NLC 2014, EDINBURGH
Assessing the value of design narratives, patterns and
scenarios in scaffolding co-design processes in...
Challenges: technology enhanced learning
within the institution
• Excellence in learning and teaching
• Meeting the expect...
Eriksen, T. H. (2001). Tyranny of the Moment: Fast and Slow Time in the
Information Age. Pluto Press.
The turn of the mill...
On the ground
• Pervasive technological environment -
Embedded, Embodied and Everyday (Hine, 2013)
– Electronic Assessment...
Tipping point;
Chasm; 16% rule.
Rogers, E. (2003).Diffusion of Innovations (Fifth Edition). Free Press: New York.
Driving ...
Technology Acceptance Model
Rienties, B., Giesbers, S., Lygo-Baker, S., Ma, S., & Rees, R. (2014). Why some teachers easil...
First order barriers: [incremental, institutional]
extrinsic obstacles to implementation such as access to
equipment, tech...
Third order barrier: design thinking
“Be able to reorganise and create learning activities
and materials that are adapted ...
Learning Design
The deliberate creative practice of
devising new practices, plans of
activity, resources and tools aimed a...
• Context:
– Heterogeneous communities of educational practitioners.
– Distributed expertise.
– Tacit intuitive knowledge....
SNaP building blocks
Design
Narratives
Design
Scenarios
Design Patterns
• Design Narratives: accounts of critical events from a
personal, phenomenological perspective that focus
on design in the...
Participatory pattern
workshops (PPW)
Mor, Y.; Warburton, S. & Winters, N. (2012), 'Participatory Pattern
Workshops: A Met...
+ve = range of application
Domains of activity have included: feedback and assessment
processes; virtual worlds for teachi...
Learning Design
Studio (LDS)
Mor, Y. & Mogilevsky, O. (2013). 'The Learning Design Studio: Collaborative
Design Inquiry as...
+ve = adaptability
Approach has been trialled in four different course settings:
from blended to fully online.
-ve = scaff...
Going forward
Encapsulated in two complementary
MA Modules in Higher Education
1. Learning Design Studio
• Participants work in groups
o...
Goldilocks Principle
Katz and Rath (1985)
Towards a ‘Design Based Practice’?
- Empowered
- Critical and reflective
- Dynamic and iterative: responsive to
change
- S...
Design Patterns for
MOOCs
http://www.surrey.ac.uk/tel/projects/mooc/
MA Higher Education
University of Surrey
http://www.s...
Assessing the value of design narratives, patterns and scenarios
Assessing the value of design narratives, patterns and scenarios
Assessing the value of design narratives, patterns and scenarios
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Assessing the value of design narratives, patterns and scenarios

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A presentation given at the Networked Learning Conference, Edinburgh 2014. With details of the new MA in Higher Education at the University of Surrey. And publication of a new book on Design Patterns for Technology Enhanced Learning.

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  • Tyranny of the Moment: Fast and Slow Time in the Information Age. Thomas HyllandEriksen: Pluto Press 2001The turn of the millennium is characterized by exponential growth in everything related to communication - from the internet and email to air traffic. 'The Tyranny of the Moment' deals with some of the most perplexing paradoxes of this new information age. Who would have expected that apparently time-saving technology results in time being scarcer than ever? And has this seemingly limitless access to information led to confusion rather than enlightenment? Thomas Eriksen argues that slow time - private periods where we are able to think and correspond coherently without interuption - is now one of the most precious resources we have, and it is becoming a major political issue. Since we are now theoretically 'online' 24 hours a day, we must fight for the right to be unavailable - the right to live and think more slowly. It is not only that working hours have become longer - Eriksen also shows how the logic of this new information technology has, in the space of just a few years, permeated every area of our lives. This is equally true for those living in poorer parts of the globe usually depicted as outside the reaches of the information age, as well as those in the West. Exploring phenomena such as the world wide web, wap telephones, multi-channel television and email, 'The Tyranny of the Moment' examines this new, non-linear and fragmented way of communicating to reveal the effect it has on working conditions in the new economy, changes in family life and, ultimately, personal identity. Eriksen argues that a culture lacking a sense of its past, and therefore of its future, is effectively static. Although solutions are suggested, he demonstrates that there is no easy way out.
  • The first is that the Internet is embedded. Miller and Slater, for example, went to Trinidad to see how the Internet made sense in this setting. They showed that it meant different things to different people, that it showed ways of realizing particular cultural interests and biases. They studied an Internet that gained meaning through being embedded in a specific culture. This is just one possible aspect of embedding that an ethnographer might be interested in: there are many different notions of embedding within the media, social networks, situations like family life, how organisations and institutions make the Internet their own.The second is that the Internet is embodied. Ethnographers should try to interrogate not just where we are in our heads, but also the material circumstances that are shaping the experience of the Internet and also the emotions that ensue. One way to do this is to play off the idea of autoethnography. Autoethnography is often underemphasised because we’re so busy trying to legitimize what constitutes ethnography but it can be a valuable way of showing how bodies inhabit the ethnographic experience and thinking about the specificity of a particular person’s engagement with the Internet.The third concept is that the Internet is everyday. A lot of Internet use today has become quite unremarkable – we use it as a way of making sense of what we do. It has become an infrastructure to do other things and so the sociology of infrastructure is useful for thinking about what invisible work is going on when we take things for granted. A useful strategy here is to take the familiar things about the Internet and make them strange again, to get at thinking how everyday practice shapes certain things as sensible and marginalises others. At the same time, we also have to deal with a topical, hyped, newsworthy Internet – an Internet that the press are continually making strange when they blame it for changing our lives etc. The challenge is to remain symmetrical about these two concepts. Both are constructions; our challenge is to understand how others work with those constructions.
  • History and Orientation: Diffusion research goes one step further than two-step flow theory. The original diffusion research was done as early as 1903 by the French sociologist Gabriel Tarde who plotted the original S-shaped diffusion curve. Tardes' 1903 S-shaped curve is of current importance because "most innovations have an S-shaped rate of adoption" (Rogers, 1995).
  • •Rienties, B., Giesbers, S., Lygo-Baker, S., Ma, S., & Rees, R. (2014). Why some teachers easily learn to use a new Virtual Learning Environment: a Technology Acceptance perspective. Interactive Learning Environments. DOI: 10.1080/10494820.2014.881394.After a decade of virtual learning environments (VLEs) in higher education, many teachers still use only a minimum of its affordances. This study looked at how academic staff interacted with a new and unknown VLE in order to understand how technology acceptance and support materials influence (perceived and actual) task performance. In an experimental design, 36 participants were split into a control (online help) and experimental (instructor video) condition and completed five common teaching tasks in a new VLE. In contrast to most technology acceptance model research, this study found that perceived usefulness of the VLE was not related to (perceived) task performance. Perceived ease of use was related to intentions and actual behaviour in the VLE. Furthermore, no significant difference was found between the two conditions, although the experimental condition led to a (marginal) increase in time to complete the tasks.
  • Barriers to implementation:Give more moneyProvide more pedagogical technology training
  • if you wish to understand why professions develop as they do, study their nurseries, in this case,their forms of professional preparation. When you do, you will generally detect the characteristic forms of teaching and learning that I have come to call signature pedagogies . These are types of teaching that organize the fundamental ways in which future practitioners are educated for their new professions. In these signature pedagogies, the novices are instructed in critical aspects of the three fundamental dimensions of professional work to think, to perform , and to act with integrity.
  • Goldilocks and TPACK: Is the Construct ‘Just Right?’Journal of Research on Technology in Education; Volume 46, Issue 2, 2013DOI: 10.1080/15391523.2013.10782615Laurie Brantley-Diasa & Peggy A. Ertmer; pages 103-128AbstractIn the education community, the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework has become a popular construct for examining the types of teacher knowledge needed to achieve technology integration. In accordance with Katz and Raths’s ’Goldilocks Principle’ (cited in Kagan, 1990), TPACK, with its seven knowledge domains, may be too large (vague or ambiguous) of a construct to enable reasonable application. In this article, we provide a critical review of the TPACK construct and address the development, verification, usefulness, application, and appropriateness of TPACK as a way to explain the teacher cognition needed for effective technology integration. We make suggestions for returning to a simpler conceptualization to refocus our efforts on what teachers need to achieve meaningful technology-enabled learning.
  • AbstractEvidence-based practice (EBP) has emerged as an alternative to traditional social work practice and has ignited a new round in the decades-old debate about the relationship between knowledge and practice in the field. This article identifies several limitations inherent in the EBP perspective and argues that it would be unfortunate if EBP were to become the new paradigm for social work practice and education. It also presents a new perspective for social work called design-based practice (DBP), which is based on the work of Herbert Simon and Mary Parker Follett, and compares this perspective with EBP and authority-based practice. DBP rests on the belief that knowledge is derived from experience and interactions between practitioners and clients and that professional practice should be primarily concerned with "how things ought to be."
  • Assessing the value of design narratives, patterns and scenarios

    1. 1. NLC 2014, EDINBURGH Assessing the value of design narratives, patterns and scenarios in scaffolding co-design processes in the domain of technology enhanced learning Steven Warburton and Yishay Mor
    2. 2. Challenges: technology enhanced learning within the institution • Excellence in learning and teaching • Meeting the expectations of working in a digital age • Growth – the virtual versus physical estate • Efficiency gains • Transformative potential
    3. 3. Eriksen, T. H. (2001). Tyranny of the Moment: Fast and Slow Time in the Information Age. Pluto Press. The turn of the millennium is characterized by exponential growth in everything related to communication - from the internet and email to air traffic … All against a background of constant change
    4. 4. On the ground • Pervasive technological environment - Embedded, Embodied and Everyday (Hine, 2013) – Electronic Assessment Management (EAM) – Networked learning environments • Power shifts - reflected in: – consumerist discourse – high stakes evaluations (MEQs; NSS) – competiveness • Academic identity, research <-> teaching • Digital divisions
    5. 5. Tipping point; Chasm; 16% rule. Rogers, E. (2003).Diffusion of Innovations (Fifth Edition). Free Press: New York. Driving change: feels like an uphill struggle?
    6. 6. Technology Acceptance Model Rienties, B., Giesbers, S., Lygo-Baker, S., Ma, S., & Rees, R. (2014). Why some teachers easily learn to use a new Virtual Learning Environment: a Technology Acceptance perspective. Bagozzi, R. P.; Davis, F. D.; Warshaw, P. R. (1992), "Development and test of a theory of technological learning and usage.", Human Relations, 45(7): 660–686
    7. 7. First order barriers: [incremental, institutional] extrinsic obstacles to implementation such as access to equipment, technical training, and support. Second order barriers: [fundamental, personal] intrinsic obstacles rooted in underlying beliefs about the student teacher role and persistence in traditional practices of teaching and assessment. Ertmer (1999): Technology integration in education Ertmer, P. (1999). Addressing first and second order barriers to change: strategies for technology integration ETR&D, Vol. 47: 47-61.
    8. 8. Third order barrier: design thinking “Be able to reorganise and create learning activities and materials that are adapted to the instructional needs of different contexts and learners.” Tsai and Chai (2012):
    9. 9. Learning Design The deliberate creative practice of devising new practices, plans of activity, resources and tools aimed at achieving particular educational aims in a given situation.
    10. 10. • Context: – Heterogeneous communities of educational practitioners. – Distributed expertise. – Tacit intuitive knowledge. – Implicit assumptions. • Aims: – Enable critical collaborative reflection on design experiences – Enable small scale risk taking – Opportunities for co-design – Engage with discipline (signature pedagogies, Schulman, 2005)
    11. 11. SNaP building blocks Design Narratives Design Scenarios Design Patterns
    12. 12. • Design Narratives: accounts of critical events from a personal, phenomenological perspective that focus on design in the sense of problem solving: – describing a problem in the chosen domain, the actions taken to resolve it and their unfolding effects. • Design Patterns: originated as a design language within architecture (Alexander et al, 1977). They take the form of a solution to a problem in a given context. • Design scenarios: describe novel future problems. They offer a means for validating the design claims emerging from design narratives and encapsulated in design patterns.
    13. 13. Participatory pattern workshops (PPW) Mor, Y.; Warburton, S. & Winters, N. (2012), 'Participatory Pattern Workshops: A Methodology for Open Learning Design Inquiry', Research in Learning Technology 20
    14. 14. +ve = range of application Domains of activity have included: feedback and assessment processes; virtual worlds for teaching; managing digital identity; Web 2.0 tools; computer supported collaboration. -ve = testing solutions to novel problems The application of design patterns to the production of concrete design solutions (scenarios) has been consistently difficult to achieve.
    15. 15. Learning Design Studio (LDS) Mor, Y. & Mogilevsky, O. (2013). 'The Learning Design Studio: Collaborative Design Inquiry as Teachers' Professional Development', Research in Learning Technology 21.
    16. 16. +ve = adaptability Approach has been trialled in four different course settings: from blended to fully online. -ve = scaffolding Participants are presented with an unfamiliar pedagogical process. The nature of the LDS methodology foregrounds innovation and questioning of a problem space. Getting lost can be a part of the journey.
    17. 17. Going forward
    18. 18. Encapsulated in two complementary MA Modules in Higher Education 1. Learning Design Studio • Participants work in groups on projects as described in the LDS methodology and prototype solutions in their particular domain of inquiry. • Introduce the methodology itself, through review papers and example projects. • Course ends with an open “crit”, where students present their projects. 2. Pattern Design Workshop • Participants use narratives, patterns and scenarios to collaboratively reflect on their practical experiences. • They can accomplish this either by reference to the LDS module or to other modules in the programme.
    19. 19. Goldilocks Principle Katz and Rath (1985)
    20. 20. Towards a ‘Design Based Practice’? - Empowered - Critical and reflective - Dynamic and iterative: responsive to change - Sensitive to disciplinary context - Shared
    21. 21. Design Patterns for MOOCs http://www.surrey.ac.uk/tel/projects/mooc/ MA Higher Education University of Surrey http://www.surrey.ac.uk/dhe/programmes/ma/

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