Principles of
Government
Chapter One
Aristotle and the State
 1. Aristotle was one the first political scientists or
student of government.
 2. Many of the t...
Arisotle
Nation v. State
Nation
 1. Any sizable group
of people who are
united by:
 Race.
 Language.
 Custom.
 Tradition.
 Re...
Four Features of a State
 1. Population.
 2. Territory.
 3. Sovereignty.
 4. Government.
Four Major Purposes of
Government
 1. Maintain social
order.
 2. Provide social
services.
 3. Provide national
security...
Formation of Government
Types:
 1. Unitary system. (France)
 2. Federal System. (U.S.A.)
 3. Confederacy. (Articles of ...
What are Constitutions?
 1. Incomplete guides. (Supreme Court)
 2. Statement of goals. (Preamble)
 3. Framework for gov...
Constitutional Governments v.
Governments with JUST a
Constitution
Constitutional Countries:
 1. Attempts to abide
by the...
Theories of the Origin of the
State
 1. Evolutionary
Theory: Clans
and extended
families.
 2. Force Theory:
Strong armed...
Governing in a Complex
World
Industrialized/Modern
 1. Wealthy/Market
economy.
 2. High tech.
 3. Developed
infrastruct...
North v. South?
 1. Most modern/developed/democratic countries are in
the Northern hemisphere.
 2. Most less developed/d...
Non State International
Groups
 1. Al Qaeda.
 2. Palestinian Liberation Army.
 3. Hamas.
 4. Hezbollah. Terrorists
Types of Governments.
 1. Autocracy: Rule by one.
 2. Oligarchy: Rule by a few.
 3. Democracy: Rule by the many.
 4. 7...
Two Kinds of Democracy:
Direct Democracy
 1. All citizens can
vote on individual
issues.
 2. For example:
California has...
Key Characteristics of
Democracy
1. Individual liberty.
2. Majority rule/Minority rights.
3. Free elections.
4. Compet...
Good Soil of Democracy?
 1. Active citizens: Interested in society/politics.
 2. Healthy/Free market economy.
 3. Wides...
FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS
Rise of towns & money economy in
the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)
FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS
Rise of towns & money economy in
the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)
En...
FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS
View that humanity can &
must reform society since
the Deist god ...
FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS
View that humanity can &
must reform society since
the Deist god ...
FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS
View that humanity can &
must reform society since
the Deist god ...
FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS
View that humanity can &
must reform society since
the Deist god ...
FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS
French philosophers who are
heavily influenced by John Locke:
Vie...
FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS
French philosophers who are
heavily influenced by John Locke:
Vie...
FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS
French philosophers who are
heavily influenced by John Locke:
Vie...
FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS
French philosophers who are
heavily influenced by John Locke:
Vie...
FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS
French philosophers who are
heavily influenced by John Locke:
Vie...
FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS
French philosophers who are
heavily influenced by John Locke:
Vie...
FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS
French philosophers who are
heavily influenced by John Locke:
Vie...
FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS
French philosophers who are
heavily influenced by John Locke:
Vie...
FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS
French philosophers who are
heavily influenced by John Locke:
Vie...
FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS
French philosophers who are
heavily influenced by John Locke:
Vie...
FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS
French philosophers who are
heavily influenced by John Locke:
Vie...
FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS
French philosophers who are
heavily influenced by John Locke:
Vie...
FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS
French philosophers who are
heavily influenced by John Locke:
Vie...
Extra Credit - The Two
Presidents?
The 22nd and 24th presidents of the U.S. had the SAME
mother AND father, BUT were not b...
U.S. government, chapter one. Intro to government.
U.S. government, chapter one. Intro to government.
U.S. government, chapter one. Intro to government.
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Transcript of "U.S. government, chapter one. Intro to government."

  1. 1. Principles of Government Chapter One
  2. 2. Aristotle and the State  1. Aristotle was one the first political scientists or student of government.  2. Many of the terms he used are used still today, such as politics, democracy, and republic.  3. The word state come from the Latin word “stare” or to stand.  4. The U.S. uses the term state differently than the rest of the world.
  3. 3. Arisotle
  4. 4. Nation v. State Nation  1. Any sizable group of people who are united by:  Race.  Language.  Custom.  Tradition.  Religion. State/Nation-State  1. All the features of a NATION, but these people have a defined political boundary line.  2. Nation-State: A homogenous population like Israel.
  5. 5. Four Features of a State  1. Population.  2. Territory.  3. Sovereignty.  4. Government.
  6. 6. Four Major Purposes of Government  1. Maintain social order.  2. Provide social services.  3. Provide national security. 4. Make national economic decisions. Preamble
  7. 7. Formation of Government Types:  1. Unitary system. (France)  2. Federal System. (U.S.A.)  3. Confederacy. (Articles of Confederation)  4. Theocracy. (Iran &Pilgrims?)
  8. 8. What are Constitutions?  1. Incomplete guides. (Supreme Court)  2. Statement of goals. (Preamble)  3. Framework for government.  4. Highest law of the land.
  9. 9. Constitutional Governments v. Governments with JUST a Constitution Constitutional Countries:  1. Attempts to abide by the written word and spirit of the constitution. Government with a constitution:  1.Government does as it pleases, no matter what that constitution says.  2. Most governments are this way.
  10. 10. Theories of the Origin of the State  1. Evolutionary Theory: Clans and extended families.  2. Force Theory: Strong armed dictators.  3. Divine Right Theory: Kings and Queens ruled with Gods will.  4. Social Contract Theory: Modern countries with a democratic government. John Locke.
  11. 11. Governing in a Complex World Industrialized/Modern  1. Wealthy/Market economy.  2. High tech.  3. Developed infrastructure.  4.Educated populace.  5. Healthy foreign trade.  6. Democracy. Non-Industrialized/Less Developed  1. 95% in poverty.  2. Low Tech.  3. Few roads and communications.  4. No public Education.  5. Weak foreign trade/Single item economy.  Dictatorships.
  12. 12. North v. South?  1. Most modern/developed/democratic countries are in the Northern hemisphere.  2. Most less developed/dictatorships are in the Southern hemisphere.  3. Although less developed countries provide much of the developed world with raw materials, MOST of the worlds trade is between the developed world.
  13. 13. Non State International Groups  1. Al Qaeda.  2. Palestinian Liberation Army.  3. Hamas.  4. Hezbollah. Terrorists
  14. 14. Types of Governments.  1. Autocracy: Rule by one.  2. Oligarchy: Rule by a few.  3. Democracy: Rule by the many.  4. 75% of the world’s countries have a form of dictatorship.  Types of Governments.
  15. 15. Two Kinds of Democracy: Direct Democracy  1. All citizens can vote on individual issues.  2. For example: California has the initiative, referendum, and recall system. Indirect/Representative Democracy  1. The people elect a person to office to vote on their behalf.  2. We elect reps to go to Sacramento and Washington D.C.
  16. 16. Key Characteristics of Democracy 1. Individual liberty. 2. Majority rule/Minority rights. 3. Free elections. 4. Competing political parties. 5. Market economy.
  17. 17. Good Soil of Democracy?  1. Active citizens: Interested in society/politics.  2. Healthy/Free market economy.  3. Widespread, public education.  4. Strong civil society: Many voluntary associations.  5. Social consensus: Ballots NOT bullets to solve issues.
  18. 18. FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64)
  19. 19. FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64) Enlightenment & Deism (FC. 99)
  20. 20. FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS View that humanity can & must reform society since the Deist god is detached Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64) Enlightenment & Deism (FC. 99)
  21. 21. FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS View that humanity can & must reform society since the Deist god is detached Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64) Enlightenment & Deism (FC. 99) England’s rising economy (FC. 96C)
  22. 22. FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS View that humanity can & must reform society since the Deist god is detached Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64) Enlightenment & Deism (FC. 99) England’s rising economy (FC. 96C) Rapidly changing society with new wealth, problems, & the need to solve them
  23. 23. FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS View that humanity can & must reform society since the Deist god is detached Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64) Enlightenment & Deism (FC. 99) England’s rising economy (FC. 96C) Rapidly changing society with new wealth, problems, & the need to solve them Search for the ideal soc., or at least ways to remedy society’s ills
  24. 24. FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS French philosophers who are heavily influenced by John Locke: View that humanity can & must reform society since the Deist god is detached Montesquieu who wanted separation of powers in govt. Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64) Enlightenment & Deism (FC. 99) England’s rising economy (FC. 96C) Rapidly changing society with new wealth, problems, & the need to solve them Search for the ideal soc., or at least ways to remedy society’s ills Voltaire who called for more civil & polit. liberties Rousseau who wanted direct small scale democr’s
  25. 25. FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS French philosophers who are heavily influenced by John Locke: View that humanity can & must reform society since the Deist god is detached Montesquieu who wanted separation of powers in govt. Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64) Enlightenment & Deism (FC. 99) England’s rising economy (FC. 96C) Rapidly changing society with new wealth, problems, & the need to solve them Search for the ideal soc., or at least ways to remedy society’s ills Voltaire who called for more civil & polit. liberties Rousseau who wanted direct small scale democr’s
  26. 26. FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS French philosophers who are heavily influenced by John Locke: View that humanity can & must reform society since the Deist god is detached Montesquieu who wanted separation of powers in govt. Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64) Enlightenment & Deism (FC. 99) England’s rising economy (FC. 96C) Rapidly changing society with new wealth, problems, & the need to solve them Search for the ideal soc., or at least ways to remedy society’s ills Voltaire who called for more civil & polit. liberties Rousseau who wanted direct small scale democr’s
  27. 27. FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS French philosophers who are heavily influenced by John Locke: View that humanity can & must reform society since the Deist god is detached Montesquieu who wanted separation of powers in govt. Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64) Enlightenment & Deism (FC. 99) England’s rising economy (FC. 96C) Rapidly changing society with new wealth, problems, & the need to solve them Search for the ideal soc., or at least ways to remedy society’s ills Voltaire who called for more civil & polit. liberties Rousseau who wanted direct small scale democr’s
  28. 28. FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS French philosophers who are heavily influenced by John Locke: View that humanity can & must reform society since the Deist god is detached Montesquieu who wanted separation of powers in govt. Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64) Enlightenment & Deism (FC. 99) England’s rising economy (FC. 96C) Rapidly changing society with new wealth, problems, & the need to solve them Search for the ideal soc., or at least ways to remedy society’s ills Voltaire who called for more civil & polit. liberties Rousseau who wanted direct small scale democr’s French Rev. (FC. 105)
  29. 29. FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS French philosophers who are heavily influenced by John Locke: View that humanity can & must reform society since the Deist god is detached Montesquieu who wanted separation of powers in govt. Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64) Enlightenment & Deism (FC. 99) England’s rising economy (FC. 96C) Rapidly changing society with new wealth, problems, & the need to solve them Search for the ideal soc., or at least ways to remedy society’s ills Voltaire who called for more civil & polit. liberties Rousseau who wanted direct small scale democr’s French Rev. (FC. 105) Adam Smith’s economics: Free trade Econ’s regulate themselves Everyone can profit Free trade People have incentive to work hard & be productive
  30. 30. FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS French philosophers who are heavily influenced by John Locke: View that humanity can & must reform society since the Deist god is detached Montesquieu who wanted separation of powers in govt. Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64) Enlightenment & Deism (FC. 99) England’s rising economy (FC. 96C) Rapidly changing society with new wealth, problems, & the need to solve them Search for the ideal soc., or at least ways to remedy society’s ills Voltaire who called for more civil & polit. liberties Rousseau who wanted direct small scale democr’s French Rev. (FC. 105) Adam Smith’s economics: Free trade Econ’s regulate themselves Everyone can profit Free trade People have incentive to work hard & be productive
  31. 31. FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS French philosophers who are heavily influenced by John Locke: View that humanity can & must reform society since the Deist god is detached Montesquieu who wanted separation of powers in govt. Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64) Enlightenment & Deism (FC. 99) England’s rising economy (FC. 96C) Rapidly changing society with new wealth, problems, & the need to solve them Search for the ideal soc., or at least ways to remedy society’s ills Voltaire who called for more civil & polit. liberties Rousseau who wanted direct small scale democr’s French Rev. (FC. 105) Adam Smith’s economics: Free trade Econ’s regulate themselves Everyone can profit Free trade People have incentive to work hard & be productive
  32. 32. FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS French philosophers who are heavily influenced by John Locke: View that humanity can & must reform society since the Deist god is detached Montesquieu who wanted separation of powers in govt. Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64) Enlightenment & Deism (FC. 99) England’s rising economy (FC. 96C) Rapidly changing society with new wealth, problems, & the need to solve them Search for the ideal soc., or at least ways to remedy society’s ills Voltaire who called for more civil & polit. liberties Rousseau who wanted direct small scale democr’s French Rev. (FC. 105) Adam Smith’s economics: Free trade Econ’s regulate themselves Everyone can profit Free trade People have incentive to work hard & be productive Search for the ideal society, or at least ways to remedy society’s ills
  33. 33. FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS French philosophers who are heavily influenced by John Locke: View that humanity can & must reform society since the Deist god is detached Montesquieu who wanted separation of powers in govt. Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64) Enlightenment & Deism (FC. 99) England’s rising economy (FC. 96C) Rapidly changing society with new wealth, problems, & the need to solve them Search for the ideal soc., or at least ways to remedy society’s ills Voltaire who called for more civil & polit. liberties Rousseau who wanted direct small scale democr’s French Rev. (FC. 105) Adam Smith’s economics: Free trade Econ’s regulate themselves Everyone can profit Free trade People have incentive to work hard & be productive Search for the ideal society, or at least ways to remedy society’s ills New ideas in psychology: Helvetius: We are born blank slates We’re products of our environment Bentham’s Utilitarianism: Providing ideal environment Ideal society
  34. 34. FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS French philosophers who are heavily influenced by John Locke: View that humanity can & must reform society since the Deist god is detached Montesquieu who wanted separation of powers in govt. Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64) Enlightenment & Deism (FC. 99) England’s rising economy (FC. 96C) Rapidly changing society with new wealth, problems, & the need to solve them Search for the ideal soc., or at least ways to remedy society’s ills Voltaire who called for more civil & polit. liberties Rousseau who wanted direct small scale democr’s French Rev. (FC. 105) Adam Smith’s economics: Free trade Econ’s regulate themselves Everyone can profit Free trade People have incentive to work hard & be productive Search for the ideal society, or at least ways to remedy society’s ills New ideas in psychology: Helvetius: We are born blank slates We’re products of our environment Bentham’s Utilitarianism: Providing ideal environment Ideal society
  35. 35. FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS French philosophers who are heavily influenced by John Locke: View that humanity can & must reform society since the Deist god is detached Montesquieu who wanted separation of powers in govt. Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64) Enlightenment & Deism (FC. 99) England’s rising economy (FC. 96C) Rapidly changing society with new wealth, problems, & the need to solve them Search for the ideal soc., or at least ways to remedy society’s ills Voltaire who called for more civil & polit. liberties Rousseau who wanted direct small scale democr’s French Rev. (FC. 105) Adam Smith’s economics: Free trade Econ’s regulate themselves Everyone can profit Free trade People have incentive to work hard & be productive Search for the ideal society, or at least ways to remedy society’s ills New ideas in psychology: Helvetius: We are born blank slates We’re products of our environment Bentham’s Utilitarianism: Providing ideal environment Ideal society
  36. 36. FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS French philosophers who are heavily influenced by John Locke: View that humanity can & must reform society since the Deist god is detached Montesquieu who wanted separation of powers in govt. Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64) Enlightenment & Deism (FC. 99) England’s rising economy (FC. 96C) Rapidly changing society with new wealth, problems, & the need to solve them Search for the ideal soc., or at least ways to remedy society’s ills Voltaire who called for more civil & polit. liberties Rousseau who wanted direct small scale democr’s French Rev. (FC. 105) Adam Smith’s economics: Free trade Econ’s regulate themselves Everyone can profit Free trade People have incentive to work hard & be productive Search for the ideal society, or at least ways to remedy society’s ills New ideas in psychology: Helvetius: We are born blank slates We’re products of our environment Bentham’s Utilitarianism: Providing ideal environment Ideal society Modern theories of behavioral psychology
  37. 37. Extra Credit - The Two Presidents? The 22nd and 24th presidents of the U.S. had the SAME mother AND father, BUT were not birth brothers. How can this be so? FIVE percent extra credit!
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