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(First) American State Litter Scorecard (2008)
 

(First) American State Litter Scorecard (2008)

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Rank/Reviews Public Spaces/Property Litter Removal and Overall Environmental Quality (cleanliness) of the 50 U.S. States, year 2008. Mississippi was #1 WORST state; Vermont, Minnesota were tied for #1 ...

Rank/Reviews Public Spaces/Property Litter Removal and Overall Environmental Quality (cleanliness) of the 50 U.S. States, year 2008. Mississippi was #1 WORST state; Vermont, Minnesota were tied for #1 BEST state. Created: March 2008 and presented at ASPA conference, Dallas, TX.

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  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
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  • TIPS for EFFECTIVE REPORTING of offensive/problem litter/debris:

    a) Use internet Government Website, ’Contact Us’ icon or send to topmost specified individual--NO phone calls! (unless the government to be contacted has NO Internet contact icon/address)

    b) Describe location CLEARLY--use landmarks, mile markers, etc.

    c) Mention state law/county-city ordinance is still in effect, REQUIRES timely removal of litter/debris from ALL public properties. ALL 50 States have these laws and mandates!!!

    d) At the end of email: write this line--’This email communication IS public record.’

    e) Resend email after two weeks if reported site not cleaned up

    Please email me: literscorecard@gmail.com if any further problems with a wayward jurisdiction.
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  • Please visit 2011 American Litter Scorecard:

    Top BEST State: Washington State.

    Bottom WORST State: Kentucky.

    see http://www.slideshare.net/stevewonder2/the-2011-american-state-litter-scorecard
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    (First) American State Litter Scorecard (2008) (First) American State Litter Scorecard (2008) Presentation Transcript

    • The American State Litter Scorecard : A Sociopolitical Inquiry into Littering And The Response Role of 50 American States Steve Spacek, M.P.A. 2008 ASPA National Conference The Fairmont Hotel—Dallas, Texas Sunday March 9, 2008
    • Welcome to Texas! Ranks 38th (Objectively/Subjectively) in U.S. Litter Removal Effectiveness Quality
    • Source Reduction-Environmental Justice--Maintaining a Clean Environment
      • Environmental Justice : Condition exists when environmental-related investments, benefits, natural resources, information access, decision-making and justice are equally distributed and enjoyed by ALL, without discrimination, at ANY jurisdictional level.**
      • Source Reduction : Physical or Legal endeavor in diminishing the amount of litter/garbage generated or thrown away by individuals*
      • Maintaining a Clean Environment : Litter Eradication/Abatement is a source reduction physical activity that provides a healthy, enjoyable surface environment for humans and wildlife .
      • *Littering Throwing of small amounts of trash/garbage in small, individualized portions. Dumping is littering on a larger, voluminous scale. Both are environmental crimes creating dangers to public health, safety and welfare.
      • **(condensed definition) Central European Workshop on Environmental Justice, Budapest, December 2003.
    • Environmental Injustice : Litter/Source Reduction Activities Amongst 50 States are Unequal!!
      • Poor Litter Eradication has led to damaged scenic environments, breeding grounds for diseases,
      • insects and rodents, and wildlife devastation. In 2005, 1,122 Americans died as result of traffic
      • accidents caused by littering/movable debris along roadways.*
      • States Are Lacking in efforts to collect uniform litter abatement data for research comparisons (i.e.
      • volumes of waste collected by mileage/location, budget funding sources/expenditures; number of
      • required annual/seasonal cleanups; performance standard surveys; persons cited/prosecuted for
      • infractions).
      • Particular States are in regions “increasingly plagued with [appalling health] symptoms produced by
      • [tolerated] cultural and political maladies, leaving their air, water and land conditions ‘seriously
      • contaminated’”**
      • Some Expanses of America continue to suffer perpetual environmental, as well as social and
      • economic discrimination, leading to lower life expectancies than other regions.***
      • * 2005 Traffic Facts , NHTSA. **Bullard; Cochran, A., U. S. Department of Justice- Law. ** Bullard; Cochran A.; Sullivan.
    • HUMANS Cause Littering: Factors Crafting An Unique Environmental Injustice
      • Reasons to Litter : Litter Begets Litter; Apathy; Inconvenience; Community Attitudes; Entitlement; Class Alienation, Greed/Ignorance; Governmental Neglect.*
      • State/Regional Environmental Values : Early settlers (especially Scotch- Irish) perpetuate Judeo-Christian beliefs: Bend nature to meet man’s needs. New England, Mid-Atlantic, Great Lakes, Pacific Coast: Strongest Environmental Support. Deep South, western Gulf Coast, Rocky Mountains, Dakotas: Weakest . **
      • State/Regional Political Culture : Moralist/Individualism (Northeast, Midwest, Far West): significant public intervention to meet citizen interests. Traditionalism (The South): little or no government intrusion--“Non-reception in fostering ecological improvements.”***
      • Corporatist-influenced Government : Government Decision-Making “mirrors whims of business.” Companies,“outsiders” buy natural resources at bargain prices. Extracting, low-tech jobs viewed as enabling economic development. Environmental risks were unknown, disregarded--traded for broadened tax base.****
      • Perception by Law Enforcement, Prosecutors, Courts: “Not a real crime.” “Simply not enforced, or with lowest Priority” Be witnessed for written citation. Limited convictions: “Insufficient evidence or inability’ to recognize evidence.” NO incarcerations!*****
      • Persons of Low-Income, Color (Blacks, Hispanics): : Environmentalism NOT a Priority. Slow to challenge violators. “Mistrust [of government and corporations]…engendered amongst these groups.” “Resented” environmental reforms as misdirecting tax dollars to improve social, economic plights. Movement: “Too white,” “mainstream.”******
      • *Bisbort; City Image,; McAndrews; Ockels; U.S. Justice-National Law. ** Hays; White in McAndrew. ***Elazar; Neal; Vig and Kraft.
      • **** Bullard; Camacho; Clarke and Cortner; Feagin and Feagin in Bullard; Miller J.; Miller V.;Sussman, Daynes and West; *****Bisbort; National Center, “Review Laws;” US. Justice- Environmental ; U.S. Justice-National Laws.****** Bullard; Camacho ; Vig and Kraft; Will in Bullard.
    • Previous Research: DO MESS WITH IT; Take Pride In Florida
      • Focus: Impact of most salient sociopolitical factors upon littering for all 50 States, with attention on 15 Southernmost states (Florida paper was state-specific).
      • Used multiple regression .
      • Results 1) Regression models disproved proposal: State Livability Scores , State Waste Disposal Pricings; State Per Person Waste Disposals make ample, state-oriented outcomes approximating a litter measure.
      • 2) States possessing Southern-style Traditionalistic Culture or ample impoverished citizens negatively affect their overall livability/quality of life scores.
      • 3) Ample Impoverished Citizens drive below national average waste disposal prices; Beverage Deposits influence above national average disposal prices.
    • The American Litter Scorecard
      • First Attempt to rank 50 states for public property environmental outcomes through overall litter removal efforts.
      • Cumulative Objective, Subjective Measures chosen for noteworthiness: Objective : Standing determined using reliable, limited, up-to-date scientific data. Subjective : Standing determined using previous emotive , public-sector supplementary scored evaluations .
    • Methodology
      • Unit of Analysis : 50 American states excluding District of Columbia and Territories.
      • Data Source providers: Governments ; Academicians ; Trade Organizations; Think Tanks; Associations — regularly used in scholarly research.
      • Scoring Rubric created for each objective, subjective factor. Calculated, aggregated by state. Hierarchal rankings derived from computations.
    • Objective
      • State Livability Scores
      • States with Litter Taxation
      • States with Beverage Container Laws
      • States with Comprehensive Recycling Laws
      • States with Anti-Litter Slogans
      • Per Capita State/Local Environmental Spending
      • State Per Capita Daily Waste Disposals
      • Percent Litter/Debris-related Fatal Car Accidents
      • Sources: Congressional; Grassy ; Morgan and Morgan; National Solid in Strong; Shireman, McFaddden, Newdorf and Noga; U.S. Transportation; Waste .
    • Subjective
      • State Political Culture Scale Score
      • State Public Corruption Conviction Rate
      • State Government Performance Grade
      • State Highway Performance Score
      • Sources: Corporate; Haregen and Karanam; Koven and Mausloff; Pew.
    • Rankings
      • OBJECTIVE SUBJECTIVE
      • 1 Vermont 1 Minnesota
      • 2 New Jersey 2 Iowa
      • 3 Connecticut 3 New Hampshire
      • 4 Minnesota 4 Vermont
      • 5 Wyoming 5 Connecticut
      • 6 Massachusetts 6 Oregon
      • 7 Maine 7 Utah
      • 8 Maryland 8 Nebraska
      • 9 New Hampshire 9 Washington
      • 10 Virginia 10 Virginia
      • 11 Iowa 11 Maine
      • 12 Kansas 12 Wyoming
      • 13 Delaware 13 Maryland
      • 14 South Dakota 14 New Jersey
      • 15 Nebraska 15 Massachusetts
      • 16 Washington 16 Colorado
      • 17 Idaho 17 Kansas
      • 18 Rhode Island 18 Idaho
      • 19 New York 19 Wisconsin
      • 20 Utah 20 Delaware
      • 21 Wisconsin 21 South Dakota
      • 22 Alaska 22 North Dakota
      • 23 Hawaii 23 Rhode Island
      • 24 Oregon 24 New York
      • 25 Ohio 25 Missouri
      • 26 North Dakota 26 Indiana
      • 27 Missouri 27 Ohio
      • 28 Colorado 28 Michigan
      • 29 Illinois 29 Arizona
      • 30 Indiana 30 Pennsylvania
      • 31 California 31 Hawaii
      • 32 Pennsylvania 32 Illinois
      • 33 Florida 33 Montana
      • 34 Georgia 34 Alaska
      • 35 Michigan 35 Florida
      • 36 Montana 36 California
      • 37 Arizona 37 Georgia
      • 38 Texas 38 Texas
      • 39 Oklahoma 39 Oklahoma
      • 40 North Carolina 40 New Mexico
      • 41 Tennessee 41 North Carolina
      • 42 Kentucky 42 Kentucky
      • 43 Alabama 43 Tennessee
      • 44 South Carolina 44 Nevada
      • 45 Louisiana 45 West Virginia
      • 46 New Mexico 46 South Carolina
      • 47 Arkansas 47 Arkansas
      • 48 West Virginia 48 Alabama
      • 49 Nevada 49 Louisiana
      • 50 Mississippi 50 Mississippi
    • Best
      • Ten Best Objective Programs Ten Best Subjective Programs
      • 20.5 Vermont 26.0 Minnesota
      • 19.5 New Jersey 20.5 Iowa
      • 19.0 Connecticut 20.5 New Hampshire
      • 19.0 Minnesota 20.5 Vermont
      • 17.5 Wyoming 19.0 Connecticut
      • 17.0 Massachusetts 18.5 Oregon
      • 16.5 Maryland 18.5 Utah
      • 16.5 Maine 18.0 Nebraska
      • 16.5 New Hampshire 18.0 Virginia
      • 16.0 Virginia 18.0 Washington
      • Features: Non-Sunbelt states with above normal livability scores, lowest per person waste disposals, average per capita state/local environmental expenditures, and little or no public corruption convictions.
    • Worst
      • Ten Worst Objective Programs Ten Worst Subjective Programs
      • -1.5 Mississippi -10.5 Mississippi
      • 0 Nevada -3.5 Louisiana
      • 1.0 Arkansas -3.0 Alabama
      • 1.0 West Virginia -2.0 Arkansas
      • 1.5 Louisiana 1.0 Nevada
      • 1.5 New Mexico 1.0 West Virginia
      • 2.0 Alabama 1.5 Kentucky
      • 2.0 South Carolina 1.5 Tennessee
      • 2.5 Kentucky 2.5 North Carolina
      • 3.5 Tennessee 2.5 New Mexico
      • Features: Mostly southern Sunbelt states with excessive Traditionalistic political cultures, low livability marks, anti-litter slogans, and above normal, litter-related fatal crashes.
    • Conclusion/Recommendations
      • Littering: Remains an Injustice!
      • Numerous States- -“In the rear” in providing uniform, categorical litter abatement data for scientific analysis; many are not performing mandated duties paid with the people’s money. Citizens are losing lives.
      • Polls : American Majority believes public sector “Not working enough to protect the environment…Economic growth should be sacrificed to do so.”
      • The Scorecard : NOT a definitive causation marker. Contributing inquiry into a poorly probed matter.