Mobilizing For War! Chapter 12. Convert the economy from to a full time war machine. This would be a war of industrial production. No major consumer goods would be produced until AFTER the war was over! Cost-Plus incentives administrated by the Reconstruction Finance Corp.
Tanks Replace Cars.
Auto industry made tanks, jeeps, 2.5 ton trucks, and Half-Tracks.
They also made planes, artillery, rifles, and helmets,
Auto industry nearly made 1/3 of all materials for the war.
Most major manufactures produced war goods. Singer sewing machine made rifles, e.t.c.
Building Liberty Ships.
Henry Kaiser made thousands of cargo ships.
They were prefabricated like a mobile home.
The parts were then wielded together instead of riveted.
Ships made on an “assembly” line.
Germany and Japan did not use mass production methods.
They hand built their tanks and planes.
The U.S. made fifty thousand tanks during WWII. Germany made 13,000.
The U.S. made 50,000 thousand bombers, three time what Japan and Germany made combined.
War Production Board-1942.
Set priorities and production goals for industry.
Control distribution of raw materials and supplies.
W.P.B. supervised over 185 billion in war materials.
Creating An Army.
Selective Service Act-1940.
Army was segregated. African-Americans NOT allowed in combat until last two years of war.
Pittsburgh Courier promoted the “Double V.”
Victory over Hitler’s racism and racism in America after the war.
James G. Thompson.
African-Americans In Combat.
99th Pursuit Squadron.
“Tuskegee Airmen. Red tailed P-47’s and P-51’s.
After 200 missions to protect bombers, not one bomber loss!
President Truman fully integrate the military in 1948.
Woman Join the Military.
First time women allowed to enlist.
They did many non combat jobs.
Ferry planes, provide medical care, clerical work, and many other jobs.
This freed up men for the front lines.
Rosy the Riveter.
Millions of women took jobs in factories for the first time.
They built the tanks, planes, weapons, and provided the production of war materials.
This will permanently change the face of the future work force.
Americans Go To War…UNPREPARED!
Most of the early soldiers were under trained.
The military leaders were unaware of Axis strength and ability.
MUCH of the U.S. equipment was obsolete.
In 1940 Portugal had a bigger army than the U.S.
In the early part of the war, many Americans died because the U.S. had a lack of leadership.
Fall of the Philippines.
Chester Nimitz was the Admiral of the Pacific fleet.
Douglas MacArthur was the top army General.
He was in command of the Philippines when it fell to the Japanese.
Plan Orange failed.
Bataan Death March.
78,000 U.S. were forced to march 65 miles to prison camps.
Thousands died. Many were wounded, sick, and starving when the march began.
They were allowed no water/food.
Those who fell down or behind were bayoneted.
The Japanese didn’t want to waste a bullet on prisoners.
For months after Pearl Harbor there was bad news and worse news.
Roosevelt wanted to strike Japan in some way to raise American spirits.
How could this be done?
Aircraft carrier and land bombers/B-25’s.
Japanese Freak out!
Doolittle Raid embarrasses Japanese military.
They had promised the Emperor, a living god, that the Japanese homeland would NEVER be attacked.
A Roosevelt propaganda stunt provokes the Japanese to overreact.
Battle of Coral Sea-April 1942. Five months after 12-07-41.
The Japanese began to suffer from”Victory Disease.”
Too much success, too soon.(Big Heads!)
They continued to plan and execute missions as if the U.S were still in a coma.
Battle of Coral Sea Continued…
The U.S. Navy had broken a lot of the Japanese Naval code.
Not only was the U.S. not in a coma, but we were reading a lot of their mail.
We knew they were going to attack New Guinea and when.
Results of the Battle of Coral Sea?
Nimitiz sent two carriers, Yorktown and Lexington.
Japanese navy had three carriers.
U.S. sunk one Japanese carrier.
Japan sunk the Yorktown and damaged the Lexington badly.
Coral sea continued…
U.S. couldn’t afford to lose even ONE carrier, BUT the Japanese were stopped for the first time!
First naval battle that neither saw each other. Total aircraft battle, no cannons.
Battle of Midway. June 1942.
Why attack Midway Island?
“Plug” the hole so Japan couldn’t bombed again.
Have a land base to attack Hawaii by bombers.
Lure last of American carriers(3) out to fight and be sunk.
Broken Naval Code…
The three American carriers caught four Japanese carriers off Midway.
All four Japanese carriers were sunk.
U.S. Navy lost the Yorktown.
A great American victory, BUT the U.S. didn’t have a clue as to how badly it had damaged Japan’s ability to wage war.
Guadalcanal. Aug. 1942.
U.S. Navy discovers that Japan is building airstrip on Guadalcanal.
This threatens to cut off/isolate Australia from U.S.
Australia could fall to Japan.
U.S. sends in green marines to take airstrip.
Marines land. NO troops to defend island.
Construction workers flee into jungle.
Why no troops?
Japan didn’t think U.S. capable of any land attack.
Battle of Salvo Island.
Three days after the Marines land, the Japanese navy attacks.
This night attack sank three American and one Australian cruiser.
American navy withdrawals leaving the Marines abandoned without supplies or protection from Japanese naval shelling.
Why U.S. Naval Retreat?
America had NO operational aircraft carriers in the Pacific.
All U.S. Carriers had been sunk or badly damaged at Coral Sea, Midway, and other battles. U.S.S. Enterprise only carrier in Pacific, it’s damaged too.
Marines lived on Japanese food left behind.
Japanese military had a confused and chaotic response to American invasion. Army and navy hated each other.
Running The Slot.
Marines got the airfield operational and named it “Henderson” Field after a Marine pilot.
Soon the airfield dominated the air space around the island.
Japan could only land troops in the night-running the slot.
Poor Japanese Tactics.
Massive Banzai charges.
Marines mowed them down with machine gun and artillery fire.
There was a lot of hand to hand combat too.
About 30,000 Japanese solders died in these Banzai attacks, disease, and starvation.
Guadalcanal Secured. Feb. 1943.
U.S. now had a base to start moving against Japanese.
U.S. would now be on the offensive for the rest of war against Japan.
After Midway and Guadalcanal, the Japanese slowly retreated under American attacks.
Turning Back Hitler.1942.
War in North Africa:
Hitler wanted to cut the English off from the Suez Canal.
The loss of the Suez Canal would cut England off from HALF of her empire.
U.S. landed troops in North Africa first.
Battle of the Atlantic.
England could not survive without supplies from the U.S.
At first, German U-Boats were sinking allied ships faster than they could be built.
New technology, airplanes, and the convoy system turned this around.
Plus the Allies had broken Enigma.
World’s first computer.
Operation Barbarossa. Late June 1941.
Hitler invades Soviet Union with 4.5 million Axis troops.
Most top Soviet officers had been killed in “Purges.”
The Soviet Army had obsolete weapons and training.
In the initial attack 240,000 Soviet troops were killed or wounded.
IF Hitler captured Stalingrad Germany would control the Volga River and a major rail road hub.
This would cut the Soviets off from major supplies like oil, industries, and food.
Weather hurt German army.
Soviets got reinforcements from Siberia and then encircled German army.
Germans ran out of supplies.
Hitler ordered “No Retreat!”
160,000 German troops killed, 91,000 captured, only 5,000 prisoners survive war.
Results of Stalingrad Defeat.
Soviets now on the offensive for rest of war.
Soviet industrial might comes onto play, they bury Germany in industrial out put.
They build 50,000 T-34 tanks, considered the BEST all around tank of war.
Germany builds 13,000 of all kinds.
War On the Home Front.
Mexican immigration arrives to to do farm work. Bracero program.
Mexicans become a important and permanent part of the South Western agriculture economy.
“Great Migration” lead to racial tension.
Zoot Suit Riots-More Racial Tension.
2,500 soldiers and sailors attacked Zoot Suitors(Mexican-Americans) who had attacked some sailors.
L.A. police didn’t do any thing to stop it.
J-A were taken front their homes and business and kept at camps in rural areas.
They lost their homes, businesses, and freedom.
German/Italian Americans were left alone.
Korematsu v. U.S.
Court confirmed right of government to confine Japanese-Americans.
The all Japanese 442nd Regimental Combat Team fought in Italy.
“The “Go for broke regiment.”
This unit was the most highly decorated unit of WWII.
Daily Life In Wartime America.
Wage and price controls.
Victory Gardens/Scrap drives.
Striking Back at the Nazi’s
Step up STRATEGIC bombing of Germany.
Progressive destruction of military targets, industrial and economic systems, and morale of German people.
Invasion of Italy. 1943.
Churchill: “Soft underbelly of Axis.”
Turned into a blood bath with 300,000 casualties.
Italians troops gave up, BUT German troops stayed and fought.
War in Italy ended in May of 1945.
Stalin, Churchill, and Roosevelt meet in Iran.
What to do with post war Europe and Germany.
Create international body to keep peace. United Nations.
Invading France-1944. “Operation Overlord.”
Stalin’s long awaited second front against
The allied invasion force included: 1.5 million American soldiers, 12,000 planes, 7,000 ships, and five million tons of supplies.
23 thousand Paratroopers would land behind
German lines the night before.
D DAY. June 6th, 1944. “The Longest Day”
The allies had COMPLETE air superiority. This prevented a German counter attack.
By the end of the day 58,000 American troops had landed with 75,000 British and Canadians.
Beach head est. by end of day.
Driving the Japanese Back-1943.
Island-Hopping in a straight line towards Japan. Air/Naval bases.
Drive toward Philippines. Cut off Japans raw materials, especially OIL!
Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands. 1944 Marines now had amphtracs.
Saipan,Tinian, Guam, and Iwo Jima. 1944.
Bases for B-29’s to bomb Japan.
“I Shall Return.” Philippines.1944.
Drive to cut off oil and other raw materials.
McArthur lands at Leyte Gulf.
Last large scale attempt by Japanese navy to stop America.
Battle of Leyte Gulf destroys much of what’s left of Japanese naval power.
Leyte Gulf continued…
Worlds largest sea battle, ever.
First Japanese use of Kamikaze's.
80,000 Japanese soldiers were killed on land. Less than a 1000 surrendered.
Battle over by March of 1945.
Third Reich Starts to Collapse.
Paris liberated August, 1944. Three month after D-Day.
Three weeks later, Allies within 20 miles of German border.
Allies think that Germany is finished.
Battle of the Bulge. Dec., 1944. Hitler’s last roll of the dice. Allies think German army finished. Hitler mounts a massive offensive through the Ardennes Mountains in middle of winter. Ardennes LIGHTY defended, NO armor. Allies thought this was impossible. Sound familiar?
Hitler’s Goal for Attack?
Antwerp, Belgium. Important sea port.
Capturing Antwerp will cut allies in half.
Hitler thought this would cause a political spilt between England and U.S.
Possible peace treaty with allies.
Battle of Bastogne. Bastogne is a regional hub for roads. German Army must have it to move their heavy tanks and equipment through to Antwerp. Winter is no time for massive tanks to travel off road. American airborne saves the day. “Band of Brothers.” NUTS!
Why Was Attack a High Risk Gamble for Germany?
It would use all of German Army reserves.
Pulled troops/weapons off Eastern Front.
German Army HAD to capture allied fuel to get to Antwerp.
Allied air power.
Eisenhower Welcomed Attack.
Even though allies in retreat at first, it drew out Hitler’s army for destruction.
German army did not capture Bastogne, it SHOULD have fallen, but didn’t.
German army didn’t capture fuel.
After weather cleared, allied air force did destroy German tanks and men.
General Patton counter-attacked within three days. He saw it coming!
V-E Day. May 7th, 1944.
Germany crumbles under intense attack by American/English forces in west and Soviet attacks from east.
Between aerial bombings and massive losses in the fields, Germany can’t continue.
Hitler commits suicide in bunker.
War over in Europe.
Japan is Defeated. Aug. 1945.
Curtis Lemay starts the “Lemay treatment.” March, 1945.
B-29’s use napalm to fire bomb Japanese cities.
The B-29’s use the bases from the “Island-Hopping” campaign.
In one fire bombing raid on Tokyo, 80,000 people killed. Fire storms.
Invasion of Okinawa. April 1945.
This was to be the stepping off point to invade Japan.
12,000 Americans died taking this island.
Many Okinawians committed suicide.
First massive use of Kamikaze attacks on U.S. fleet.
Manhattan Project-Atomic Bomb.
Robert Oppenheimer lead the atom bomb team.
$24 billion in today’s dollars to develop!
It employed over 130,000 employee’s.
The B-29 program cost the same!
U.S. afraid Germany was developing one too.
Decision to Drop the Bomb.Hiroshima
Japan gave no evidence it would surrender without American invasion.
Estimates of 250,000-1million American casualties.
Enola Gay dropped “Little Boy” Aug. 6th 1945.
Between 80,000-120,000 died instantly.
Boxcar dropped “Fat man.”
35,00 to 74,000 died instantly.
Japan surrendered Aug. 15th, 1945.
No need to invade Japan.
Building a New World.
Creation of United Nations.
During and after the War, the U.S. became the sole economic, political, and military “Superpower.”