World War One. Chapter Six. European countries are industrialized and wealthy. They can support large armies and navies. They are also in a race for over seas colonies. Nationalism is at an all time high. European’s mistrust and hate each other a lot.
England and Germany engaged in a race to build battleships.
This arms race cost millions and created fear.
France wanted revenge because of their defeat by the Germans in 1871.
They teamed up with Russia and England. The “Triple Entente.”
Germany’s home boys were Austria-Hungry, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire or the “Central Alliance.”
Nationalism growing in Europe.
People wanted “Self-Determination.”
Austro-Hungarians ruled over the Balkans and Serbia.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand and wife assassinated by Serb nationalist.
Europe Goes To War!
Austria-Hungry wanted to crush Serbia over the assassination.
Russia was on Serbia’s side,
Germany was on Austria-Hungary side.
France had Russia’s back.
England will also fight if Belgium/France is attacked.
What a mess!
Germany’s War Problem.
They have a two front war. BAD!
France on the west and Russia in the east.
The Von Sheffloean Plan.
Attack France first with 90 percent of your troops. Russia second.
Von Sheffoean Plan Fails.
French/British dig in and begin trench warfare, German do the same.
Artillery, Maxim machine guns, and barbed wire make attacking suicidal.
In 1916 alone, the French army lost a million men to frontal attacks.
Americans Take Sides.
In general most Americans sides with the British
German used poor PROPAGANDA techniques.
British cut German under ocean cable to rest of world.
The Brits control way news!
Britain was our BIGGEST trading partner.
U.S. and Britain had/have strong cultural ties.
American banks loan Britain two billion dollars to fight the war.
America Moves Towards War.
Germans forced to use submarines to sink merchant ships.
Many Americans killed by German attacks.
Subs sink Lusitania(1915) and Sussex(1916)
Sussex Pledge made by Germany.
U.S. Declares War-1917.
Germany drops Sussex Pledge and resumes unrestricted U-Boat warfare.
Last straw for American people and President Wilson.
War is declared!
The Home Front.
Building up the military:
Two million volunteered.
400,000 African Americans served.
Thousands of women served for first time.
War Industries Board-WIB.
Food and fuel.
Paying for the war:
Liberty Bonds-Victory Bonds.
Mobilizing The Workforce.
Women went to work.
African-American enter into factory work.
Mexican-Americans into southwest.
Ensuring Public Support.
Committee on Public Information:
Helped “Sell” the war.
Recruited ad executives, commercial artists, entertainers, and Hollywood.
“Four Minute Men.”
Civil Liberties Curtailed.
Fear of espionage/Climate of suspicion.
Sedition Act of 1918. No public expression against war!
Supreme Court limits free speech:
Schenck v. U.S. 1919.
“ Clear and Present Danger” and “Can’t yell fire in a crowded theater, when no fire exists.”
New war technology:
Machine Gun, Long range artillery, submarines(U-Boats), Poison Gas, and airplanes.
Americans And Victory!
Winning the war at sea-Convoy system.
Russian Revolution-1917. Lenin signs treaty with Germany.
One front war!
Germany MUST launch a major offensive against France before American troops arrive.
German Offensive of 1918.
Gets within 40 miles of Paris, but then falters.
Allies launch massive counter attack.
Germany is out of men, supplies, weapons and hope.
War ends after armistice signed. 1918.
A Flawed Peace.
Wilson’s Fourteen Points for peace:
Freedom of seas.
Open diplomacy-No secrets!
League Of Nations.
Treaty Of Versailles-1919.
Britain and France wanted to punish Germany for the war.
$33 billion war reparations.
Stripped of its armed forces.
Austria-Hungry spilt into two countries.
Loss of Ruhr Valley-1923.
League Of Nations.
L.O.N. is rejected by U.S. Senate.
No “Entangling” alliances.
U.S. bitter about W.W.I.
Wilson suffered a stroke and made impossible for him to campaign for it.
The Treaty Of Versailles, the rejection of Wilson’s 14 pts and L.O.N. laid the continuation of W.W.I later.
High inflation leads to strikes.
Boston Police Strike. Calvin Coolage:
“ there is no right to strike the public safety.”
350,000 steel workers went on strike.
The Red Scare.
Wave of strikes cause some to think that communists were at work.
Immigrants were thought to bring in communists ideas.
Labor leaders were suspected too.
“ Workers Of The World Unite!”
Palmer Raids-1919 and 1920.
Palmer raids was a massive effort which didn’t turn up a plot to over throw the government.
Palmer faded away.
End Of Progressivism-1920.
Warren G. Harding won the presidency by calling for a return to “Normalcy.”