Political Parties
Political Parties. “A political party is a group of people with broad common interests who organize to win elections, cont...
<ul><ul><li>The two  major parties   in American politics are the Republican and Democratic parties. </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
What Do Parties Do?  <ul><li>— Recruit, choose, and present candidates for public office. </li></ul><ul><li>Inform and Act...
What do parties do…Continued. Act as a Watchdog —Parties that are out of power keep a close eye on the actions of the  par...
Multi Party Systems. <ul><li>Most democracies have a multi party system. </li></ul><ul><li>Many different IDEOLOGIES repre...
Multiparty Systems <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Provides broader representation of the people. </li></ul><ul><li>M...
One Party System. The Party is the government. The policies of the party is also the government policy.  Iraq had the Baat...
One-Party Systems Chapter 5, Section 2 Types of One-Party Systems Example: Mexico. Modified One-Party Systems where one pa...
Two Party System. <ul><li>The U.S. has this system. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s a winner take all election. </li></ul><ul><li>D...
Why a Two-Party System? <ul><li>The Historical Basis.  The nation started out with two-parties: the Federalists and the An...
Reasons For Two Parties continued…. <ul><li>Ideological Consensus.  Most Americans have a general agreement on fundamental...
The Evolution of American Parties. <ul><li>Hamilton and Jefferson, as heads of the Federalist and Anti-Federalist groups r...
Jeffersonian v. Hamiltonian Democracy.  No notes. <ul><li>http://www. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TFJec5pycJo .com/watc...
Federalist Party. <ul><li>This was made up of Hamiltonians. </li></ul><ul><li>This party was centered in the New England s...
Democratic-Republicans. ( Had been the Anti-Federalists .) <ul><li>This is the party of Jefferson. </li></ul><ul><li>This ...
First Party System 1796-1824 Federalists <ul><li>Led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. </li></ul><ul><li>Sought a stro...
Federalists vs.  Jeffersonian Republicans The Comparison Adams’ T.V. Political Ad. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KaPRnsgF...
Round One   View of Constitution <ul><li>Federalists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loose construction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Round Two  View of National Debt <ul><li>Federalists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the national debt to establish credit with ...
Round Three Who they supported and supported them <ul><li>Federalists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro – Business </li></ul></ul>...
Round Four Foreign Policy <ul><li>Federalists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro-British </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted strong s...
Round Five- View of the People <ul><li>Federalists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted political power to rest with the wealthy a...
Round Six – Leaders <ul><li>Federalists </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander Hamilton </li></ul><ul><li>Jeffersonian Republicans </...
Death Of Federalist Party. <ul><li>War Of 1812.  </li></ul><ul><li>New England states tried to negotiate a separate peace ...
 
Mini Review. <ul><li>Federalists </li></ul><ul><li>Led by Alexander Hamilton </li></ul><ul><li>Represented wealthy and upp...
History  of U.S. Parties & Elections 2004 Bush   Kerry  2004     Nader (alone)
“Era Of Good Feelings” 1816-1824. <ul><li>With only one political party, Democratic-Republicans, There was very little pub...
Democratic-Republican Spilt. 1828. <ul><li>Andrew Jackson aligned with the Democrats. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who opposed ...
The Second Party System  (1828–1856) <ul><li>Jackson &  1st mass political party =>  Democratic party </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Second Party System  1828-1856 Democrats <ul><li>Led by Andrew Jackson. </li></ul><ul><li>Used party organization to mobil...
Slavery And Political Parties. <ul><li>By 1850’s The anti slavery factions, Whigs and Republicans, joined together and bec...
Democrats. <ul><li>Pro slavery. </li></ul><ul><li>Anti national bank. </li></ul><ul><li>Anti free land. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Civil War Results. <ul><li>Republican Party in control of country for years, till end of 1920’s. Hamiltonians in control. ...
Great Depression And The Rise Of The Democratic Party. <ul><li>1920’s is height of Republican power. </li></ul><ul><li>Ham...
“ The New Deal.” This was the start of government programs to manage the economy and create social programs.
 
Democratic Era. 1932-1980. <ul><li>Democratic era ends after the 1970’s.  </li></ul><ul><li>Stagflation. </li></ul><ul><li...
Republican Revolution. 1980-2004.  <ul><li>Hamiltonians back in control. </li></ul><ul><li>Arthur Laffer “ Curve.” </li></...
Resurgence Of Democrats. 2004.  <ul><li>Democrats retook control of both Houses of Congress in 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Ira...
 
American Parties: Four Major Eras <ul><li>The Three Historical Eras   </li></ul><ul><li>The Era of the  Democrats , 1800—1...
American Parties: Parties Today <ul><li>The Start of a New Era: The Era of Divided Government </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1968...
2000 Election Map Red-Republican—Blue-Democrat
2004 Election Map
Role Of Third Parties. <ul><li>What is a third party? </li></ul><ul><li>Any political party NOT Democratic OR Republican. ...
Types Of Third Parties: <ul><li>Ideological: Want to change society profoundly. Communist Party. </li></ul><ul><li>Single ...
Minor Parties in the United States Chapter 5, Section 4 Splinter Party Example: “Bull Moose” Progressive Party Economic Pr...
Impact Of Third Parties. <ul><li>If a third party has a popular issue, it will be absorbed by a major party. </li></ul><ul...
Why Minor Parties Are Important <ul><li>Minor parties play several important roles: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Spoiler Role”   </...
Obstacles To Third Parties. <ul><li>Dems and Reps automatically on all states ballots.  </li></ul><ul><li>Third parties mu...
Minor Parties: Third-Partyism <ul><li>Minor parties are not a threat to the two major parties.  </li></ul><ul><li>Only eig...
 
Declining Party Loyalty? <ul><li>The number of independents in the U.S. rose from 19% in 1958 to 37% twenty years later.  ...
Loyalty Trends - Democratic <ul><li>Labor union members tend to vote Democratic </li></ul><ul><li>Democrats have a lead in...
<ul><li>Chambers of Commerce tend to vote Republican </li></ul><ul><li>The West tends to be more Republican </li></ul><ul>...
Objectives: <ul><li>General understanding of party beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>How personality can determine party affiliati...
Democrat or Republican?
<ul><li>Democrats are liberal  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>favor change in society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oppose government ...
<ul><li>Republicans are conservative  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>favor traditional institutions and the status quo </li></ul></...
Brief Overview - Republican <ul><li>The Republican Party was born in the early 1850's by anti-slavery activists and indivi...
Brief Overview - Democratic <ul><li>Often called a “grass roots party” or “party of the people”. </li></ul><ul><li>Localis...
Major Party Distinction  What role should Government play?
<ul><li>Are generally in favor of the Government playing a larger role. </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to favor a more limited Gov...
Characteristics of Each Party <ul><li>Like to brag about being “inclusive rather than exclusive”.  They don’t like to leav...
Characteristics of Each Party <ul><li>Like to brag about being “inclusive rather than exclusive”.  They don’t like to leav...
Wealth Distribution <ul><li>Like to decrease the gap between the rich and the poor </li></ul><ul><li>Believe in “Trickle D...
Abortion <ul><li>Ideologically believe in pro-choice </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to be pro-life </li></ul>Democrats Republicans
Union Labor <ul><li>Tend to be in favor of union collective bargaining </li></ul><ul><li>Like to side towards individual e...
Taxes <ul><li>Generally favor higher taxes on all income levels </li></ul><ul><li>Criticism: Less take home money in peopl...
Social Programs <ul><li>With increase tax revenues, Democrats like to fund social programs as a safety net for disadvantag...
National Defense/Foreign Policy <ul><li>Most would agree that we need an adequate national defense, but we should be caref...
Affirmative Action <ul><li>Tend to be more in favor of affirmative action as they argue that it leads to more equality.  <...
Environment/Safety
Gun Control <ul><li>Democrats:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Favor/Gun control is needed   </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Republicans:  <...
Flag Burning <ul><li>Democrat: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flag burning is political speech and is protected by the Constitution...
War in Iraq <ul><li>Democrats: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Favored at first but now criticize President Bush for messing it up <...
Prayer in School <ul><li>Democrats:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oppose/Violation of the separation between church and state </l...
Gay Rights <ul><li>Democrats:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Favor/Gays rights and marriage are civil rights </li></ul></ul><ul><l...
Military <ul><li>Democrats:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cut military spending; expand veteran’s benefits; act in concert with o...
Death Penalty <ul><li>Democrats:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oppose/It is not a deterrent and innocent people are in jeopardy  ...
Healthcare <ul><li>Democrats:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government should require universal access to healthcare </li></ul></...
Minimum Wage <ul><li>Democrats:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Favor/Increase the minimum wage to help workers </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Gun Control <ul><li>Democrats:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Favor/Gun control is needed   </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Republicans:  <...
Natural Environment <ul><li>Democrats:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong regulations are needed to protect the environment   <...
Popular Democrat Arguments <ul><li>Let public interests take priority over private interests. </li></ul><ul><li>Quote from...
Popular Republican Arguments <ul><li>Adam Smith’s  Wealth of Nations -free markets. </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthy people shoul...
Locations of Party Members <ul><li>There is usually a higher percentage of Democrats living in urban areas and Republicans...
Social Class and Party Affiliation <ul><li>Typically, members of the Republican party tend to be more educated and of a hi...
Social Class and Voter Turnout <ul><li>Social class has proven to be linked to voter turnout.  </li></ul><ul><li>What is t...
Does Age Matter? <ul><li>Some believe that people tend to become more and more Republican as they grow older.  </li></ul><...
Race and Political Identity <ul><li>African Americans and minorities have tended to favor Democrats over Republicans, caus...
Latest Trend of Country? <ul><li>Republicans have enjoyed a recent Presidential victory, as well as current majorities in ...
Republican Personality <ul><li>Some typical characteristics of a Republican might be: </li></ul>
Personality of Democrats <ul><li>Typical values, beliefs, and ways a Democrat might think: </li></ul>
Party Organization. <ul><li>Party membership. </li></ul><ul><li>Local Party: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Precinct. </li></ul><ul>...
State And National Organizations. <ul><li>State Party Organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>National Convention. </li></ul><ul>...
Political Party Functions Continued…. <ul><li>4. Dispensing patronage. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Loyal opposition. </li></ul><u...
 
Nominating Candidates. <ul><li>How selected: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Caucuses. Private “Smoke Filled” rooms. </li></ul><ul><l...
Direct  Primary Closed Primary Open Primary Blanket Primary Methods of Nominating Candidates
An election in which  voters  and not party leaders  directly choose  a  party's nominees  for political office. Direct  P...
A direct primary in which voters  may choose  which  party primary  they will vote in  on Election  Day Open Primary
A direct primary in which voters  must register  their  party affiliations before  Election Day Closed Primary
A  direct primary  in which voters may cast ballots for candidates of  any party , but may only  vote once  for  each offi...
Getting Elected! After the party nomination a candidate must then win the overall election.
U.S. Political Parties Characteristics: <ul><li>U.S.  Two party system  <= linked to => ? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Centrist ”  ...
Political Parties in the US <ul><li>Spatial Model of Elections   (Downs, 1957) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumptions: </li></u...
A view of the political spectrum (the left-right thing) Questions about such models: What are the issues defining the dime...
3.  Political Parties in the US Extremely Liberal Extremely Conservative 0 100 50 Bush Kerry YOU
<ul><li>The Spatial Model leads produces the  Median Voter Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The best possible position for...
<ul><li>Why do we have a two-party system? </li></ul>3.  Political Parties in the US Third parties rarely / never win Extr...
Third Party Challenge <ul><li>Chance and impact of 3 rd  party challengers? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No chance of winning but...
Spatial Model of Voting <ul><li>In a perfect world of perfect information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Candidate closer to cente...
3.  Political Parties in the US Extremely Liberal Extremely Conservative 0 100 50 Primary Election Democrat Republican Ext...
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Govt Chap. 16.1..

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  • 9-3a First Party System
  • 9-3b Second Party System
  • 9-2 Methods for Nominating Candidates
  • 9-2 Direct Primary
  • 9-2 Open Primary
  • 9-2 Closed Primary
  • 9-2 Blanket Primary
  • Downs An Economic Theory of Democracy Spatial model, like most theories, simplifies reality to allow for greater explanatory power. As a description of reality, it is somewhat poor (as it overlooks many things such as personality, national events, etc.), but as a tool to explain how our system works, its unparalleled.
  • In a single member, winner take all system / plurality system THIS EXPLAINS WHY WE HAVE CENTRIST PARTIES – BUT WHY ONLY TWO??
  • In a single member winner take all system, the third party candidate will take votes from the closest candidate.
  • 9-3c Third Party Challenge
  • 9-2c Spatial Model of Voting
  • Different electorates during the General Election and the Primary. You will often see candidates pander to the Activists who vote in Primaries, then move to the center for the general election.
  • Govt Chap. 16.1..

    1. 1. Political Parties
    2. 2. Political Parties. “A political party is a group of people with broad common interests who organize to win elections, control government, thus influence government policies.”
    3. 3. <ul><ul><li>The two major parties in American politics are the Republican and Democratic parties. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parties can be principle-oriented, issue-oriented, or election-oriented. The American parties are election-oriented. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 5, Section 1 4
    4. 4. What Do Parties Do? <ul><li>— Recruit, choose, and present candidates for public office. </li></ul><ul><li>Inform and Activate Supporters —Campaign, define issues, and criticize other candidates. </li></ul><ul><li>Act as a Bonding Agent —Guarantee that their candidate is worthy of the office. </li></ul><ul><li>Govern —Members of government act according to their partisanship, or firm allegiance to a party. </li></ul>Chapter 5, Section 1 3 4 5
    5. 5. What do parties do…Continued. Act as a Watchdog —Parties that are out of power keep a close eye on the actions of the party in power for a blunder to use against them in the next election.
    6. 6. Multi Party Systems. <ul><li>Most democracies have a multi party system. </li></ul><ul><li>Many different IDEOLOGIES represented in government. </li></ul><ul><li>A COALITION government must be formed after the election. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Multiparty Systems <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Provides broader representation of the people. </li></ul><ul><li>More responsive to the will of the people. </li></ul><ul><li>Give voters more choices at the polls. </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Cause parties to form coalitions, which can dissolve easily. </li></ul><ul><li>Failure of coalitions can cause instability in government. </li></ul>Chapter 5, Section 2
    8. 8. One Party System. The Party is the government. The policies of the party is also the government policy. Iraq had the Baath party that was directly controlled by Saddam.
    9. 9. One-Party Systems Chapter 5, Section 2 Types of One-Party Systems Example: Mexico. Modified One-Party Systems where one party regularly wins most elections One Party Systems where only one party is allowed. Example: Dictatorships such as Stalinist Russia
    10. 10. Two Party System. <ul><li>The U.S. has this system. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s a winner take all election. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult for third party candidates to get elected. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Why a Two-Party System? <ul><li>The Historical Basis. The nation started out with two-parties: the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists. </li></ul><ul><li>The Force of Tradition. America has a two-party system because it always has had one. Minor parties , lacking wide political support, have never made a successful showing, so people are reluctant to support them. </li></ul>Chapter 5, Section 2 1
    12. 12. Reasons For Two Parties continued…. <ul><li>Ideological Consensus. Most Americans have a general agreement on fundamental matters. Conditions that would spark several strong rival parties do not exist in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>The Electoral System. Certain features of government, such as single-member districts , are designed to favor two major parties. </li></ul>
    13. 13. The Evolution of American Parties. <ul><li>Hamilton and Jefferson, as heads of the Federalist and Anti-Federalist groups respectively, are often considered 'fathers' of the modern party system. No notes . </li></ul><ul><li>By 1800, this country had a party system with two major parties that has remained relatively stable ever since. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Jeffersonian v. Hamiltonian Democracy. No notes. <ul><li>http://www. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TFJec5pycJo .com/watch?v=TFJec5pycJo </li></ul>
    15. 15. Federalist Party. <ul><li>This was made up of Hamiltonians. </li></ul><ul><li>This party was centered in the New England states. </li></ul><ul><li>These states were mostly involved with banking, trade, and ship building. </li></ul><ul><li>Commerce of all kinds. </li></ul><ul><li>Very little Agriculture. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Democratic-Republicans. ( Had been the Anti-Federalists .) <ul><li>This is the party of Jefferson. </li></ul><ul><li>This party was centered in the South. </li></ul><ul><li>The South was an agrarian and was mostly made up of small and large farmers. </li></ul>
    17. 17. First Party System 1796-1824 Federalists <ul><li>Led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. </li></ul><ul><li>Sought a strong central government. </li></ul>Democrat- Republicans <ul><li>Led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison- Madison??? </li></ul><ul><li>Sought a weak federal government. </li></ul><ul><li>Who was the “Father” of the Constitution? </li></ul>
    18. 18. Federalists vs. Jeffersonian Republicans The Comparison Adams’ T.V. Political Ad. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KaPRnsgFxOU
    19. 19. Round One View of Constitution <ul><li>Federalists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loose construction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Favored strong. central government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Favored a national bank. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jeffersonian -Republicans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strict construction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Favored weak central gov’t. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposed a national bank. </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Round Two View of National Debt <ul><li>Federalists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the national debt to establish credit with other nations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jeffersonian Republicans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to pay off the national debt </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Round Three Who they supported and supported them <ul><li>Federalists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro – Business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally businessmen, professionals, artisans, congregational ministers, rural people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People happy with status quo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People from Northeast </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jeffersonian Republicans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro-agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally diverse, included southern slaveholders, urban artisans, trades people, commercial farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widespread across the country </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Round Four Foreign Policy <ul><li>Federalists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro-British </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted strong standing army and navy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jeffersonian Republicans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro-French </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Against large standing armies and navies (partially b/c of cost) </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Round Five- View of the People <ul><li>Federalists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted political power to rest with the wealthy and educated men </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jeffersonian Republicans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed common men should hold the power </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Round Six – Leaders <ul><li>Federalists </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander Hamilton </li></ul><ul><li>Jeffersonian Republicans </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Jefferson </li></ul>
    25. 25. Death Of Federalist Party. <ul><li>War Of 1812. </li></ul><ul><li>New England states tried to negotiate a separate peace treaty with England. </li></ul><ul><li>Rest of country saw this as treason. </li></ul><ul><li>End of Federalists. </li></ul>
    26. 27. Mini Review. <ul><li>Federalists </li></ul><ul><li>Led by Alexander Hamilton </li></ul><ul><li>Represented wealthy and upper-class interests </li></ul><ul><li>Favored strong executive leadership and liberal interpretation of the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic-Republicans </li></ul><ul><li>Led by Thomas Jefferson </li></ul><ul><li>Represented the “common man” </li></ul><ul><li>Favored Congress as the strongest arm of government and a strict interpretation of the Constitution </li></ul>Chapter 5, Section 3 2 5
    27. 28. History of U.S. Parties & Elections 2004 Bush Kerry 2004 Nader (alone)
    28. 29. “Era Of Good Feelings” 1816-1824. <ul><li>With only one political party, Democratic-Republicans, There was very little public political fighting. </li></ul><ul><li>Politically, things seemed O.K. </li></ul>
    29. 30. Democratic-Republican Spilt. 1828. <ul><li>Andrew Jackson aligned with the Democrats. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who opposed Jackson created the Whig Party. </li></ul><ul><li>Many ex Federalist joined the Whig Party. </li></ul>
    30. 31. The Second Party System (1828–1856) <ul><li>Jackson & 1st mass political party => Democratic party </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules expanding right to vote to all males 21 years + </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Whig party formed in opposition (primarily to Jackson) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed coalition: North’s industrialist & South’s $$ </li></ul></ul>
    31. 32. Second Party System 1828-1856 Democrats <ul><li>Led by Andrew Jackson. </li></ul><ul><li>Used party organization to mobilize voters. </li></ul><ul><li>Used new convention system to select party nominee. </li></ul>Whigs <ul><li>Built a coalition of Northern Industrialists and rich Southerners. </li></ul><ul><li>Led by Daniel Webster and Henry Clay at times. </li></ul>
    32. 33. Slavery And Political Parties. <ul><li>By 1850’s The anti slavery factions, Whigs and Republicans, joined together and became just the Republican Party. </li></ul><ul><li>Anti slavery. </li></ul><ul><li>Pro national bank. </li></ul><ul><li>Pro internal improvements. </li></ul><ul><li>Pro free land in the west. </li></ul><ul><li>Pro protective tariffs. </li></ul>
    33. 34. Democrats. <ul><li>Pro slavery. </li></ul><ul><li>Anti national bank. </li></ul><ul><li>Anti free land. </li></ul><ul><li>Anti internal improvements. </li></ul><ul><li>Anti tariffs. </li></ul>
    34. 35. Civil War Results. <ul><li>Republican Party in control of country for years, till end of 1920’s. Hamiltonians in control. </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic Party hangs on by the skin of its teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>Senate system helps Democratic Party regroup and build its power over time. </li></ul>
    35. 36. Great Depression And The Rise Of The Democratic Party. <ul><li>1920’s is height of Republican power. </li></ul><ul><li>Hamiltonians in control. “Trickle down theory.” </li></ul><ul><li>Calvin Coolidge: “The business of America is business.” </li></ul><ul><li>Great Depression(1929) sweeps Republicans out of office. F.D.R. elected President-1932. </li></ul>
    36. 37. “ The New Deal.” This was the start of government programs to manage the economy and create social programs.
    37. 39. Democratic Era. 1932-1980. <ul><li>Democratic era ends after the 1970’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Stagflation. </li></ul><ul><li>High oil prices. </li></ul><ul><li>Iranian hostage crisis. </li></ul><ul><li>Uninspiring Jimmy Carter president. </li></ul>
    38. 40. Republican Revolution. 1980-2004. <ul><li>Hamiltonians back in control. </li></ul><ul><li>Arthur Laffer “ Curve.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Supply-side Economics.” </li></ul><ul><li>Another version of “Trickle Down Economics?” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Reaganomics.” </li></ul><ul><li>Bill Clinton President between 1992-2000. </li></ul>
    39. 41. Resurgence Of Democrats. 2004. <ul><li>Democrats retook control of both Houses of Congress in 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Iraq and its many issues have been a drag on the Republican Party. </li></ul><ul><li>2008 President???????? </li></ul>
    40. 43. American Parties: Four Major Eras <ul><li>The Three Historical Eras </li></ul><ul><li>The Era of the Democrats , 1800—1860 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Democrats dominate all but two presidential elections. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Whig Party emerges in 1834, but declines by the 1850s, electing only two Presidents. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Republican Party is founded in 1854. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Era of the Republicans , 1860—1932 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Republicans dominate all but four presidential elections. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Civil War disables the Democratic Party for the remainder of the 1800s. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Return of the Democrats , 1932—1968 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Democrats dominate all but two presidential elections. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt is elected President four times. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 5, Section 3 2 4
    41. 44. American Parties: Parties Today <ul><li>The Start of a New Era: The Era of Divided Government </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1968, neither Republicans nor Democrats have dominated the presidency and Congress has often been controlled by the opposing party. </li></ul>Chapter 5, Section 3 1968–1976 Republicans hold the presidency Congress is controlled by Democrats 1976–1980 Democrats hold the presidency Congress is controlled by Democrats 1980–1992 Republicans hold the presidency Senate controlled by Republicans 1980-1986, controlled by Democrats from 1986 to 1994 1992 – 2000 Democrats hold the presidency Congress controlled by Republicans, 1994 to present 2000 Republicans hold the presidency Congress is controlled by Republicans 2006 Democrats retake both houses of Congress .
    42. 45. 2000 Election Map Red-Republican—Blue-Democrat
    43. 46. 2004 Election Map
    44. 47. Role Of Third Parties. <ul><li>What is a third party? </li></ul><ul><li>Any political party NOT Democratic OR Republican. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Green Party, Independent Party, Reform Party, Libertarian Party, or Natural Law Party. </li></ul>
    45. 48. Types Of Third Parties: <ul><li>Ideological: Want to change society profoundly. Communist Party. </li></ul><ul><li>Single Issue: Focus on one major social, economic, or moral issue. Whigs anti slavery. </li></ul><ul><li>Splinter Party: Breaks off from major party. Bull Moose Party or Reform Party. </li></ul>
    46. 49. Minor Parties in the United States Chapter 5, Section 4 Splinter Party Example: “Bull Moose” Progressive Party Economic Protest Parties Example: The Greenback Party Ideological Parties Example: Libertarian Party Single-issue Parties Example: Free Soil Party Types of Minor Parties
    47. 50. Impact Of Third Parties. <ul><li>If a third party has a popular issue, it will be absorbed by a major party. </li></ul><ul><li>A third party can throw an election one way or another. </li></ul>
    48. 51. Why Minor Parties Are Important <ul><li>Minor parties play several important roles: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Spoiler Role” </li></ul><ul><li>Minor party candidates can pull decisive votes away from one of the major parties’ candidates, especially if the minor party candidate is from a splinter party. </li></ul><ul><li>Critic </li></ul><ul><li>Minor parties, especially single-issue parties, often take stands on and draw attention to controversial issues that the major parties would prefer to ignore. </li></ul><ul><li>Innovator </li></ul><ul><li>Often, minor parties will draw attention to important issues and propose innovative solutions to problems. If these proposals gain popular support, they are often integrated into the platforms of the two major parties. </li></ul>Chapter 5, Section 4 Chapter 5, Section 4 Chapter 5, Section 4
    49. 52. Obstacles To Third Parties. <ul><li>Dems and Reps automatically on all states ballots. </li></ul><ul><li>Third parties must get petitions sighed in all state to get on ballot. </li></ul><ul><li>Winner take-all-system. NO representation for second place. </li></ul>
    50. 53. Minor Parties: Third-Partyism <ul><li>Minor parties are not a threat to the two major parties. </li></ul><ul><li>Only eight third parties have won any electoral votes in a presidential contest. </li></ul><ul><li>The third parties that have had some success are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1996 and 1992: Ross Perot’s Reform Party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1968: George Wallace’s American Independent Party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1924: Robert LaFollette’s Progressive Party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1912: Teddy Roosevelt’s Bull Moose Party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1856: Millard Fillmore's American Party </li></ul></ul>
    51. 55. Declining Party Loyalty? <ul><li>The number of independents in the U.S. rose from 19% in 1958 to 37% twenty years later. </li></ul><ul><li>Identification with the two major parties today is in the mid 80% range. </li></ul><ul><li>Pollsters often find that many self declared independents often 'lean' quite strongly to either the Democrat or Republican party. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Leaners” do feel party affiliations, but choose not to self-identify with a party. </li></ul>
    52. 56. Loyalty Trends - Democratic <ul><li>Labor union members tend to vote Democratic </li></ul><ul><li>Democrats have a lead in garnering the women's votes </li></ul><ul><li>Over 80% of African Americans and Hispanics vote 3 to 1 Democratic </li></ul><ul><li>Young people are again more Democratic </li></ul><ul><li>Most blue collar workers and unemployed are Democrats </li></ul><ul><li>Catholics and Jews are mostly Democrats </li></ul><ul><li>The widowed are mostly Democrats </li></ul><ul><li>Liberals tend to be Democrats </li></ul>
    53. 57. <ul><li>Chambers of Commerce tend to vote Republican </li></ul><ul><li>The West tends to be more Republican </li></ul><ul><li>Men tend to split fairly evenly between the two parties </li></ul><ul><li>Cuban Americans are generally Republicans (anti-Castro) </li></ul><ul><li>Professionals, executives, and white collar workers tend to be Republican </li></ul><ul><li>High status Protestants tend to be Republican </li></ul><ul><li>Married couples tend to be Republican </li></ul><ul><li>Conservatives tend to be Republican </li></ul>Loyalty Trends - Republican
    54. 58. Objectives: <ul><li>General understanding of party beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>How personality can determine party affiliation </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Class </li></ul><ul><li>Politics and youth </li></ul>
    55. 59. Democrat or Republican?
    56. 60. <ul><li>Democrats are liberal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>favor change in society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oppose government intervention into one’s private and social life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>support regulations on economic activity and businesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>favor an active role for government in society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>believe that involvement – be it environmental regulations against polluting or anti-discrimination laws- can improve the quality of our lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>willing to increase taxes to support programs </li></ul></ul>
    57. 61. <ul><li>Republicans are conservative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>favor traditional institutions and the status quo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>favor laissez-faire system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>define </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>favor a limited role for government in society and believe that people should help themselves, not rely on the government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>favor lower taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>believe in the trickle-down theory </li></ul></ul>
    58. 62. Brief Overview - Republican <ul><li>The Republican Party was born in the early 1850's by anti-slavery activists and individuals who believed that government should grant western lands to settlers free of charge. </li></ul>
    59. 63. Brief Overview - Democratic <ul><li>Often called a “grass roots party” or “party of the people”. </li></ul><ul><li>Localism was a major part of its organization. </li></ul><ul><li>“Democrats try hard to never be removed from a voters home, group, or community”. </li></ul>
    60. 64. Major Party Distinction What role should Government play?
    61. 65. <ul><li>Are generally in favor of the Government playing a larger role. </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to favor a more limited Government that doesn’t intervene as much into people’s lives. </li></ul>Democrats Republicans
    62. 66. Characteristics of Each Party <ul><li>Like to brag about being “inclusive rather than exclusive”. They don’t like to leave anyone behind. </li></ul><ul><li>Criticism: This often leads to more internal diversity and differences than the Republicans have. This makes it difficult to make unanimous decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Like to think that party beliefs are more unified than the opposition. Majority of the party falls under similar societal status and beliefs. </li></ul><ul><li>Criticism: Ideas don’t appeal to everyone in an equal way. Some people feel left out. </li></ul>Democrats Republicans
    63. 67. Characteristics of Each Party <ul><li>Like to brag about being “inclusive rather than exclusive”. They don’t like to leave anyone behind. </li></ul><ul><li>Criticism: This often leads to more internal diversity and differences than the Republicans have. This makes it difficult to make unanimous decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Like to think that party beliefs are more unified than the opposition. Majority of the party falls under similar societal status and beliefs. </li></ul><ul><li>Criticism: Ideas don’t appeal to everyone in an equal way. Some people feel left out. </li></ul>Democrats Republicans
    64. 68. Wealth Distribution <ul><li>Like to decrease the gap between the rich and the poor </li></ul><ul><li>Believe in “Trickle Down” theory or “Supply-Side” economics. </li></ul>Democrats Republicans
    65. 69. Abortion <ul><li>Ideologically believe in pro-choice </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to be pro-life </li></ul>Democrats Republicans
    66. 70. Union Labor <ul><li>Tend to be in favor of union collective bargaining </li></ul><ul><li>Like to side towards individual efforts and competition in the workplace </li></ul>Democrats Republicans
    67. 71. Taxes <ul><li>Generally favor higher taxes on all income levels </li></ul><ul><li>Criticism: Less take home money in people’s pockets can lead to less spending </li></ul><ul><li>General policies to lower taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Criticism: Wealthy tend to benefit more from tax rebates. National debt will always increase with more spending and less taxes </li></ul>Democrats Republicans
    68. 72. Social Programs <ul><li>With increase tax revenues, Democrats like to fund social programs as a safety net for disadvantaged people. </li></ul><ul><li>Less tax money often leads to decreased funding for social programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Many Republicans argue that people’s hard work should be kept for themselves instead of being used to benefit other people. </li></ul>Democrats Republicans
    69. 73. National Defense/Foreign Policy <ul><li>Most would agree that we need an adequate national defense, but we should be careful not to overspend on it. </li></ul><ul><li>Republicans are usually noted for making a strong defense system more of a priority than the Democrats. </li></ul>Democrats Republicans
    70. 74. Affirmative Action <ul><li>Tend to be more in favor of affirmative action as they argue that it leads to more equality. </li></ul><ul><li>Most are not against affirmative action, but they say there should be more restrictions on it to ensure that the law doesn’t totally overpower natural competition. </li></ul>Democrats Republicans
    71. 75. Environment/Safety
    72. 76. Gun Control <ul><li>Democrats: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Favor/Gun control is needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Republicans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oppose/Gun control is unconstitutional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CNN - State by State Look at Gun Laws in the U.S. </li></ul>
    73. 77. Flag Burning <ul><li>Democrat: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flag burning is political speech and is protected by the Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Republican: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect the flag from burning by a constitutional amendment </li></ul></ul>
    74. 78. War in Iraq <ul><li>Democrats: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Favored at first but now criticize President Bush for messing it up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Want to get more countries support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Want a defined exit strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Republicans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President Bush stated 8-21-06 that US will not leave Iraq until the job is done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Admits to mistakes in Iraq and says it will be a tough fight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hope Iraq’s new gov’t and people will eventually be stable enough in several years for US withdrawl </li></ul></ul>
    75. 79. Prayer in School <ul><li>Democrats: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oppose/Violation of the separation between church and state </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Republicans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Favor/It is a religious right and our Christian heritage </li></ul></ul>
    76. 80. Gay Rights <ul><li>Democrats: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Favor/Gays rights and marriage are civil rights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Republicans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oppose/Marriage is a sacred trust between a man and woman </li></ul></ul>
    77. 81. Military <ul><li>Democrats: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cut military spending; expand veteran’s benefits; act in concert with other nations and/or with support from NATO and the UN </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Republicans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase military spending; cut veteran’s benefits; don’t be constrained by other nations or by NATO and the UN </li></ul></ul>
    78. 82. Death Penalty <ul><li>Democrats: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oppose/It is not a deterrent and innocent people are in jeopardy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Republicans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Favor/The death penalty is necessary and effective </li></ul></ul>
    79. 83. Healthcare <ul><li>Democrats: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government should require universal access to healthcare </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Republicans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Private insurers are preferable to government controlled system </li></ul></ul>
    80. 84. Minimum Wage <ul><li>Democrats: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Favor/Increase the minimum wage to help workers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Republicans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oppose/Do not raise the minimum wage because it hurts businesses </li></ul></ul>
    81. 85. Gun Control <ul><li>Democrats: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Favor/Gun control is needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Republicans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oppose/Gun control is unconstitutional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CNN - State by State Look at Gun Laws in the U.S. </li></ul>
    82. 86. Natural Environment <ul><li>Democrats: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong regulations are needed to protect the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Republicans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong environmental laws harm the economy </li></ul></ul>
    83. 87. Popular Democrat Arguments <ul><li>Let public interests take priority over private interests. </li></ul><ul><li>Quote from JFK </li></ul><ul><li>Human values should not be traded, sold, or discounted like commercial products and services. </li></ul><ul><li>Quote from President Eisenhower </li></ul><ul><li>Counter a Republican quote that: “The market is rational and the Government is dumb”. </li></ul>
    84. 88. Popular Republican Arguments <ul><li>Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations -free markets. </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthy people shouldn’t be forced to give money to the poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Accuse democrats of often having an identity crisis. </li></ul>
    85. 89. Locations of Party Members <ul><li>There is usually a higher percentage of Democrats living in urban areas and Republicans living in more rural areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Why is this? </li></ul><ul><li>How was this trend shown in the 2004 Presidential Election? </li></ul>
    86. 90. Social Class and Party Affiliation <ul><li>Typically, members of the Republican party tend to be more educated and of a higher social class than Democrats. </li></ul><ul><li>Why does this occur? </li></ul><ul><li>Specific facts from past elections: </li></ul>
    87. 91. Social Class and Voter Turnout <ul><li>Social class has proven to be linked to voter turnout. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the correlation? </li></ul><ul><li>How can high and lower voter turnouts benefit or hurt each major political party? </li></ul><ul><li>Are young voters significant in elections? Which Party do they normally support? </li></ul>
    88. 92. Does Age Matter? <ul><li>Some believe that people tend to become more and more Republican as they grow older. </li></ul><ul><li>What might some causes of this be? </li></ul>
    89. 93. Race and Political Identity <ul><li>African Americans and minorities have tended to favor Democrats over Republicans, causes: </li></ul>
    90. 94. Latest Trend of Country? <ul><li>Republicans have enjoyed a recent Presidential victory, as well as current majorities in the Senate and House of Representatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Is the country generally becoming more and more Republican? Why might this be? </li></ul><ul><li>Why might this trend continue or not continue? </li></ul>
    91. 95. Republican Personality <ul><li>Some typical characteristics of a Republican might be: </li></ul>
    92. 96. Personality of Democrats <ul><li>Typical values, beliefs, and ways a Democrat might think: </li></ul>
    93. 97. Party Organization. <ul><li>Party membership. </li></ul><ul><li>Local Party: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Precinct. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Precinct captain. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Ward. </li></ul>
    94. 98. State And National Organizations. <ul><li>State Party Organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>National Convention. </li></ul><ul><li>National party function: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Recruiting candidates. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Educating the public. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Operating government. </li></ul>
    95. 99. Political Party Functions Continued…. <ul><li>4. Dispensing patronage. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Loyal opposition. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Reduction of conflict. </li></ul>
    96. 101. Nominating Candidates. <ul><li>How selected: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Caucuses. Private “Smoke Filled” rooms. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Nominating conventions. Delegates. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Primaries. Closed and open primaries. </li></ul>
    97. 102. Direct Primary Closed Primary Open Primary Blanket Primary Methods of Nominating Candidates
    98. 103. An election in which voters and not party leaders directly choose a party's nominees for political office. Direct Primary
    99. 104. A direct primary in which voters may choose which party primary they will vote in on Election Day Open Primary
    100. 105. A direct primary in which voters must register their party affiliations before Election Day Closed Primary
    101. 106. A direct primary in which voters may cast ballots for candidates of any party , but may only vote once for each office . Blanket Primary
    102. 107. Getting Elected! After the party nomination a candidate must then win the overall election.
    103. 108. U.S. Political Parties Characteristics: <ul><li>U.S. Two party system <= linked to => ? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Centrist ” political ideology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capitalism & democracy accepted by both sides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No socialists or fascists parties stand realistic chance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disagreement comes at the narrow margins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly about how to meet same accepted goals: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political & economic security for the US – </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What theory is used to explain this “ Centrist ” characteristic? </li></ul>Spatial theory of elections
    104. 109. Political Parties in the US <ul><li>Spatial Model of Elections (Downs, 1957) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumptions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All political issues can be represented on a single dimension, left-to-right scale. All voters, parties, and politicians can be placed on that scale. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All positions are perfectly known. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People vote for the candidate closest to them on the scale. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    105. 110. A view of the political spectrum (the left-right thing) Questions about such models: What are the issues defining the dimension(s)? Are there salient issues that disrupt the stability and/or coherence of the spectrum?
    106. 111. 3. Political Parties in the US Extremely Liberal Extremely Conservative 0 100 50 Bush Kerry YOU
    107. 112. <ul><li>The Spatial Model leads produces the Median Voter Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The best possible position for a politician who cares only about winning is in the center. </li></ul></ul>3. Political Parties in the US Extremely Liberal Extremely Conservative 0 100 50 Median Voter Candidate A Candidate B
    108. 113. <ul><li>Why do we have a two-party system? </li></ul>3. Political Parties in the US Third parties rarely / never win Extremely Liberal Extremely Conservative 0 100 50 Bush Kerry Nader
    109. 114. Third Party Challenge <ul><li>Chance and impact of 3 rd party challengers? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No chance of winning but take votes away from who? </li></ul></ul>Nader’s Green Party had a major effect on Gore during 2000 election Nader
    110. 115. Spatial Model of Voting <ul><li>In a perfect world of perfect information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Candidate closer to center should win election </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explained by the median voter hypothesis </li></ul></ul>
    111. 116. 3. Political Parties in the US Extremely Liberal Extremely Conservative 0 100 50 Primary Election Democrat Republican Extremely Liberal Extremely Conservative 0 100 50 General election Democrat Republican

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