Government Chapter Two: English Heritage to Revolution.

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U.S. Political Heritage and how the American Revolution started.

U.S. Political Heritage and how the American Revolution started.

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  • 1. Origins of American Government Colonial Period
  • 2. English Political Heritage  Limited government:  1. Magna Charta-1215. Limited the power of King John.  2. Petition of Rights-1625. Gave power to Parliament.  3. English Bill of Rights- 1688. This bill combined elements of the Magna Carta and Petition of Rights.  Representative Government:  1. House of Lords/Commons.  New Political Ideas- Enlightenment:  1. Thomas Hobbs.  2. John Locke  3. Voltaire.  4. Rousseau.  5. Montesquieu.
  • 3. Enlightenment-Social Contract Hobbs  1. People are only “Free” in nature.  2. Stronger/Smarter people are free to take advantage of the weaker.  3. A King must protect all his subjects from foreign/domestic threats.  4. Some freedom must be given up to the King.  5. King must be OBYED no matter what. Locke  1. Agreed with Hobbs, EXCEPT, people must overthrow a bad King.  2. Locke had to flee England.
  • 4. Enlightenment Continued 1. Montesquieu: Separation of powers. 2. Voltaire: Free speech. 3. Rousseau: Democracy.
  • 5. Governments in the Colonies  Shared government practices in all the Colonies:  1. Written constitutions.  2. Elected legislatures.  3. Separation of powers.
  • 6. Written Constitutions-Colonies  1. Mayflower Compact-1620.  2. Great Fundamentals-1629. System of laws. Puritans Mass. Bay.  3. Fundamentals Orders of Connecticut-1639. Plan for government.
  • 7. Colonial Legislatures  1. Virginia House of Burgesses-1619. First elected representative body in New World.  2. What other infamous institution was also started in 1619 in Virginia?  3. Slavery.
  • 8. Uniting for Independence Benign/Salutary Neglect  North America was a place to “dump” unwanted English peoples:  1. Debtors, unemployed, social outcasts, and political malcontents encouraged to move to N.A.  2. England did not collect taxes from colonies.  3. For the most part, England ignored colonies. Isolation encourages independence  Colonies develop their own independent governments:  1. Elected legislators.  2. Court systems.  3. Financed their own colonial projects.  4. Self protection.  5. Economy.
  • 9. Neglect Continued Mercantilism not enforced by England:  1. The colonists developed a world-wide trading system.  2. This trade makes the colonists wealthy.  3. The colonists have become socially, politically, and economically independent of England.  4. Colonists still pay NO taxes.
  • 10. Britain Tightens Control French-Indian War. 1754- 1763  1. F&I War was part of the Seven Year War.  2. First world-wide conflict.  3. Major powers involved were: England, France, and Spain.  4. Albany Plan of Union. 1763.  5. England sends troops to N.A.  6. England wins war. France kicked out of N.A. Consequences of F&I War?  1. England in heavy debt.  2. New taxes created and enforced on colonies.  3. Colonies never paid taxes.  4. Proclamation Act of 1763.  5. Colonies outraged!
  • 11. Acts &Taxes-NO NOTES!  1. Proclamation Act 1763.  2. Sugar Act 1764.  3. Currency Act 1764.  4. Quartering Act 1765.  5. Townsend Act 1767.  6. Tea Act 1773.  7. Boston Tea Party 1773.  8. Intolerable Acts 1774.
  • 12. Road to Revolt  1. Proclamation Act 1763-Colonist felt betrayed.  2. Stamp Act taxed all paper products.  3. Like the Albany Congress the colonist meet about the S.A.  4. Stamp Act Congress:  A. Declared their loyalty to King.  B. Embargoed all British trade.  C. Brits repeal Stamp Act!
  • 13. Road to Revolt Continued…  1. Parliament places a Monopoly on tea.  2. Puts colonial tea merchants out of business.  3. Boston Tea Party results.  4. Dumped tea is worth millions.  5. Parliament passes the “Intolerable” Acts.
  • 14. Intolerable Acts  1. Colonist must pay for tea.  2. Boston Harbor closed to commerce.  3. British soldiers housed in private Boston homes.  4. Charter of Mass. Revoked!
  • 15. First Continental Congress 1774  What did it do?  1. Pledged their loyalty to the King…Again!  2. Stated their grievances.  3. Embargoed all British goods.  4. Same game plan as the Stamp Act Congress.
  • 16. Lexington and Concord: Shot Heard Around the World.”  While waiting for the embargo to work…  1. Redcoats sent to Concord to confiscate powder and arms.  2. Colonists open fire at Lexington.  3. Colonists kill about 250 Redcoats.  4. Blood has been spilled.  5. Colonist now in open and violent rebellion.
  • 17. Second Continental Congress-1775  1. S.C.C. met after the Concord/Lexington Battle.  2. S.C.C. realizes that talks with England is over.  3. S.C.C. quickly becomes the acting rebel government.  4. John Hancock selected president.  5. Thomas Jefferson writes Declaration of Independence.  6. Independence declared July 4th, 1776.
  • 18. Social Contract-Locke- Jefferson  1. Jefferson paraphrased a lot of Locke’s work for the D.O.I.  2. Most of rebels were students of the Enlightenment.  3. Locke said that people had an obligation to over throw a bad King.  Locke’s Fingerprints:
  • 19. Declaration of Independence  Three key parts:  1. What is an ideal government?  2. List of grievances.  3. Declared freedom.
  • 20. D.O.I. is Like a Divorce  1. What is an ideal marriage?  2. List of complaints against spouse.  3. Marriage is over.
  • 21. Articles of Confederation 1. Fighting a war is a lot easier than running a government. 2. Those who created the A.O.C. designed it to be weaker that the states. Why?
  • 22. What did the A.O.C. Look Like?  1. No executive branch.  2. No national court system.  3. No power to tax.  4. Could not regulate trade.  5. No one had to obey its laws.  6. Unicameral House.
  • 23. Achievements of A.O.C. Land Ordinance Act-1787  1. Provided free western land to help finance the public school system. Northwest Ordinance Act- 1787  2. Created a pathway to equal statehood for all territories.
  • 24. Reasons the A.O.C. Failed Economic Turmoil  1. America suffered a severe depression after the war.  2. Many Americans lost their farms and businesses.  3. The A.O.C. had no power to help. Shay’s Rebellion  1. A.O.C. became very unpopular.  2. Capt. Daniel Shay organized farmers to resist foreclosure with arms.  3. A.O.C. had no power to stop the armed farmers.
  • 25. Shay Almost Topples Government!  1. Mass. had to call in local militia to put down rebellion.  2. National leaders had to cross their fingers and hope for the best.  3. Why is this bad?  4. Everyone realizes now that the A.O.C. is a failure.
  • 26. Constitutional Convention Begins-1787  1. All states, except R.I., sent reps to Philadelphia to fix the A.O.C.  2. The reps soon realized that the A.O.C. was fatally flawed.  3. In SECRET the reps decided to create a totally new government.
  • 27. Key Agreements From the Start  1. Limited Government.  2. Representative Government.  3. Three branches of government or checks & balances.  4. Stronger national government.  5. Popular Sovereignty.
  • 28. Decisions and Compromise  1. The three most important developments of the convention? 2. Compromise, compromise, and more compromise.
  • 29. Virginia Plan  1. Virginia showed up with a plan.  2. The three principles were:  National legislature-Bicameral.  Strong president-Chosen by legislature.  National judiciary-Chosen by the legislature.
  • 30. Virginia Plan Which branch of government would have the most power?
  • 31. New Jersey Plan  1. Unicameral Legislature.  2. One vote per state.  3. Congress would have power to tax and regulate trade.  4. Weak executive branch with more than one president.  5. Limited national judiciary.
  • 32. Connecticut Compromise 1. Bi cameral House. 2. House of Reps based on population. 3. Senate has two reps, regardless of population. How does this solve the big state v small state conflict?
  • 33. Three-Fifth Compromise  1. Southern states wanted to count their slaves for representation in the House of Reps.  2. North Carolina had a bigger slave population than free.  3. Why did the North oppose this idea?
  • 34. Commerce Compromise  1. The South wanted no tax on exported goods.  2. Why was this so important to the South?
  • 35. Compromise on Slave Trade  1. South wanted a ban on any discussion of the slave trade until 1808.  2. Congress gained the power to regulate interstate and all foreign trade.
  • 36. Slavery Issue  The question of slavery was left out of the constitution EXCEPT for a clause that stated runaway slaves had to be returned by Northern States.  “Fire bell in the night.” Thomas Jefferson.
  • 37. Other Compromises  1. Electoral College.  2. Four year term for the President.
  • 38. Ratification Difficulties  1. It took nine of the thirteen states to ratify the new Constitution.  2. Rejection by any of the four biggest states would doom ratification process. Mass., New York, Pennsylvania, or Virginia.  3. Anti Federalists were afraid of a strong central government and suspicious of the Federalists.
  • 39. Federalist v. Anti-Federalists Federalists-Hamilton  1. They wanted a strong. Central government.  2. They wanted the Federal government to be stronger than the states.  3. Federal laws to be supreme. Anti Federalists-Jefferson  1. They felt that this new Federal government was too strong.  2. Suspicious of the “secret” convention.  3. Jefferson called the convention “extralegal.”
  • 40. Federalist Papers  1. Essays published to explain the Constitution and answer criticisms by Anti-Federalists.  2. It promoted the idea that a stronger government was a must.  3. They also promised that it would not trample on civil liberties.
  • 41. The Last BIG Compromise!  1. Anti-Federalists wanted a list of iron clad guarantees to protect civil rights.  2. Federalists felt it was unnecessary, BUT agreed.  3. What is the list called today?  4. Who was right about the need for a B.O.R?