, if not ankle-length. The overall effect should be one of baggy concealment; a full-length outfit that is tight or revealing is not acceptable. Japan : Never appear casual at work. Slip-on shoes are best, since you remove them frequently. Tall women should  not wear extremely high heels to avoid towering over their Japanese counterparts. India : Remember that Hindus revere cows and may consider leather products offensive (especially in temples).  France : The inventors of haute couture put a premium on style. Even low-paid, entry-level executives buy the best  clothes they can afford. Frenchwomen are famous for their hard-edged, feminine chic. In some countries, men remove their jackets at work (i.e., the Netherlands) while in other countries (Germany and  France), executives usually do not loosen their ties or take off their jackets while at the office. Never be the first to shed your jacket Colors are important Colors can have significant meaning around the world. Some hues and patterns can set the wrong tone in certain  locations : Red can be a color of mourning in parts of Africa, and a red suit on a woman can imply she’s a tart.  Yellow is associated with illness in South Korea, and certain shades of yellow are reserved for the royal families to  wear in Malaysia. Military clothing can be illegal to wear or bring into the country in some places (Guatemala).  Particular stripes on ties can be associated with schools in the United Kingdom.  White is a color of mourning in much of Asia.  Green is associated with Islam in the Middle East.  Green hats (like the famous “John Deere” signature caps) carry the connotation that you are a cuckold (your wife is  cheating on you) in certain parts of Asia. Don’t hand them out at exhibitions or conferences! In general, bright, vivid colors are not a good choice for business apparel in any country. Your garments form a  large part of people’s first impressions of you, so investing in suitable attire will allow your clients to spend more time listening to what you say, rather than looking at what you wear.
  19. 19. Verbal Communication  Spoken words -conversations, meetings, lectures Written words  - memos, handbooks, newsletters, emails, sign s Mediated communication  -with the use of technology
  20. 20. Having vocal variety makes it easier for listeners to pay attention and to distinguish main points from supporting details in a message. Inflection: The change in pitch when someone speaks. Monotone- the absence of inflection *video clip (begin at 0:45 sec) Rate: Speaking too slowly or quickly can make communication difficult. Rate helps express emotion. Volume: The volume at which we speak helps to emphasize a part of a message.
  21. 21. Pronunciation is often interpreted as  clues to a person’s educational background or where a person originated from. By modifying a dialect, one can communicate more effectively to people. Avoid using mispronounced words such as “dese,” “dat,” “nothin.”
  22. 22. Fluency refers to a person’s ability to speak  articulately without excessive use of fillers such as “um,” “ya know,” “ah,” “like,” and long pauses. Although having a lack of fluency makes someone seem less refined… Fluent speakers are impressive. They show confidence & the (End at 0:48 sec) ability to focus on their ideas and express them powerfully. ... it should not be seen as a sign of poor intelligence.
  23. 23. Silence can be an effective communication tool.  What can silence be use for?  To enhance messages  To draw listener’s attention to what you will say next  To express astonishment or disgust when giving feedback  To replace the “um”s and “ah”s in your train of thought
  24. 24. An organization can be perceived as a  complex message- processing system in which messages are constantly flowing in all directions. Communication can be transmitted directly  from sender to intended receiver or transmitted indirectly Sometimes it flows through formal channels.  Other times it is transmitted informally.
  25. 25. The formal communication network is a firmly structured chain of command, with messages  traveling in three directions: upward, downward, and horizontally. Messages can travel up the business hierarchy from an hourly employee to the vice  president, this is called Upward communication. Upward Communication ◦ 3 ways to improve upward communication: ◦ 1. Encourage your staff to communicate with you. 2. Respond. 3. Avoid communication barriers. Downward Communication-Messages travel down the hierarchy for example when the vice  president sends a message to all hourly workers to attend a meeting regarding marketing. 4 ways to improve downward communication: ◦ 1. Establish trust. a. Allow your employees to get to know you. b. Be honest. c. Explain why. 2. Use redundancy and multiple channels. 3. Make the message important to the employee. 4. Don't overload. Horizontal communication occurs when one member of the organization communicates with a  coworker of equal position. Horizontal Communication ◦ 2 ways to help develop horizontal communication ◦ 1. Reward good horizontal communication. 2. Make sure interdepartmental competition is constructive.
  26. 26. The term grapevine is derived from the days of the Civil War. In those  days the army communicated using telegraph wires strung from tree to tree in such a way that they resembled a grapevine. Messages that traveled through these wires often got mixed up. Hence, the term grapevine came to be associated with garbled messages. Nowadays, the grapevine in modern organizations can be surprisingly  accurate. This is not to say that it is entirely dependable as a source of information, but it is more dependable than most people assume. When the topics discussed are non- controversial, the grapevine is  correct 75 percent of the time. The grapevine is also the fastest disseminator of information in the  organization. The grapevine is generally a positive aspect of an organization; it is the  rumors that are negative. The manager, instead of trying to eliminate the grapevine, should try to  eliminate rumor. ◦ The best way to reduce rumor is to increase downward communication.
  27. 27. eHow Careers and Work Editor. quot;How to  Reduce Communication Errors.” Berger, F., & Brownell, J. (2009).  Organizational Behavior for The Hospitality Industry. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
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