Chapters 1 & 2 Notes Early Humans & Early Civilizations
Anthropology Archeology History Geography (Paleontology) Study of man Study of the Study of how Study of theWhat is made objects remains of people lived in earth, people it? (artifacts) humans/plants the past and resources Who? Anthropologist/ Archeologist Historian Geographer Paleontologist What Physical Written Where they things - Bones and fossils documents - people livework on? artifacts artifacts and why Learn about Learn how Learn about the Learn how changes in and why Why? physical aspects events places effect society over of living things happened people time
STONE AGE• Invention of tools• Mastery of fire• Development of language• Paleolithic Age:2.5 Mil-8000 B.C. (Ice Age)• Neolithic: 8000-3000 B.C.
The First Humans • There is evidence that humans lived on earth more than two million years ago • Period known as pre-history - before the invention of writing • ca. 5 - 6 thousand years ago humans invented writing - historians indicate this as the beginning of “history”Ch 1
The Earliest Humans were Hunter GathersDuring the Paleolithic (“old stone”) Age• Migrated to follow food• Had a small, portable tool kit• Little specialization• Men and women were equal• Ruled by custom & tradition
Very Important Change• Paleolithic Age • Neolithic Age • Domestication of• Hunting of animals animals and gathering of food • + Growing of crops on a regular basis • = SYSTEMATIC AGRICULTURE
Humans during the Neolithic Age• 1) Learned how to domesticate animals (keep them in one place) = They didn’t have to follow their food around• 2) SO, now humans can stay in one place = These early settlements were called Neolithic Farming villages -> Jericho in Palestine -> Catal Huyuk in present day Turkey was the largest
Changes in the roles of men and women• Men farmed and herded – -> Became dominant, a tradition that continued for thousands of years• Women stayed at home and cared for the children
Effects of the Neolithic Revolution• People acquire food on a regular basis• Not everyone has to farm• So the non-farmers can work in trades and crafts – Improved tools & weapons using copper and bronze • Bronze Age from 3000 BC to 1200BC
More Effects of the Neolithic Revolution• Non-farmers could specialize – Each person focused on one job instead of trying to do it all• Now people traded goods and services -> a more advanced economy
The Early HumansNeolithic villages eventually became fortifiedcities - this is the beginning of civilizationThe word civilization comes from the LatinCivitas which means city.Civilizations are complex cultures in whichmany people share common elements
Six Characteristics of a Civilization1. Government -> to organize human activity; usually a monarch2. Cities -> usually developed in river valleys3. Writing -> the 1st works of literature were created
Six Characteristics of a Civilization, part two• Religion – to explain the forces of nature and people’s existence• Social Structure – based on economic power or wealth• Artistic Activity – temples, paintings, sculptures
Wandering tribes settled in river valleys crop cultivation/animal domestication built villages/towns Towns became fortified cities - Gov., religious, warrior classes strong king emerged - public works - empire building Strong king united cities under his rule and established an empire King dies - empire declines Ruling dynasty established Inter-city wars until another strong Empire expands and flourishes king emerges to take control Empire invaded/threatened Empire defeatedInvaders/threat defeated empire remains intact Empire assimilates the Empire’s civilization destroyed invaders into their civilization replaced by the invaders’
Mesopotamia• Mesopotamia – area of fertile land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in present day Iraq. This area was also known as Sumer.• Irrigation and drainage ditches were built to control flooding so Sumerians could farm on a regular basis
Sumerians• The Sumerians built the first cities in Mesopotamia by 3000 B.C.• The Sumerians were polytheistic – they believed in many gods• Each Sumerian city had a temple dedicated to the chief god or goddess of the city. They believed that the gods ruled the cities, making the state a theocracy.
Sumerian Writing• Sumerians created the oldest writing system, cuneiform, which dates from about 3000 B.C.• Men in the upper classes who knew how to write held the most important positions in society.• Writing allowed society to keep records and to pass along knowledge.
The Epic of Gilgamesh• The Epic of Gilgamesh is a Mesopotamian epic poem that follows Gilgamesh (a half man-half god king) in his failed search for immortality.• The moral is that everlasting life is only for the gods.
Akkadians & Babylonians• The Akkadians lived north of the Sumerians.• In 2340 B.C. the Akkadians under Sargon took over the Sumerians and united the area of Sumer under his rule. This was the first empire• By 1792, Babylon took control of both the Akkadian Empire and the Sumerian Empire.
Hammurabi• In 1792 BC, Hammurabi united the area under a new empire – Babylonia• He developed a Law code which controlled all aspects of life – including women and slaves, who were unknown in previous laws
The Code of Hammurabi• Was based on the principle of retaliation (“an eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth”)• Also held public officials accountable, provided consumer protection laws, and laws for marriages and families.* * This is the basis for our laws today! **
EGYPT• The Nile River is the longest river in the world and runs through northeastern Africa. It’s yearly flooding left rich, fertile soil enabling farmers to grow a surplus of food.• Unlike Mesopotamia, Egypt had natural barriers that protected it from invasion: deserts, Red Sea, rapids on the Nile, Mediterranean Sea
Egyptian History – Old Kingdom (2700 to 2200 B.C)In 3100 B.C. King Menes united Upper and Lower Egypt into one dynasty - Prosperous and United – Ruled by Egyptian monarchs, or Pharaohs – Build large tombs and pyramids• Decline: power struggles, crop failures, high cost of building pyramids
Middle Kingdom (2200 to 1652 B.C.) Chaos for 150 years The a period of expansion Drained land for farming• Decline: Hittites invaded and conquered
New Kingdom (1567 to 1085 B.C.) The Hyksos ruled the Egyptians for 100 years, but taught the Egyptians how to use bronze and their military skills The Egyptians then used what they learned to drive the Hyksos out The New Kingdom was the most powerful state in SW Asia and created a huge empire Egypt eventually fell apart and became a province of Rome
Role of Women and families in Egypt• Husband was master in the house, but women were well respected• Women kept their own property and inheritance, even in marriage• Some women operated businesses• Upper class women could become priestesses and pharaohs
PHOENICIANS• 1200 – 500 BC• Lived in present day Palestine• Mix of Babylonian and Egyptian culture• Known for their trading empire and language
ISRAELITES• Lived south of the Phoenicians• Their religion was Judaism, which was based on the Hebrew Bible (Christian Old Testament)• When Moses led his people out of Egypt, God made a contract with them.• God promised to guide them if they obeyed His law stated in the Ten Commandments.
Assyrian Empire• (700 B.C. to 612 B.C.)• Conquered the Babylonians• Good communication system - an early pony express• Large, effective armies with Iron weapons• Used terror to conquer others
Chaldeans• Defeated Assyria, conquered the Kingdom of Judah, and destroyed Jerusalem in 586 B.C.• The Chaldeans were conquered by the Persians in 539 B.C.
The Persians• Persians - 539 BCE - large empire from the Indus river to Libyan desert• Ruled fairly - allowed local rulers, customs and religions to remain• Copied the Gov. system, roads, postal system from the Assyrians• Monotheistic religion - Zoroaster religious reformer - taught life is struggle between good and evil - worst crime was lying• Conquered by Alexander the Great 331 BCE